Now showing items 21-40 of 5123

    • Interoperability Standards for a Network Based Instrumentation System

      Berard, Alfredo; Ellebrock, Philip; Watts, Marshall; Buckley, Mark; Workman, Bradley; 96RANSS/RNRE, Eglin AFB FL; Boeing St. Louis; Telspan Data; 96RANSS/RNRE, Eglin AFB FL (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2022-10)
      The deployment of a standards-based networked airborne instrumentation on a new flight test program has led to a cost-efficient multi-vendor interoperable system with best-in-breed technologies. Airborne instrumentation systems have been deployed using vendor based proprietary network systems on a variety of DoD test programs which did not allow migration to better performing technologies. The development of standards-based network instrumentation systems has led to an opportunity for plug-n-play interoperability across airframes and organizations. This paper describes a standards-based, networked, multi-vendor instrumentation system on a new program that ruled out the use of a sole vendor proprietary instrumentation system.
    • Understanding Best Source Selector Performances and Results from Two Test Scenarios

      Bastie, Pierre; Sandoz, Florian; Telemetry solutions, Safran Data Systems Inc., Norcross; Space and Communication BU, Safran Data Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2022-10)
      This paper comes as a following of last year ITC paper [3] which highlighted the benefits of using a Best Source Selector (BSS) in a flight test range, explored the difficulties in its implementation (Time alignment, Signal Quality retrieval and support of different formats) and presented a validation method based on the playback of 4 analog baseband signals synthetized using Matlab and an IF recorder. This year paper presents two test setups (one using an RF simulator and one using playback of PCM data recorded during a real US test range mission) to highlight the performance of a BSS when Data Quality Metric (DQM) is enabled. The results obtained in 3 different BSS modes (Best Vote, Majority Vote and Weighted Majority Vote) are presented as well as a method to capture internal BSS metadata to better understand and assess the BSS performance.
    • Some Thoughts on Testing the Data Quality Metric

      Temple, Kip; Air Force Test Center, Edwards AFB CA (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2022-10)
      Over the last several years, Test and Training Ranges have been upgrading their telemetry receiving capabilities by integrating hardware that implements many of the link improvement techniques standardized within IRIG 106. One of these techniques is Data Quality Encapsulation (DQE) that includes the Data Quality Metric (DQM). The DQM assigns a quality metric to a set of data without a priori knowledge of the data. This metric can be highly useful if it accurately describes the quality of the data. This paper presents some initial thoughts on test methods that could aid in the determination of the validity and accuracy of this metric. The approaches center on the use of differing transmission channels to corrupt the telemetry signal and then compare the estimated quality with the actual quality.
    • Advances in Packet Based Bi-Directional Telemetry Solutions

      O’Connell, Ray; RoboCom Technologies (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2022-10)
      Packet based bi-directional telemetry systems are being deployed on test ranges as well as commercial aeronautical/space systems. Multiple approaches have been developed each with their own set of capabilities and trade-offs. In this paper, bi-directional packet-based communications links used to transport data between test articles and ground systems are presented. Some of the current bi-directional telemetry systems are identified and compared. The comparison include the capabilities that they provide and the link methods that they employ.
    • MIMMO: Wirelessly Synchronized Distributed MIMO Radar

      Madhow, Upamanyu; Buckwalter, James F.; Abdolee, Reza; Kim, Justin; Sandhu, Shaan; He, William; Liu, Alina; Sifferman, Ethan; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California at Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2022-10)
      With increasing interest in fully autonomous vehicles, the issue of sensor interference becomes more prevalent, especially in dense urban environments. To deal with the limited field of view cars currently have, Mimmo implements a distributed radar network that uses a LAN connection to provide frame level wireless synchronization to the network of radars. Data from each radar is then individually processed before being fused together to provide each node in the network a larger field of their surroundings, despite any line of sight obstruction. Research on how to achieve an even finer level of synchronization will also be discussed.
    • Alternative Position, Navigation and Timing (A-PNT) Using Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Signals Of Opportunity (SOOP)

