Franco-German political and commercial rivalry in Morocco (1904- 1909)
KeywordsEurope -- Politics and government -- 20th century.
Morocco -- Foreign relations -- France.
Morocco -- Foreign relations -- Germany.
France -- Foreign relations -- Morocco.
Germany -- Foreign relations -- Morocco.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Degree ProgramGraduate College
Degree GrantorUniversity of Arizona
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Environmental Profile on Morocco (revised draft)Parker, Susan; University of Arizona. Arid Lands Information Center.; Office of Arid Lands Studies, University of Arizona (U.S. Man and the Biosphere Secretariat, Department of State (Washington, D.C.), 1981-01)
Irrigation in Southeast Morocco: Effects on Rural LivelihoodsGerlak, Andrea K.; Elder, Alison D.; Evans, Tom; Snyder, Katherine (The University of Arizona., 2019)Irrigated agriculture and the liberalization of land markets are promoted as engines for rural development and economic growth. However, in practice they often reinforce existing social and economic disparities, create conflict over land and water resources, and degrade the natural environment. In southeastern Morocco, irrigated agriculture has expanded rapidly in a desert area formerly characterized by traditional small-scale oasis agriculture and livestock grazing. The country’s 2008 Green Morocco Plan (GMP) to modernize and expand agriculture is fueling this expansion with incentives and subsidies encouraging agricultural growth and foreign investment. This paper investigates development processes around irrigated agriculture in southeastern Morocco in an area immediately surrounding the town of Boudnib and its eight satellite villages, an area undergoing significant change and illustrative of larger economic challenges underway in Morocco. It follows a mixed methods approach including document analysis, semi-structured interviews, a roundtable discussion and surveys, to examine the effects of irrigation on labor and income opportunities and water supply. This research aims to highlight the voices and experiences of local people affected by irrigation alongside those of government, NGO leaders, and foreign investors. The findings suggest that despite the GMP’s “green” label and claim to fight poverty through the provision of economic opportunities for rural people, job opportunities are low-paying and unreliable and water supply is decreasing. This means that outsider investors and farmers benefit in the short-term from free groundwater and cheap local labor, leaving local people to deal with the long-term consequences of ecological damage. These findings have implications for other water-stressed parts of the world, especially for developing countries implementing irrigation-based agricultural development.
Spatio-temporal characteristics of drought as inferred from tree-ring data in Morocco.Meko, Paul M.; Chbouki, Nabil.; Hughes, M.; Swetnam, T.; Denny, J.L. (The University of Arizona., 1992)Long-term tree-ring series of Cedrus atlantica have been utilized to reconstruct and characterize past drought occurrences in Morocco. Based on the close relationship between tree growth and rainfall variations, the best tree-ring indicator of drought has been found to be, x₀ = μ -.75σ, with μ and σ the mean and standard deviation of the tree-ring series. In Morocco, drought is a short event lasting 1.7 years on average with 84% of the events lasting less than 2 years. The average maximum duration exceeds 4 years. It is associated with a 40% deficit about normal moisture availability which can add up to more than 125% when the anomalies persist. The average empirical recurrence interval of drought is 8 years. Long-term persistence has been characterized by the Hurst coefficient. Over the domain of study, the mean Hurst coefficient is .765. The tree-ring series show a periodic behavior with two major peaks at 22 and 66 years. Drought characteristics have been extended from the tree-ring sites to other regions such as the agricultural plains using geostatistical methods. The drought prone areas are located in central Morocco, including the Sais, the Gharb and central Middle Atlas, which experience longer, more severe and more persistent droughts. The northern latitudes experience milder and shorter drought events. The cost for spatial extension of the results was greater kriging errors which make the estimates less reliable. However, cokriging significantly improved the reliability and the quality of the estimates. A regionalization, using cluster analysis, was found to follow the natural climatic and orographic zones of north central Morocco. The tree-ring data were used to reconstruct spatial patterns of moisture anomalies for the period 1845-1974. Three atmospheric factors appear to be important: (1) the relative strength and position of the Azores High, (2) the importance and location of the local cyclogenesis centers, (3) the importance of the northeastern perturbations coming from the Mediterranean sea. The periods 1860-1890, 1925-1950 and the 1970's are associated with dry anomalies while the periods 1900-1920 and 1950-1970 are associated with wet anomalies. They exhibit a rhythmic succession with a 20-year periodicity.