Show simple item record

dc.contributor.advisorGerba, Charles P.en_US
dc.contributor.authorSexton, Jonathan D.
dc.creatorSexton, Jonathan D.en_US
dc.date.accessioned2014-02-12T20:50:29Z
dc.date.available2014-02-12T20:50:29Z
dc.date.issued2013
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10150/312769
dc.description.abstractMicrobes survive for an extended period of time on fomites. With new strains of pathogens constantly emerging, it is important to understand their survival and spread and to evaluate the efficiency of new disinfection methods. The purpose of this study was to determine the occurrence of pathogens on fomites, and evaluate different disinfection methods (household bleach and steam vapor). Fomites were sampled in a variety of environments for the presence of pathogens including methicillin intermediate- and resistant- Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile, Penecillium brevi-compactum, Alternaria alternata and novel H1N1 influenza A. Samples were assayed using both cultural and genetic techniques to determine the microbial occurrence. In disinfection studies, samples were collected before and after disinfectant application. Steam vapor was effective at reducing microbial occurrence by>90% with a minimal contact time of 10-20 seconds on hospital fomites. The material and shape of the surface had an effect on the reduction rate, due to access of the disinfecting agent. In addition, low levels of initial contamination limited the reduction rate. Many surfaces had a starting contamination level of less than 3 log10 and after disinfection the contamination levels, in 69% of the samples, were at or near the limit of detection. This suggests a higher reduction is feasible. Household bleach reduced the presence of mold spores and mycelium by >99% on gypsum-wall board. Reduction rates were influenced by the growth stage of mold, with the mycelium requiring additional disinfectant application to achieve the 99% reduction rate. Novel H1N1 influenza A was not recovered on any surfaces in day care facilities and elementary schools. This is consistent with previous studies looking at H1N1 influenza occurrence in similar environments, though it is different from H3N2 influenza A studies. Survival differences among varying influenza strains are expected to have an impact on pathogen spread and human health risks. Differences can be quantitatively evaluated and used to develop more advanced risk assessment models. Steam vapor and household bleach are effective at reducing risks of pathogens in the environment and are critical interventions in an overall strategy to minimize exposure and prevent disease.
dc.language.isoen_USen
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.subjectfomitesen_US
dc.subjecthospitalen_US
dc.subjectinfluenzaen_US
dc.subjectmolden_US
dc.subjectmrsaen_US
dc.subjectSoil, Water & Environmental Scienceen_US
dc.subjectdisinfectionen_US
dc.titleThe Occurrence and Control of Pathogens on Fomitesen_US
dc.typetexten
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberGerba, Charles P.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberReynolds, Kelly A.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberBright, Kelly R.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberPepper, Ian L.en_US
dc.description.releaseRelease 06-Jun-2014en_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineSoil, Water and Environmental Scienceen_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
refterms.dateFOA2014-06-06T00:00:00Z
html.description.abstractMicrobes survive for an extended period of time on fomites. With new strains of pathogens constantly emerging, it is important to understand their survival and spread and to evaluate the efficiency of new disinfection methods. The purpose of this study was to determine the occurrence of pathogens on fomites, and evaluate different disinfection methods (household bleach and steam vapor). Fomites were sampled in a variety of environments for the presence of pathogens including methicillin intermediate- and resistant- Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile, Penecillium brevi-compactum, Alternaria alternata and novel H1N1 influenza A. Samples were assayed using both cultural and genetic techniques to determine the microbial occurrence. In disinfection studies, samples were collected before and after disinfectant application. Steam vapor was effective at reducing microbial occurrence by>90% with a minimal contact time of 10-20 seconds on hospital fomites. The material and shape of the surface had an effect on the reduction rate, due to access of the disinfecting agent. In addition, low levels of initial contamination limited the reduction rate. Many surfaces had a starting contamination level of less than 3 log10 and after disinfection the contamination levels, in 69% of the samples, were at or near the limit of detection. This suggests a higher reduction is feasible. Household bleach reduced the presence of mold spores and mycelium by >99% on gypsum-wall board. Reduction rates were influenced by the growth stage of mold, with the mycelium requiring additional disinfectant application to achieve the 99% reduction rate. Novel H1N1 influenza A was not recovered on any surfaces in day care facilities and elementary schools. This is consistent with previous studies looking at H1N1 influenza occurrence in similar environments, though it is different from H3N2 influenza A studies. Survival differences among varying influenza strains are expected to have an impact on pathogen spread and human health risks. Differences can be quantitatively evaluated and used to develop more advanced risk assessment models. Steam vapor and household bleach are effective at reducing risks of pathogens in the environment and are critical interventions in an overall strategy to minimize exposure and prevent disease.


Files in this item

Thumbnail
Name:
azu_etd_12706_sip1_m.pdf
Size:
827.6Kb
Format:
PDF

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record