The effect of a neurological checklist on nursing observations of the neurological patient
AuthorBauer, Anna Jane, 1946-
Nervous System Diseases -- nursing
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Degree GrantorUniversity of Arizona
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Capillary Electrophoresis and Capillary Liquid Chromatography for Analysis of Neurological and Neuroendocrine SignalingAspinwall, Craig A.; Gallagher, Elyssia Steinwinter; Heien, Michael; Polt, Robin; Montfort, William; Aspinwall, Craig A. (The University of Arizona., 2013)Neurological and neuroendocrine disorders result from signaling dysregulation at the molecular, cellular, and multi-cellular levels. This dissertation presents the development of separation methods, using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and capillary liquid chromatography (CLC), for detecting and quantifying small molecules, peptides, and proteins involved in cellular signaling. CZE is a rapid separation technique, making it ideal for monitoring cellular dynamics with high temporal resolution. An ultraviolet - light emitting diode was used for photolytic optical gating of caged fluorophore-labeled biogenic amines, common functional groups in neurotransmitters. Additionally, a novel caged fluorophore with faster reaction kinetics than commercially available dyes was used to label reduced thiols and primary amines in the presence of o-phthalaldehyde. Together this light source and novel caged dye illustrate the utility of these methods for monitoring chemical dynamics during continuous sampling. Many cellular second messengers, including inositol phosphates, are known to exist within the cell, but their dynamics and intermolecular interactions are poorly understood since they lack chromophores or electroactive functional groups making direct detection difficult. Utilizing CZE with capacitive coupled contactless conductivity detection (C4D), biological phosphates were separated and detected based on their high anionic charge, suggesting the utility of C4D in label-free detection of biological molecules. The techniques described above require higher sensitivity to monitor physiologically relevant analyte concentrations; therefore, Hadamard transform capillary electrophoresis (HTCE) was used as a multiplexing method in which multiple separations were performed simultaneously. HTCE resulted in increased sensitivity by decreasing the random background noise. Peptides and proteins propagate signals within or between cells; yet, they are difficult to separate and detect by CZE since their highly charged surfaces result in non-specific adsorption to the capillary wall. To minimize these interactions, stable hybrid phospholipid bilayers were prepared as capillary coatings for CZE separations of cationic proteins. Additionally, stabilized phospholipid bilayer coatings were formed on silica particles through redox polymerization of synthetic, polymerizable lipids. These bilayers were stable after exposure to surfactant, organic solvents, and after storage for one month, suggesting their value as lipid chromatography stationary phases for future incorporation of transmembrane proteins to analyze binding interactions with small molecules.
A validity study of the Quick Neurological Screening Test-Revised for learning-disabled students.Obrzut, John E.; Finlayson, Shannon Bridget.; Nicholson, Glen I.; Mishra, Shitala P.; Bos, Candice; VanReusen, Anthony (The University of Arizona., 1990)In the past two decades, a great deal of information has been amassed in the area of developmental neuropsychology and central processing deficiencies in children. There is evidence that brain dysfunction can play a major role in the etiology of such deficiencies. Also recognized is the direct association between brain deficits and their etiological relationship to an individual's learning problem. Current definitions of learning disabilities reflect a variety of psychological correlates of neurological dysfunction. There is a general lack of research into the precise nature of the underlying functions that may be detected by neuropsychological assessment. Presently only one brief neuropsychological screening instrument measures performance using age-corrected norms: the Quick Neurological Screening Test-Revised (QNST-R; Mutti, Sterling, Spalding, & Crawford, 1978). This study was designed to determine the construct validity of the QNST-R with a learning disabled (LD) population. Scores of 122 children, 40 females and 82 males, ages six years, four months to 13 years, five months were collected on 14 subtests from the QNST-R. Principal components factoring of the original correlation matrix disclosed a five factor solution, which accounted for 57% of the original variance. Analysis of the initial correlation matrix revealed very low loadings between the 14 subtests, suggesting that each subtest measures a disparate aspect of student performance. Only one extractible factor exhibited high enough loadings to be interpretable, which was labeled Tactile-kinesthic-motor/left-right differences. This factor accounted for 21% of the variance. Factor analysis substantiated the hypothesis that limited factorial validity does exist for the QNST-R; however, the analysis also suggested that the test lacked the capability of assessing a range of diverse and independent functions, when used with this LD population. A number of diverse independent functions which are claimed to be measured by the QNST-R, and which need to be measured in order to produce a useful neuropsychological screening instrument, do not appear to exist for the LD population. Finally, age differences were revealed which suggest that younger children have greater difficulty successfully completing the QNST-R items than do older children. The need for further study is discussed. Alternative explanations for the results of the present study are presented.
Serving Students with Neurological Disorders: A Manual for EducatorsChalfant, James C.; Beal, Maryann; Chalfant, James C.; Pysh, Margaret V.; Smith, S. Mae (The University of Arizona., 2006)During the past 20 years, the number of children and youth with neurological disorders attending schools has increased dramatically. There are two reasons for this increase. First, medical advances have resulted in more children and youth with neurological disorders surviving. Second, in the past, children with disabilities and health care needs were cared for in hospitals and residential institutions. Since 1975, however, federal legislation has mandated that all children with disabilities be provided a free appropriate public education in the nation's schools and in general education classrooms whenever possible.Unfortunately, school administrators and classroom teachers are not trained in how to accommodate students with neurological disorders. The medical literature provides information regarding the medical aspects of neurological disorders. However, neither the medical literature nor the educational literature provides the specialized knowledge and skills administrators and teachers need to plan for and provide appropriate educational and health related services to children with neurological disorders. This dissertation addresses the need to provide teacher and administrators with practical information about accommodating students with neurological disorders in schools.The purpose of this project was to develop a resource manual which describes the impact of students' neurological disorders on their education. This "user-friendly" resource manual can be used by teachers, administrators, and support staff in developing individualized educational programs for children and youth with neurological disorders. The manual focuses on six neurological disorders about which school personnel have limited knowledge. Section One includes a historical overview of the education of children with neurological disorders and the legislation which mandates that schools must provide all children with disabilities an appropriate education. Section Two describes each neurological disorder by presenting the definition of the disorder and its associated physical and cognitive conditions. Section Three addresses accommodations teachers can use in classrooms to meet the individual physical, cognitive and health care needs of these children.