Fuel sulfur effects on No(x) formation in turbulent diffusion flames
AuthorCorley, Timothy Lynn
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractInteractions between certain fuel sulfur compounds and nitric oxide (NO) in turbulent gaseous and distillate oill diffusion flames were experimentally investigated utilizing a 75,000 Btu/hr laboratory combustor. Aerodynamics, air preheat conditions, and overall excess air conditions were varied to determine their role on any such interaction. Results indicated that addition of sulfur dioxide (SO₂) to natural gas flames could enhance or inhibit NO emissions. Local flame stoichiometry and temperature, which were influenced by fuel injector type, determined which effect was observed and the extent to which it occurred. Thiophen (C₄H₄S) and pyridine (C₅H₅N) were added to #2 diesel oil to determine effects of fuel sulfur on conversion of chemically bound fuel nitrogen to No. No discernible effect was observed at "zero" air preheat conditions. No emissions were enhanced at high air preheat conditions. Addition of SO₂ to natural gas flames doped with ammonia (NH₃) produced a significant increase in conversion of NH₃ to NO at high air preheat conditions. Inhibition effects were explained in terms of homogeneous catalysis of recombination reactions by SO₂. Hydrogen abstraction reactions involving reduced sulfur species and other oxidation reactions involving SO₂, or a reduced form, were considered to explain the enhancement effect.
Degree ProgramChemical Engineering