Heregulin Activates a Novel HER2/HER3-MTK1-GIT1/ERK1/2 MAPK Signaling Pathway
AuthorSollome, James Jerome
KeywordsPharmacology & Toxicology
AdvisorVaillancourt, Richard R.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractHuman MAP3K4 (MTK1) functions upstream of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs). In the studies presented herein, MTK1 is shown to be required for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/3 (HER2/HER3)-heregulin beta1 (HRG) induced extracellular acidification and cell migration in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Furthermore, it was shown that HRG stimulation leads to association of MTK1 with tyrosine phosphorylated HER3 in MCF-7 and T-47D breast cancer cells. The MTK1/HER3 association was dependent on HER2 activation and was decreased by pre-treatment with the HER2 inhibitor, lapatinib. Furthermore, HER2 does not directly associate with MTK1, but phosphorylates HER3 transiently. MTK1 also has a role in the ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway in response to heregulin (HRG) stimulation in T-47D and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. In addition to MTK1, Shc, Grb2 and GIT1 proteins are all involved in the ERK1/2 MAPK pathway in response to growth factor stimulation. MTK1 was also shown to associate with activated ERK1/2, GIT1, Shc, Grb2 and p85 of PI3K in response to heregulin stimulation. ERK1/2 kinase activity is involved in aberrant signaling that leads breast cancer progression. GIT1 is a scaffolding protein that is linked to growth factor mediated ERK1/2 signaling in cell migration. Moreover, we also identify the actin interacting region (AIR) on MTK1 and disruption of actin cytoskeletal polymerization with cytochalasin D inhibited the interaction between HER3 and MTK1, indicating that f-actin (which is needed for cell migration) is required for the MTK1/HER3 association. Additionally, HRG stimulation leads to extracellar acidification that is independent of cellular proliferation. HRG induced extracellular acidification is significantly inhibited when MTK1 is knocked down in MCF-7 cells. Similarly, pre-treatment with lapatinib significantly decreased HRG induced extracellular acidification. Extracellular acidification is linked with cancer cell migration. We performed scratch assays that show HRG induced cell migration in MCF-7 cells. Knockdown of MTK1 significantly inhibited HRG induced cell migration. Furthermore, pre-treatment with lapatinib also significantly decreased cell migration. Cell migration is required for cancer cell metastasis, which is the major cause of cancer patient mortality. We identify MTK1 in the HER2/HER3-HRG mediated extracellular acidification and cell migration pathway in breast cancer cells.
Degree ProgramGraduate College
Pharmacology & Toxicology