      Barry, Charles; Weiss, Marc; Luminous Cyber Corp, University of California, Santa Cruz; Marc Weiss Consulting, University of California, Santa Cruz (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2022-10)
      As is well-known, signals from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) such as the US Global Positioning System (GPS) are used throughout systems that US forces depend on. Yet GPS/GNSS are particularly unreliable in areas of US engagement with enemy forces, where jamming and spoofing would be advantageous to an adversary. We propose a solution that uses a software defined receiver and advanced algorithms to provide Alternative Position, Navigation and Timing (A-PNT) using Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Signals Of OPportunity (SOOP). In this mode of using LEO signals, no confidential knowledge of the source signal is necessary. Indeed, no a-priori knowledge of the LEO orbit parameters, nor the time of transmission of the signals is assumed. This system is designed to work standalone or can also be used to complement existing navigation sensors that are typically used in navigation systems, including GNSS and Inertial navigation. Expansion to the usage of multiple LEO constellations will serve to optimize performance and resiliency in an RF challenged environment.
    • Establishing Traceability with a GPS Disciplined Clock: A Preliminary Report

      Clark, John W.; Matsakis, Demetrios N.; Novick, Andrew N.; Lombardi, Michael A.; Masterclock, Inc.; National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2022-10)
      The metrological definition of traceability requires a documented and unbroken chain of calibrations that each contribute to the measurement uncertainty [1]. The calibrations must be end-to-end, which for a Global Positioning System Disciplined Clock (GPSDC), must include the antenna and cabling. While understanding legal definitions may be arduous at times, working with metrology labs to develop detailed criteria can be constructive for GPSDC manufacturers. To establish the suitability of a GPSDC for traceability, we have compared the one pulse-per-second (PPS) outputs of several GPSDCs to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) realization of Coordinated Universal Time, termed UTC(NIST). The GPSDC measurements included the use of several different antennas, with results showing agreement to within to tens of nanoseconds of UTC(NIST). We will explain these measurements and provide estimations of their associated uncertainties.
    • Assembling a Bi-Directional TM System Using IRIG Compliant Sub-Systems

      Gatton, Tim; Applications Engineer, AeroGear Telemetry (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2022-10)
      Full-duplex instrumentation communication and data links to an airborne test article has always been desired capability of Test and Evaluation (T&E) community. Years back, the need was small, but as aircraft instrumentation has matured and more and more remotely controlled vehicles are entering development, the need has grown. The satellite domain has full duplex using High-level Data Link Control (aka, HDLC, or ISO/IEC 13239:2002), but this has not been adopted into the IRIG standards. Instead, IRIG-106 was expanded to include Chapter 7 which acts as a “suitable substitute” for HDLC. Between Chapter 7, and the miniaturization of transmitters and receivers, putting receiving stations on test articles is now attainable. This paper shows how using the IRIG standards supported by the vendors supporting the International Telemetry Conference can be assembled.
    • A Simple Dual-Polarized Co-Incident Phase Center Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna Element for Airborne Telemetry Applications

      Rodriguez-Garcia, Pedro; Martin, Joshua; Pierpont, Jim; Shea, Donald; George, Rob; Advanced Aperture Solutions, ComCept Division, Agile Development Group, L3Harris Technologies (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2022-10)
      This paper proposes a wideband, dual-linear polarized, co-incident phase center Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna (AVA) for remote sensing applications within X-Ku frequency bands. This antenna specifically targets constrained size, weight, power, and cost (SWaP-C) applications by providing a simple, portable, and easy to fabricate design. Existing dual-polarized AVA consist of both coincident and non-coincident phase center elements that are electrically connected by a ground plane, but these often contain heavy mechanical support structures. A key characteristic of the proposed AVA is it enables lightweight design by implementing foam supporting structures while retaining desirable performance characteristics.
    • Science System for a Prototype Mars Rover

      Kosbar, Kurt; Ryan, Maxwell; Robles, Anthony; Brinker, Grant; Shockley, Daelon; Cox, Natasha; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2022-10)
      This paper details a science system designed for a prototype Mars rover for the purpose of competing in the 2022 University Rover Challenge. The science system was designed to analyze an environment and determine its ability to support life. Data from a sensor array, heater, and absolute encoders are gathered by individual microcontrollers connected in a local, rover-side network. Various communication standards are used to interface with these devices. This data is transmitted over a 5.8 GHz radio link to a basestation where the data is interpreted by the rover operators. Embedded control is also critical to rover operations as feedback loops are used to ensure safe operation of the system.
    • Telemetry Package for the Drive System of a Remotely Controlled Rover

