Synthesis, Characterization, and Mixed-Valence Studies of Conformationally Constrained Bisferrocenyl Complexes for the Study of Through-Space S***π; Interactions
AuthorMeyer, Gordon Joel
AdvisorGlass, Richard S.
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractA series of conformationally constrained 2,6-bisferrocenylphenyl thioethers were synthesized via Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling reactions. Structural information was obtained using X-ray crystallography and dynamic ¹H NMR spectroscopic studies, showing highly constrained m-terphenyl systems. Interaction of the ferrocene moieties through space mediated by the sulfur were studied by ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy and DFT computations. Electrochemical results show two, fully reversible 1e⁻ redox processes for the ferrocenes where the separation of peaks is affected by both solvent and supporting electrolyte, suggesting significant electrostatic interaction which is further confirmed in the gas phase by UPS studies. To determine if these interactions could be observed at greater distances, extended m-terphenyl complexes were shown in which 2-sulfur and 3-aromatic moieties were synthesized using a developed selective Suzuki-Miyaura monocoupling procedure in good yields. In these systems, interaction was not observed by electrochemistry or UPS. This suggests the distance between redox centers (~16 Å) is too great for electrostatic interaction, even though there is enhanced interactions observed in the truncated systems. Two new bisferrocenylphenylsulfoxides were also synthesized and studied to determine the effect of the polar sulfoxide bond on through space interaction between the ferrocene moieties. The electronic and redox properties of these compounds were studied by ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, and DFT computations. Electrochemical results for 2,6-bis(ferrocenyl) thioanisole S-oxide show two, fully reversible one electron redox processes. The initial oxidation shows a 62 mV negative shift compared to the sulfide analog 2,6-bis(ferrocenyl)thioanisole, and an increased peak separation for the oxidations of 160 mV. No peak separation is observed in the extended sulfoxide system. No intervalence charge transfer band was observed in the truncated sulfoxide complex by monitoring the UV-Vis/NIR spectroscopy of the mixed valence complex, ruling out electronic communication. Thus, the through space electrostatic interactions of the sulfoxide causes the non-equivalent ferrocenes in the truncated system to have different oxidation potentials. Synthesis was developed towards the synthesis of 1,8-bisferrocenyl-9-(alkylthio) anthracene complexes. It was observed that due to steric congestion at the C9 position of the anthracene scaffold, standard thionation reactions did not proceed as expected. Instead, the reaction of 1,8-dibromo-9-anthrone with Lawesson reagent afforded the intramolecular nucleophilic aromatic substitution cyclization product in quantitative yields. The reaction of the same anthrone under studied dithioketal formation conditions led to sulfur-rearrangement, giving the undesired 1,8-bisferrocenyl-10-(ethylthio)anthracene derivative, as confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Attempted Newman-Kwart rearrangement of 1, 8-dibromoanthracen-9-yl) dimethylcarbamothioate afforded no significant observed product formation, and decomposition of starting materials when heated for extended times. 1,8-bisferrocenyl-9-(methoxy)anthracene was synthesized and structurally characterized by dynamic X-ray crystallography to confirm connectivity. Electrochemical experiments show 2 reversible redox processes separated by 115 mV. Chemical oxidation experiments show unexpected, strong electronic coupling in the mixed valence complex. This coupling was characterized by near-IR absorption at 941 nm, indicating intervalence charge transfer (IVCT). Single electron reduction of 1,8-bisferrocenyl-9-(methoxy)anthracene, followed by quenching with various electrophiles afforded an inseparable mixture of products, one of which was identified by mass spectrometry as the desired 1,8-bisferrocenyl-9-(methylthio)anthracene product. However, this complex was not separable from the mixture and further characterization was not possible. All other routes attempted to incorporate sulfur into the system afforded no conversion of starting materials or decomposition of the reaction mixture.
Degree ProgramGraduate College