Now showing items 1-20 of 5214

    • International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 58 (2023)

      International Foundation for Telemetering, 2023-10
    • On the Use of Bit Error Rate Testers to Test the Data Quality Metric

      Rice, Michael; Sheets, Gary; Gross, Todd; Gembarowski, Chris; Weis, Ashley; Brigham Young University; Summation Research, Inc (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2023-10)
      Many modern telemetry receivers have the capability to estimate the bit error probability (BEP) and to transfer this information, in the form of the data quality metric (DQM) to a telemetry data center. When the DQMs from multiple receivers are transferred with their corresponding bit decisions to a central location, the DQMs enable an advanced form of best source selection that has been shown to improve the overall reliability of the telemetry data. For this to work, the BEP estimation algorithm must be properly calibrated across all receivers, regardless of manufacturer. To test the calibration, a receiver’s bit error rate (BER) obtained from a bit error rate tester (BERT) may be compared to the BEP estimate derived from the DQM. Because both the BEP and the BER are estimates, both exhibit random variations that make comparing the two difficult. This paper describes the use of BER confidence intervals to compare the BEP and BER estimates.
    • LDPC Codes for IRIG-106 Waveforms: Part II – Receiver Design

      Perrins, Erik; Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2023-10)
      Low density parity check (LDPC) codes allow a communications link to operate reliably at signal to noise ratios that are very close to the Shannon limit. Because of this, in the early 2000s they were studied in connection with SOQPSK-TG and were eventually adopted into the IRIG-106. The deployment for SOQPSK-TG has proved to be very successful, which has motivated interest in finding an LDPC solution for PCM/FM and ARTM CPM. Such a solution, however, has proved to be elusive for reasons that were not entirely clear in the past. In our companion paper, we reveal these reasons, which also allows us to develop an LDPC design procedure for all IRIG-106 modulations and we apply this procedure to PCM/FM and ARTM CPM. In this paper, our focus is on developing high-speed, parallelizable decoders/demodulators that are suitable for highthroughput applications. We present the performance characteristics of our fixed-point software prototype system. We demonstrate that the coded LDPC system performs around one dB from the respective channel capacities of these modulations. As such, these codes can be considered to fill in the LDPC options that are currently absent in the IRIG-106 standard for PCM/FM and ARTM CPM.
    • LDPC Codes for IRIG-106 Waveforms: Part I – Code Design

      Perrins, Erik; Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2023-10)
      Low density parity check (LDPC) codes allow a communications link to operate reliably at signal to noise ratios that are very close to the Shannon limit. Because of this, in the early 2000s they were studied in connection with SOQPSK-TG and were eventually adopted into the IRIG-106. The deployment for SOQPSK-TG has proved to be very successful, which has motivated interest in finding an LDPC solution for PCM/FM and ARTM CPM. Such a solution, however, has proved to be elusive for reasons that were not entirely clear in the past. In this paper, we lay out the fundamental considerations that must be made in order to design LDPC codes for a specific modulation format. In doing so, we show that SOQPSK-TG enjoys specific similarities with BPSK that allowed an “easy path” toward an LDPC solution in IRIG-106. Most importantly, we show that when the design process begins at the proper starting point, it is just as easy to design LDPC codes that are customized to a particular modulation. We then apply this straightforward design process to PCM/FM and ARTM CPM and demonstrate that the resulting LDPC codes perform around one dB from the respective channel capacities of these modulations. In our companion paper, we develop parallel decoder architectures for these schemes that can achieve high throughput. As such, these codes can be considered to fill in the options for LDPC codes that are currently absent in the IRIG-106 standard.
    • Data Quality Metric (DQM) – How Accurate Does It Need To Be?