      Kosbar, Kurt; Davis, Brady; Squires, Faye; McEntire, Garrett; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2022-10)
      This paper will explore the transfer of data through the drive system of a remotely operated rover designed to compete in the 2022 University Rover Challenge. The system consists of six independently controlled motors, six electronic speed controllers (ESCs), and a microcontroller. The ESCs are based on the open-source VESC project. This is a highly adaptive approach that allows PID speed control, battery management, regenerative braking, and a watchdog that will cut power if certain safety measures are not met. The microcontroller has an independent serial connection to each ESC, allowing the microcontroller to control and receive telemetry data from each ESC without each other ESC needing to be operable. The microcontroller communicates wirelessly with the base station over a 900 MHz radio connection using TCP. Packets follow a custom-built protocol which allows the drive system to send and receive vital information such as speed targets, current motor speeds, and fault states.
    • Design of a Radio Telemetry System for Use by University Rocket Teams

      Kosbar, Kurt; Francois, Thomas; Montano, Thomas; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2022-10)
      This paper provides an overview of a system developed to meet the needs of telemetry systems for use in university-designed sounding rockets. The telemetry and command system operates over a full-duplex 900 MHz link at altitudes up to 100 km, the typical max altitude achieved by university sounding rockets, using a lower data rate than the down-link for a reliable command up-link. As these missions become more prolific and with increasingly valuable payloads, without an increase in budget, there is a growing need for such data systems that are at the typical cost of hobbyist level rockets. This project is the development of a system that reduces mission risk by downloading health and sensor data in real-time, increases operator safety and redundancy by providing the ability to trigger an immediate abort option to save the vehicle, and improves system feedback through a software package that displays and analyzes the flight data, in real-time, to the operators at the ground station.
    • 4K Video Transmission Test Using Inet Rf Network

      Honda, Takeshi; Aoyama, Daiki; Abe, Katsuhiko; Ito, Sei; Aerospace Systems Company, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2022-10)
      Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. (KHI) has been authorized to use S-band IP Transceivers since 2014 in Japan. We presented the results of the performance test using a helicopter at ITC2016 and ITC2018. We have been conducted 4K video transmission tests using iNET RF network since 2019.
    • Relay Connectivity in High Interference Environments Through Deployable Ultra-Wide Bandwidth Wireless Nodes

      Tokumaru, Phil; Isukapalli, Yogananda; Buckland, Eric; Chen, Angela; Dang, Kim; Zu, Tom; University of California, Santa Barbara; AeroVironment, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2022-10)
      This paper describes an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) system designed to navigate and map unfamiliar high interference and wireless obstructing environments. The UGV utilizes LiDAR for local area mapping, a camera for video feed, and houses a node deployment mechanism. The nodes deployed are self-sufficient, low-cost, AA battery-powered, seamlessly connect over RF for data transmission, and integrate a Passive Infrared (PIR) sensor for proximity awareness. Each node is controlled by the Nordic nRF52840 System-on-Chip (SoC) with a mounted Qorvo DWM3000 Ultra-Wideband (UWB) wireless module. The half-duplex DWM3000 was released by Qorvo in 2020 and has the potential to be used for various mobile, consumer, and industrial applications given its size and low power usage. The remote interface displays the video feed from the UGV, a local view of the mapped area, a larger view of the entire mapped area, and a catalog of all PIR sensor information. The most challenging aspect of implementation is seamless node data transmission. The half-duplex nature of the communication introduces the traditional hidden and exposed terminal problems, requiring some coordination between the nodes’ transmission and reception periods.
    • Telemetry Networks Cyber Security Architecture

      Dean, Richard; Moazzami, Farzad; Dugda, Mulugeta; Zegeye, Wondimu; Odejobi, Moses; Morgan State University, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2022-10)
      This paper presents the cyber security architecture modeling of the networks supporting today’s telemetry. The incorporation of networking features has significantly enhanced the capability and performance of modern telemetry systems. The development of the Integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry protocols and the use of networked telemetry applications has introduced a host of potential cyber security risks inherent in modern networking. This paper will investigate the best cyber security practices and present cyber security architecture for telemetry networks. The development of this cyber security model covers different segments of the telemetry network such as the traditional enterprise network, cloud, and SCADA networks. It also investigates different NIST security controls for telemetry network security.
    • Securing the Telemetry Analysis Workstation

