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dc.contributor.advisorLiaupsin, Carl J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorWhitford, Denise K.
dc.creatorWhitford, Denise K.en_US
dc.date.accessioned2014-04-15T17:24:59Zen
dc.date.available2014-04-15T17:24:59Zen
dc.date.issued2014en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10150/315855en
dc.description.abstractOffice disciplinary referrals (ODR) and classroom exclusions among students from minority backgrounds have been a persistent concern for decades. The purpose of this dissertation was to assess disciplinary characteristics of American Indian students in special education. More specifically, the purpose was to determine (a) the rate at which American Indian students in special education programs received ODRs in comparison to students in special education programs of differing races/ethnicities significantly represented in the population, (b) the rate at which American Indian boys in special education programs received ODRs in comparison to American Indian girls in special education programs, (c) the rate at which American Indian students in special education programs received ODRs in comparison to American Indian students who were not in special education programs, (d) the specific types of ODRs American Indian students in special education received, and (e) the impact race/ethnicity had on administrative decisions stemming from behavior violations. Logistic regression was used to examine ODRs for 10,469 students from kindergarten through 12th grade in two Southwestern public school districts with a large combined American Indian population (23.2%). Results indicated that although American Indian students in special education are less likely to obtain an ODR than Caucasian students in special education, and those ODRs are most often given for defiance, disrespect, and noncompliance, American Indian students in special education are still more likely to be given out-of-school suspensions and expulsions as an administrative consequence, than Caucasian students also in special education. Additionally, American Indian boys in special education were referred more than four times higher than American Indian girls in special education. Implications for practice and directions for future research which highlight culturally responsive disciplinary practices are provided.
dc.language.isoen_USen
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.subjectDisciplineen_US
dc.subjectODRen_US
dc.subjectReferralen_US
dc.subjectSpecial Educationen_US
dc.subjectBehavioren_US
dc.titleOffice Disciplinary Referral Patterns of American Indian Students in Special Educationen_US
dc.typetexten
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberUmbreit, Johnen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberLevine-Donnerstein, Deborahen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberFletcher, Todden_US
dc.contributor.committeememberLiaupsin, Carl J.en_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineSpecial Educationen_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
refterms.dateFOA2018-06-15T23:53:41Z
html.description.abstractOffice disciplinary referrals (ODR) and classroom exclusions among students from minority backgrounds have been a persistent concern for decades. The purpose of this dissertation was to assess disciplinary characteristics of American Indian students in special education. More specifically, the purpose was to determine (a) the rate at which American Indian students in special education programs received ODRs in comparison to students in special education programs of differing races/ethnicities significantly represented in the population, (b) the rate at which American Indian boys in special education programs received ODRs in comparison to American Indian girls in special education programs, (c) the rate at which American Indian students in special education programs received ODRs in comparison to American Indian students who were not in special education programs, (d) the specific types of ODRs American Indian students in special education received, and (e) the impact race/ethnicity had on administrative decisions stemming from behavior violations. Logistic regression was used to examine ODRs for 10,469 students from kindergarten through 12th grade in two Southwestern public school districts with a large combined American Indian population (23.2%). Results indicated that although American Indian students in special education are less likely to obtain an ODR than Caucasian students in special education, and those ODRs are most often given for defiance, disrespect, and noncompliance, American Indian students in special education are still more likely to be given out-of-school suspensions and expulsions as an administrative consequence, than Caucasian students also in special education. Additionally, American Indian boys in special education were referred more than four times higher than American Indian girls in special education. Implications for practice and directions for future research which highlight culturally responsive disciplinary practices are provided.


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