      Geoghegan, Mark; Quasonix (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2023-10)
      A Data Quality Encapsulation (DQE) protocol for improving telemetry link quality has recently been standardized and added to IRIG 106. It periodically provides a Data Quality Metric (DQM) required for optimal Maximum Likelihood Bit Detection (MLBD) when more than one receive source is available. The resulting diversity can provide tremendous improvements in link quality. In order to be effective, the estimated DQM value should respond quickly and accurately to reflect the actual Bit Error Probability (BEP). This paper investigates the MLBD performance loss caused by DQM estimation error. The objective is to gain insight into the sensitivity of the overall bit recovery system and to use the results to help establish tolerance levels in DQM test procedures. This relationship provides the means to guarantee that the DQM accuracy is sufficient to meet or exceed a specified level of system performance which is the goal of DQM testing.
    • CHEETAS & Safari Update

      Norman, Ryan; Treakle, Thomas; Moyer, Christopher; Department of Defense, Research and Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2023-10)
    • The Telemetry Applications of TENA, JMETC, and Big Data Analytics

      Hudgins, Gene; Secondine, Juana; TENA Software Development Activity (SDA) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2023-10)
      TM often requires operators on location with receive system(s) or at a remote console, resulting in TDY for operators and possibly a shortage of operators to support all scheduled operations. A remote-control capability along with centralized data collection could eliminate existing personnel requirements at both the local system antenna site as well as the control facility, greatly reducing operational costs and providing insight to system status. TENA provides for real-time system interoperability, as well as interfacing existing range assets, C4ISR systems, and simulations; fostering reuse of range assets and future software systems. JMETC is a distributed, LVC capability using a hybrid network solution for all classifications and cyber. TENA and JMETC in conjunction with BDA tools and techniques, allow for the most efficient use of current and future TM range resources via range resource integration, critical to validate system performance in a highly cost-effective manner.
    • AITA. Automatic Manoeuvre Detection Based on Wavelets

      Alvarez, Pedro Rubio; Herrero, Francisca Coll; Airbus Defense and Space (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2023-10)
      Most of the Test analyses are repetitive and therefore can be automated. The instrumentation of prototypes is becoming heavier and all parameters require validation. Most Test analyses tasks are manual, time consuming and prone to human errors. AITA is an Airbus R&T project with the aim of developing a framework based on AI to automate most of these tasks and replace the obsolete tools currently in place. This paper will describe the technique used for Automatic Manoeuvre Detection and Validation which is part of the AITA project. The Automatic Manoeuvre Detection is based on Pattern identification. The analysis methodology used consists of building adaptive wavelets in the sense of least squares to a specific pattern. Once the wavelet is available, the CWT (Continuous Wavelet Transform) is used to find the pattern in the time history. This Methodology is an improvement of the one included in the BMAD item [1] (Big-data Manoeuvre Automatic Detection) project. Besides improving the pattern generation, including new parameters that help determine the manoeuvres validation, the data access and pattern search library has been optimized by migrating python library to C++ and parallelizing the process. This paper explains the steps followed for the automatic manoeuvre detection validation using real flights belonging to ADS aircraft fleet.
    • Virtual RF Test Range

      Lucas, Jason; Bergin, Jamie; Carter, Greg; 96th Test Systems Squadron; Information Systems Laboratories, Inc. (ISL) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2023-10)
      The high cost and long timelines for development, testing, and fielding of Radio Frequency (RF) systems severely limits the test community’s ability to rapidly test and field new capabilities. This paper presents a Virtual RF Test Range (VRTR) approach providing the capability to present a realistic virtual presentation to a system under test (SUT) and can be implemented in Modeling and Simulation (M&S), Hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) facilities or open-air ranges. The capability is an important element for virtual test and training made possible by physics-based RF Digital Engineering tools and leveraging telemetry data from the SUT. The VRTR will allow testers to ‘fly’ 1000’s of virtual test flights in a fraction of the time and at a fraction of the cost of live testing using open-air ranges.
    • Utilizing The SatNOGS Network at Brigham Young University

      Long, David; Nielsen, Tyler; Sawyer, Ryan; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2023-10)
      To support collection of telemetry from its orbital spacecraft, the Passive Inspection Cubesats (PICs) launched in Jan. 2021, Brigham Young University (BYU) built a custom satellite ground station to track and communicate with the two PICs. We are upgrading our satellite ground station to work with SatNOGS. The BYU SatNOGS Ground Station is a student-built ground station for receiving communications from small satellites in low earth orbit. The ground station was designed to be integrated into the SatNOGS network, a Libre Space project. SatNOGS is an open source network of satellite ground stations established around the globe as a collaborative, buy-in network. The BYU Ground Station is provided as the University’s buy-in, allowing future projects to take full advantage of the SatNOGS network. BYU’s addition to the network is an omnidirectional parasitic Lindenblad antenna designed for the 70 cm band.
    • Meaningful G/T Measurements – Made at Night

