The exchange, displacement, and redistribution of salts in mined-land and natural soil materials
AuthorTodd, Albert Henry
KeywordsSoils -- Sodium content -- Arizona -- Black Mesa (Navajo County and Apache County)
Reclamation of land -- Arizona -- Black Mesa (Navajo County and Apache County)
Coal mines and mining -- Arizona -- Black Mesa (Navajo County and Apache County)
Water resources development -- Arizona -- Black Mesa (Navajo County and Apache County)
Black Mesa (Navajo County and Apache County, Ariz.)
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Degree ProgramRenewable Natural Resources
Degree GrantorUniversity of Arizona
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Optimization of runoff agriculture on reclaimed mine landsKelly, Jerry Lee,1947-; Thames, John L. (The University of Arizona., 1976)Optimization of runoff agriculture involves the selection of a crop whose water requirements correspond to the precipitation patterns of the area; the selection of a runoff treatment which, when applied to the catchment area, produces the greatest amount of water at the lowest cost; and the establishment of the ratio of catchment area to crop area. A model is presented which utilizes linear programming and watershed cropland simulation to select the best suited crop and runoff treatment for the system being considered. The model is then modified to determine the optimum catchment area ratio to be used. The model was applied to the reclaimed coal mine lands on the Black Mesa of northern Arizona. Results show that maximum economic returns can be obtained for conventional irrigated agriculture by using a ratio of 55 acres of catchment area with no runoff treatment to one acre of cropland producing corn. The use of carry-over pond storage to allow for supplemental irrigation is prohibited due to high evaporation rates on the Black Mesa. By reducing the corn crop density from the conventional 20,000 plants per acre to 5,000 plants per acre, the catchment area ratio can be reduced to an apparent ratio of 13:1. Hopi Indian farmers on the Black Mesa use a density of 5,000 plants per acre for cultivating a highly adapted strain of Indian corn.
Water-harvesting on arid coal mine soil for vegetable and fruit productionPowelson, David.; Thames, John L.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; Cluff, C. Brent (The University of Arizona., 1982)The Black Mesa Water-Harvesting Agrisystem is testing the feasibility of using water-harvesting techniques to reclaim strip mined land. Two different treatments, fiberglass-asphalt-chipcoat and salt, were applied to increase the runoff from the catchment areas. The water is stored in ponds to provide ample irrigation to a variety of vegetables and fruits. This system would generate an estimated net annual revenue of $1400 per irrigated acre or approximately $348 per acre for the whole system. This income is a great improvement over the estimate of no net income from the conventional reclamation alternative of establishing forage. The potential high quality of Black Mesa spoil as agricultural soil is indicated by its loam texture, neutral pH, and high nitrogen level. After three years of fertilization with phosphate, irrigation, cropping and cultivation, the spoil is developing a friable, granular structure. Some of the problems encountered in operating the system are: land subsidence on the regraded spoil, crop pests, and weed growth on the catchments. Nevertheless, it appears that the establishment of water-harvesting instead of, or in conjunction with, grazing would increase the future benefits from the land without increasing the costs of reclamation.