A cost-effectiveness study and analysis of municipal refuse disposal systems
AuthorPopovich, Michael Lee, 1944-
KeywordsRefuse and refuse disposal -- Cost effectiveness.
Refuse and refuse disposal -- Arizona -- Tucson.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Degree ProgramSystems and Industrial Engineering
Degree GrantorUniversity of Arizona
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A COST-EFFECTIVENESS STUDY AND ANALYSIS OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE DISPOSAL SYSTEMSPopovich, Michael Lee; Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, The University of Arizona (Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1973-06)The comparison of alternative systems of disposing efficiently and effectively of four to five pounds of solid waste per person per day in the United States urban communities is undertaken by using Kazanowski's standardized cost -effectiveness methodology. The economic criteria for studying this problem are often limited to cost or marketable measures; in contrast, use of a cost -effectiveness approach allows the inclusion of non- quantifiable measures of effectiveness such as public acceptance, politics, health risks, environmental considerations, and soil benefits. Data from a case study in Tucson, Arizona, is used to illustrate the problem.
The characterization and measurement of archaeological depositional units: Patterns from nineteenth-century urban sites in Portsmouth, New Hampshire.Wheeler, Kathleen Louise. (The University of Arizona., 1992)This dissertation is an examination of the formation processes operating at nineteenth-century housesites in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. The approach stresses the reconstruction in behavioral terms of all urban deposits, including those considered "mixed" or "disturbed." The data base for the dissertation consists of three disparate archaeological collections at the Strawbery Banke Museum in Portsmouth. The analysis was performed under a unifying research agenda and with a consistent set of analytic techniques in a kind of "postexcavation salvage." These methods include developing a Harris matrix to reconstruct site stratification, plotting deposition locations in reference to known activity areas (such as doors and windows), measuring relative sherd size, and calculating a minimum number of vessels through the examination of ware, form, and surface decoration and the refitting of sherds. This latter exercise of crossmending helped to establish the horizontal and vertical displacement of sherds. Measures of diversity included counting the number of artifact classes to determine richness and developing a prevalence index to assess evenness; i.e., the distribution of artifact types within a deposit. The behavioral unit of analysis was the household, as it was hypothesized that individual households generated refuse in patterned ways. Nineteenth-century households from three sites were reconstructed from historical sources such as city directories, census information, family genealogies, and tax assessment records. Twelve households occupying three different housesites were linked with various refuse deposits and compared over time and space. Several patterns of trash-disposal behaviors recurred at the three sites. Preferred modes of refuse discard included the use of open-air middens, privies, and opportunistic middens. Households apparently also transformed or redeposited secondary-refuse aggregates to create tertiary deposits. Often characterized as mixed or disturbed, these tertiary deposits can be informative about depositional behaviors in the urban context. Conclusions summarize how immigrant status, stage in household development, tenancy, and owner occupation affect the discard behaviors at the three sites. Once a "grammar of garbage" is reconstructed in behavioral terms, more abstract constructs, such as the worldview of hygiene and sanitation, can be suggested.
Structure and dynamics of household refuse: Archaeological approaches to characterization and estimation.Wilson, Douglas Calvin. (The University of Arizona., 1991)The recovery and analysis of data from secondary refuse contexts is a crucial aspect of many archaeological investigations. Treatment of secondary refuse as a distinct analytical context is especially useful for the examination of socioeconomic and demographic variability in prehistoric and modem societies. This dissertation reviews ethnoarchaeological research on refuse disposal in non-industrialized societies, modern industrialized societies, and historic contexts. Based on this review, a framework is suggested for the analysis of secondary refuse at archaeological sites. Results of an ethnoarchaeological study of modern household refuse are presented. The study uses data collected by the University of Arizona's Garbage Project from Tucson, Arizona; Phoenix, Arizona; New Orleans, Louisiana; and Marin County, California. The depositional structure of modern household refuse is examined. Special focus is given to identifying and analyzing the relationships between refuse variability and socioeconomic and demographic variability. Furthermore, the effects of short-term, external economic changes on the patterning associated with ethnicity in Tucson are identified and examined. The implications of the study for historical and prehistoric archaeology are discussed.