      Hill, Terry; McCurdy, Jim; Quasonix, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2023-10)
      The ratio of receive antenna gain to receive system noise temperature (G/T) is widely used throughout the satellite and telemetry communities, always appearing in the link budget in some manner. The conventional method of measuring G/T for directional antennas seems simple: measure received power while pointing the antenna at the sun, repeat the measurement while pointed at “cold sky”, and do a few simple calculations. This paper briefly summarizes the many sources of error in this technique and then presents an alternative approach using a calibrated signal source instead of the sun. Both theoretical and empirical results are presented. The proposed approach can be applied to any type of receiving system (including active antennas and multi-beam phased arrays) and yields G/T results that apply meaningfully to the link budget.
    • Determining Antenna Performance via Comparative Methods

      Cruz, Frank; Radke, Mark; Air Force Test Center; Bevilacqua Research Corporation (BRC) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2023-10)
      Recent advanced digital phased array antennas use sophisticated signal processing techniques that deviate from classical spatial beamforming. Currently, a method does not exist to obtain direct far-field G/T measurements of active large aperture phased array antennas lacking the ability to spatially beam point. Due to this constraint, solar calibrations cannot be performed to achieve a value for G/T. Also, availability of anechoic chambers of adequate size for far-field measurements of large apertures are scarce, forcing an outdoor range configuration as a requirement for testing. Therefore, a comparative method using transmitted power differences with respect to bit error rate (BER) has been developed. Using the known G/T of a reference antenna will allow the determination of G/T for a large aperture active antenna without the need for a well characterized signal source. This paper will outline the methodology used to establish G/T of an active array antenna using measurement and analysis.
    • Implementation of AESA Technology for High-Target Dynamic Telemetry Ground Antennas

      Lohou, Anael; Robert, Arnaud; Lesur, Benoît; Kipfer, Gérard; Bastie, Pierre; Safran Data Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2023-10)
      This paper describes the implementation of AESA technology for telemetry ground antennas. Telemetry ground antennas play a key role in the functioning of telemetry systems, by receiving the data transmitted by the system and sending it to a ground station for analysis and processing. The use of AESA technology allows for more precise targeting and tracking, making them ideal for high target dynamic applications. The design proposed is a 1-axis electronically steerable antenna, which would be used for elevation while the azimuth axis would be mechanically driven. This proposed design would result in a 1 m² antenna that is specifically intended for short to medium range telemetry and is able to handle high target dynamics. The paper presents results about the first prototype that was manufactured and tested. The focus of the document then shifts to the development of a complete prototype that will be used for evaluation and testing in order to further refine and improve the design.
    • Competing Radio Frequency Mitigation

      Diehl, Michael; Wilcox, Tab; Velador, Alvaro; Lopez, Jacob; Air Combat Systems Directorate, United States (U.S.) Army (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2023-10)
      The Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) is focused on integrating advanced equipment, modulations, and techniques into its telemetry (TM) infrastructure. Thanks to Army modernization efforts, YPG is in the middle of a range-wide antenna/ground equipment refresh. These upgrades have coincided with an increase in competing radio frequency (RF) sources that have begun to adversely affect data quality and tracking capabilities, resulting in YPG focusing on ways to mitigate this interference. A recent flight test demonstrated improved RF mitigation using advanced techniques such as Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC), frequency diversity in S band and C band, and spatial diversity. This year’s technical paper is a continuation from last year’s paper that focused on identifying and characterizing competing RF at the Yuma test ranges.
    • Security Requirements Comparison: Industrial Control Systems vs. IT Systems in Telemetry Networks

