Production of Expendable Reagents from Raw Waters and Industrial Wastes
AuthorDavis, Jake Ryan
KeywordsBipolar Membrane Electrodialysis
Boron Doped Diamond
Water Resource Managements
Acid and Base
AdvisorBaygents, James C.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
EmbargoRelease after 13-Nov-2016
AbstractA couple of processes for electrosynthetic production of expendable reagents, namely acids, bases, and oxidants, from the native salt content of raw waters and industrial wastes were investigated, and the composition of mixed acids and bases made of sodium sulfate or sodium chloride salts were predicted using a model predicated on conservation principles, mass action relations, and Pitzer equations. Electrodialysis with bipolar membranes (BMED) was used to produce acids and bases in a single pass. Product concentration was limited only by the salt content of the feed water. The current efficiency for acid production was slightly higher than that for base, but neither dropped below 75%. Acid and base current utilization showed the same trends with respect to feed salt content and flow velocity, with higher efficiency at higher feed salt concentrations and flow velocities. Operating the BMED stack near the limiting current density of the bipolar membrane (BLCD) or above the limiting current density of the diluate compartment (LCD) decreased current efficiency and increased electrical power dissipation. Electrodialytic acid and base production was approximately10 times cheaper than the chemicals' f.o.b. unit costs as quoted on Alibaba.com. The mechanism and cost of on site peroxodisulfuric acid production by electrolysis of sulfuric acid solutions with boron doped diamond film anodes was investigated experimentally and with molecular dynamics (MD) and density functional theory (DFT) simulations. The cost of on site peroxodisulfate production was approximately 4 times less expensive than purchasing a 25 lb bag. It was shown that direct discharge of sulfate species produces sulfate radicals, which subsequently combined to form peroxodisulfuric acid. The likely hood of these reactions was dependent on electrode surface condition. Sulfate radicals could also be produced in solution by reaction with hydroxyl radicals generated by water discharge.
Degree ProgramGraduate College