A Single-Blind, Randomized, Controlled study of Efficacy and Effectiveness of Pharmacy Quality Improvement
Community Pharmacy Services / organization & administration
AdvisorWarholak, Terri L.
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractBackground: The Alliance for Patient Medication Safety (APMS) helps community pharmacies comply with continuous quality improvement requirements of many states and third party payment contracts through use of their Pharmacy Quality Commitment (PQC) program. Aims: To assess changes in the incidence of prescription Quality Related Events (QREs) and adoption of patient safety culture attitudes after guided PQC implementation. Methods: Twenty-one pharmacies were randomized to standard PQC practices (control) or guided PQC implementation (treatment). Pharmacy staff completed retrospective pre and post safety culture questionnaires. Negative binomial mixed and linear regression analyses were employed to examine changes in QREs rates and attitudes, respectively. Rasch analysis was used to assess questionnaire validity and reliability. Results: During the 2-month study period 3,343 QREs were reported to the online PQC system. At baseline, no difference in the average QRE reporting rate was identified between groups. Treatment group QRE reporting rates differed in one category post treatment (more incorrect safety caps QREs reported in treatment group, p<0.034). Seventy-one employees completed the questionnaire (70% response). Attitude improvement in the treatment group was 36% greater than in control (p<0.0001). The questionnaire demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity evidence. Conclusions: Guided PQC implementation increased reporting of certain QREs and increased the adoption of patient safety culture attitudes among staff pharmacy.
Degree ProgramGraduate College