The geology and ore deposits of a portion of the Tyndall Mining District, Santa Cruz County, Arizona
AuthorWalchessen, Anne Aurelia
KeywordsGeology -- Arizona -- Santa Cruz County.
Ore deposits -- Arizona -- Santa Cruz County.
Geology -- Arizona -- Santa Rita Mountains Region.
Ore deposits -- Arizona -- Santa Rita Mountains Region.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Degree GrantorUniversity of Arizona
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Cattle grazing behavior and range plant dynamics in southern Arizona.Rice, Richard W.; Gamougoun, Ngartoina Dedjir.; Reid, Bobby L.; Swingle, Roy S.; Ogden, Phil R.; Fogel, Martin M. (The University of Arizona., 1987)A 15-month study was conducted on the Santa Rita Experimental Range to evaluate the factors influencing both plants and cattle in southern Arizona. Forage biomass, nutrient value, botanical composition, and ground cover were greater in the growing season than in the dormant season. Moderate and heavy pastures had lower plant parameters than very heavy pasture, except for forage biomass and Lehmann lovegrass proportion, forage fiber and ground cover. Slopes and washes had a higher forage nutrient content and lower biomass and ground cover than the uplands. Lehmann lovegrass was more abundant on the uplands and in the washes than on the slopes and the reverse was true for native grasses and shrubs. Understory forages contained greater nutrients and forbs than open forages and the opposite occurred for shrubs and ground cover. Grazing activities, drinking, salting, defecation, urination and rumination were greater in the growing seasons, but standing and idling were greater in winter. There were no differences among pastures in major activities, but walking, drinking and salting were greater on very heavy pasture than on moderate and heavy pastures. Most grazing activities were on the uplands and resting activities were in the washes. Biting rates were similar among topographic areas. Upland and wash defecation and urination frequencies were similar and higher than slope frequencies. Grazing activities were greater in the open than under canopy and the reverse was true for resting activities. Open and canopy areas were similar in defecation and urination frequencies and biting rates. Except for resting activities, major and minor activities were more intense in the afternoon than in the morning. Morning and afternoon biting rates were similar. The weather index was the most important predictor of all cattle activities, except for the defecation frequency which mostly depended on the proportion of green forage. The forage nutrients and green proportion were the second and third important predictors of cattle activities, respectively. In conclusion, plants and animals interact and both react to environmental conditions. The recommendations for best management of a grazing land ecosystem should consider these conditions.
Effects of prescribed fire on fuel accumulation rates and selected soil nutrientsZwolinski, Malcolm J.; Christopherson, John Ostler, 1956- (The University of Arizona., 1989)Fuel accumulation rate and total soil nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur following prescribed fires were studied. Three prescribed fires were conducted in S.E. Arizona ponderosa pine stands during the summers of 1979, 1980, and 1981. Samples of forest floor and larger diameter fuel and soil from the surface 1.5 inches and 1.5 to 3.0 inch layers were collected in the summer of 1981. Forest floor and total fuel accumulation averaged 5.4 to 6.7 and 6.3 to 8.9 tons/acre/year, respectively. Total nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur in the surface three inches of mineral soil were not significantly affected by burning. Soil nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur content averaged 0.21%, 344 ppm and 150 ppm, respectively, in the surface 1.5 inches and 0.11%, 285 ppm and 74 ppm, respectively, in the 1.5 to 3.0 inch layer.