Lithium-Induced Nephropathy: The Role Of mTOR Signaling, Primary Cilia And Hedgehog Pathway
AdvisorBrooks, Heddwen L.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
EmbargoRelease after 22 Sept 2018
AbstractLithium is given to millions of bipolar disorder or post-traumatic disorder patients. The recent studies also support a role for lithium in treating neurodegenerative disease such as Parkinson's disease and stroke. Lithium treatment leads to lithium nephropathy, which includes lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetic insipidus (NDI), lithium-induced renal cell proliferation leading to the formation of microcysts in the kidney, and lithium-induced renal fibrosis. However, there is still a gap in understanding the mechanisms and signaling pathways involved in regulating lithium-induced nephropathy. mTOR pathway activation and primary cilia are known to be associated with the abnormal renal cell proliferation and the formation of renal cysts in polycystic kidney disease, a renal disease model similar to our lithium model. The activation of hedgehog pathway is associated with the renal fibrosis observed in the unilateral ureteral obstruction and unilateral ischemia reperfusion injury models of chronic renal injury. Thus, I hypothesize that mTOR signaling pathway, primary cilia and hedgehog pathway may all contribute to lithium-induced nephropathy. To address the hypothesis that the mTOR signaling pathway may be responsible for lithium-induced renal collecting duct proliferation, mTOR pathway activation was assessed in lithium-treated mice and lithium-treated mouse inner medullary collecting duct (mIMCD3) cells. Lithium activated mTOR signaling pathway in renal collecting duct cells both in vivo and in vitro. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR, blocked lithium-induced renal cell proliferation in renal cortex and medulla in vivo and in renal collecting duct cells in vitro, supporting the hypothesis. However, rapamycin did not improve lithium-induced reduction of urine osmolality, suggesting mTOR signaling pathway may not contribute to lithium-induced NDI. To address the hypothesis that primary cilia may be necessary for lithium-induced mTOR activation and renal cell proliferation, primary cilia deficient cells were used to assess mTOR pathway activation and cell proliferation in response to lithium treatment. The absence of primary cilia abolished lithium-induced activation of mTOR pathway and cell proliferation, which supports the hypothesis. To address the hypothesis that lithium elongates primary cilia length, which is mediated by mTOR signaling pathway, primary cilia length alternation was assessed in the kidney and in mIMCD3 cells in response to lithium treatment. Lithium increased primary cilia length in renal collecting duct cells of cortex, outer medulla, and inner medulla kidney regions in vivo and in mIMCD3 cells in vitro. Rapamycin reversed lithium-induced elongation of primary cilia in renal cortical and outer medullary collecting duct cells in vivo, and blocked the increase of primary cilia length in mIMCD3 cells in vitro, which support the hypothesis. To address the hypothesis that lithium activates the hedgehog pathway in a Smoothened (smo, a key regulator of the hedgehog pathway)-dependent manner in renal collecting duct cells, mIMCD3 cells were treated with lithium or lithium/Smo inhibitor or lithium/Smo activator. Hedgehog signaling pathway is activated by lithium in mIMCD3 cells, which is partially Smo-dependent. However, the role of hedgehog signaling pathway in regulating lithium-induced fibrosis was not assessed in the study. Future studies are required to determine the role of the hedgehog pathway in the lithium model.
Degree ProgramGraduate College