      Kalibjian, Jeff; Peraton (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2022-10)
      Telemetry data must travel a great distance before it can be analyzed by scientists and engineers. While each venue the telemetry data travels through (e.g. open air, physical/wireless networks, etc.) opens some opportunity for potential compromise; probably the greatest risk arises at the telemetry analyst’s workstation. Scientists and engineers accessing and analyzing the telemetry data have little exposure to cybersecurity training—making their workstation a potential data loss threat point. However, deployment of managed endpoint protection cybersecurity tools at the analysis workstation can substantially mitigate this risk. After reviewing the endpoint threat landscape, four classes of cybersecurity tools (endpoint detection/response, vulnerability management, application control, and event management) will be discussed; which, when deployed in tandem, can provide substantial protection for analysis workstation environments.
    • Post-Quantum Cryptography Based on Codes: A Game Changer for Secrecy in Aeronautical Mobile Telemetry

      Shoushtari, Morteza; Arabian, Farah; Harrison, Willie K.; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2022-10)
      The future development of quantum computing threatens a host of modern cryptographic security efforts, and thus presents a new security threat to wireless communications systems. Encryption algorithms for aeronautical mobile telemetry (AMT) may likewise be vulnerable to quantum attacks based on Grover and Simons’ algorithms. Post-quantum cryptography focuses on developing appropriate cryptographic algorithms that are impervious to both quantum and classical attacks and can therefore provide data confidentiality in a post-quantum computing world. This paper proposes the application of post-quantum cryptography as a future security solution in AMT systems with a focus on code-based techniques and provides a road map for studying the next generation of cryptosystem in AMT. We further suggest and analyzed (in terms of secrecy) the use of the McEliece cipher as a special case of a code-based post-quantum cryptographic solution for the integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) communications system and show how it may be deployed.
    • Modulation Classification Based on Augmented Constellation Diagrams

      Bose, Tamal; Tall, Amadou; Berian, Alexander A.; Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2022-10)
      Modulation Classification (MC) is an increasingly relevant design feature in wireless communications and plays an essential part in cognitive radio networks. Deep learning methods are decisive in performing MC. MC methods based on constellation diagrams usually achieve excellent performance because of the constellation diagrams' discriminative characteristics. This paper uses deep learning models to classify generated signals' constellation diagrams by their modulation type. We propose a constellation diagram-based MC architecture that uses different training and testing resolutions to classify the modulations of the RadioML dataset. The observed improvement of the classification accuracy relies on the fact that a lower training resolution improves the classification at test time. We also perform a comparative analysis of the model by examining the impact on the classification accuracy when different levels of resolution are applied.
    • Scalogram Aided Automatic Modulation Classification

      Nambisan, Anand; Gajjar, Viraj; Kosbar, Kurt; Department of Electrical Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2022-10)
      Automatic modulation classification has applications in non-cooperative communications and cognitive radio. Recent studies have demonstrated that deep learning algorithms can achieve remarkable accuracies for image classification. In this work, we represent a received radio signal as a 3-dimensional image and use it for modulation classification. The first two dimensions include the real and imaginary parts of a wavelet scalogram, and the third contains the in-phase and quadrature components of the signal represented as a matrix. The signal’s image representation is combined with transfer learning (TL) to train convolutional neural networks for classification. Using this technique, we can demonstrate that representation of signal data in terms of an image can help leverage TL for modulation classification.
    • Deep Thinking Models for Radio Transformer Networks

      Cawley, Emily; Berian, Alex; Bose, Tamal; University of Arizona, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2022-10)
      In modern communication systems, message signals are processed with modulation, coding, pulse shaping, etc. for efficient data transmission. Recently, machine learning techniques have been used to replace such signal processing algorithms. Radio Transformer Networks (RTNs) is a technique that can be used to model an entire communication system with neural networks encompassing transmitter, channel, and receiver. These models can then be trained as a whole to generate encoding schemes that are optimized for different channel conditions. In this paper, we incorporate parameter estimation in the receiver trained with the model. Recurrent layers are used to improve parameter estimates whereby the network has the opportunity to “think longer.” Simulation results are presented to illustrate the concepts.