Batch and Column Transport Studies of Environmental Fate of 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) in Soils
AuthorMark, Noah William
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractNTO (3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one) is one of the new explosive compounds used in insensitive munitions (IM) and developed to replace traditional explosives, TNT and RDX. Data on NTO fate and transport is needed to determine its environmental behavior and potential for groundwater contamination. In this study, we measured how NTO in solution interacts with different types of soils and related soil properties to transport and fate behavior. We conducted a series of kinetic and equilibrium batch soil sorption experiments and saturated column transport studies under steady-state and transient conditions. NTO adsorbed very weakly to the studied soils. Adsorption coefficients (Kds) measured for NTO in a range of soils in batch experiments were less than 1 cm³ g⁻¹. There was a highly significant negative relationship between measured NTO adsorption coefficients and soil pH (P = 0.00011). In kinetic experiments, first order transformation rate estimates ranged between 0.0004 h⁻¹ and 0.0221 h⁻¹. There was a general agreement between batch and column-determined fate and transport parameters. However, transport studies showed an increase in the NTO transformation rate as a function of time, possibly indicating microbial growth.
Degree ProgramGraduate College
Soil, Water and Environmental Science