      Moazzami, Farzad; Shuaibu, Hassan; Department of Information Systems, Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2023-10)
      A significant discrepancy regarding security is observed between Industrial Control System (ICS) engineers and their Information Technology (IT) counterparts, a phenomenon that is widespread in a considerable number of instances. Due to inherent disparities between ICS and IT systems, specific IT security measures may not be appropriate for ensuring the protection of ICS. This paper provides an examination of the fundamental security prerequisites that necessitate consideration when establishing a connection between ICS and IT systems within telemetry networks. This study presents a demonstration of the modelling of Telemetry Systems as an ICS-SCADA system, showcasing its integration with IT systems. The main aim of this study is to explore methods for examining security issues in a telemetry network that has been enhanced with integrated networking functionalities. It is crucial for IT and ICS staff to work together to create effective security measures for telemetry systems.
    • Network Telemetry Security Strategy and Design

      Moazzami, Farzad; Dean, Richard; Dugda, Mulugeta; Zegeye, Wondimu; Odejobi, Moses; Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2023-10)
      The paper presents background, strategies, and architectures for security solutions for networked telemetry. This will be an overview of the nature of networked security and strategies for security designs which includes NIST guidelines 800-53, 800-82, IBM Redbook, and security design principles.
    • Security Considerations When Performing Telemetry Post-Processing and Analysis in Cloud Environments

      Kalibjian, Jeff; Peraton (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2023-10)
      Third party cloud environments can facilitate easier management of telemetry data in support of Live, Virtual and/or Constructive (LVC) environments. However, there are critical cybersecurity issues which must be appropriately managed to ensure the organization is not unduly risking exposure of their valuable telemetry data and or providing a pathway for potential hostile entities to compromise their cloud-based IT post processing services. After reviewing the state of the cloud market, critical security challenges including data privacy, security configuration, Security Operation Center (SOC) integration, cloud vendor Federal Risk Authorization Program (FedRAMP) certification, cloud vendor sub-contracting, and US only customer support, will be discussed as they can materially impact IT organizations when leveraging cloud computing resources to post process telemetry product.
    • Data At Rest Innovation with Turnstile

      Weir, Malcolm; Ampex Data Systems Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2023-10)
      Encryption is good. Like protection & safety equipment, we hope never to need it, but there’s no question that it’s smart to have and useful, but we all wish it wasn’t such a nuisance! At heart, though, it’s not encryption per se that hurts, but key handling: how do keys get to the system, how are the keys stored (if they are), and how it can be assured that keys are properly discarded once finished. Instrumentation, maintenance, and safety systems can be particularly challenging, often being self-contained with limited accessibility and/or connectivity. The Turnstile Encryption System is a new & secure approach to key handling for recording and telemetry. Turnstile uses proven and certified encryption algorithms to create a “write only” deployed solution: data sources and recorders can encrypt but cannot decrypt without the “read” key, which is never stored on the test article. This paper explains Turnstile, why it can be trusted, and how it reduces the user burden of encryption, particularly for Data at Rest and telemetry Data in Transit.
    • Commercial AES256 Block Encryption Applied to Streaming Telemetry – Methodology and Results

      Wolfson, Scott C.; Wright, Jonathan M.; U.S. Army Redstone Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2023-10)
      The continual advances in military system technologies compel the Test & Evaluation community to constantly mature, adapt and apply innovative methodologies and numerical methods. This progression requires a clear understanding of technique capabilities and limitations. With respect to telemetry, the encrypted telemetry requirement trend is increasing at a rate faster than telemetry encoder designers can address the need in current, future and legacy systems. The primary objective of this technical paper and associated presentation is to provide the design details pertaining to adapting a commercial AES256 block encryption algorithm for use with persistent streaming serial data like telemetry. The published material will also provide details relating algorithm integration variants and the associated impact on the data rate, bit error rate and data latency.
    • Adaptive Linear Secrecy Codes with Feedback

      Harrison, Willie K.; Hunn, David; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2023-10)
      We identify a novel method of using feedback to provide enhanced information-theoretical security in the presence of an eavesdropper. This method begins with a fixed linear coset code providing both secrecy and error detection/correction, as has been described by several authors. The legitimate receiver then sends the syndrome information for the received codeword, and based on this feedback, the transmitter can provide further error correction information specifically tailored to assist only the legitimate receiver. We show that this method allows secure communication with the legitimate receiver even when the eavesdropper’s channel is superior to that of the legitimate receiver.