• Enhancing Security in Telemetry Post-Processing Environments with Continuous Diagnostics and Mitigation (CDM)

      Kaibjian, Jeff; Hewlett Packard (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      While great strides have been made in recent years by government agencies in deploying proactive network security tools, the federal government as a whole desires to continue to press the state of the art in protecting its IT infrastructure. To this end, the US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has created the Continuous Diagnostic and Mitigation (CDM) program [1] (also known as Continuous Monitoring, CM). It strives to establish a technology framework whereby agency federal government IT networks can be continuously monitored for threats and vulnerabilities, providing an analysis and correlation capability that will enable entities to better evaluate risk. It also defines a hierarchical dash-boarding capability that facilitates both aggregation and communication of each agency's network health status into abstracted levels of summary so the federal system as a whole can be better evaluate their IT security posture. Going forward, these technologies will dramatically impact all government agencies, the Department of Defense (DOD), and commercial entities.
    • Initial iNET RF Networking Testing

      Timme, M. Wayne; Newton, Todd A.; Moodie, Myron L.; Abbott, Ben A.; Grace, Thomas B.; Southwest Research Institute; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      One of the core philosophies of the integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project is to leverage standard networking technologies whenever possible to both reduce development cost and to allow standard networking applications to function properly. This also provides the best long-term scalability to new unforeseen applications much as the Internet has grown through its open standards. Unfortunately, the Radio Frequency (RF) channel characteristics do not fully lend themselves to the typical physical layer approaches utilized by Internet Protocol (IP) technologies. The iNET project is developing the Telemetry Network System (TmNS) RF Network to provide a flexible two-way IP telemetry capability. The Developmental Flight Test (DFT) phase is currently under way to perform initial flight testing of the RF Network. This paper provides an overview of the planned RF network testing and the expected results. Current results from flight testing will be presented at the conference.
    • Space-Time Coding Solution to the Two-Antenna Interference Problem

      Geoghegan, Mark; Boucher, Louis; Quasonix; Bombadier Flight Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      In order to provide reliable line-of-sight communications, test aircraft typically use two transmit antennas to create top and bottom hemispherical patterns that cover the full range of possible aircraft orientations. The two transmit signals are normally generated by a single transmitter with the power being split between the two antennas. Although this configuration is straightforward and easy to implement, problems can arise due to the two signals constructively and destructively interfering with each other. This can result in the composite antenna pattern having periodic nulls with a depth and geometric spacing dependent upon the amplitude and phase differences of the two transmitted signals. This problem is usually addressed by either unevenly splitting the transmit power between the two antennas, or by using two separate transmitters at different frequencies. Unfortunately, these methods have drawbacks that require either system performance or cost trade-offs. This paper discusses the use of Space-Time Coding to eliminate this antenna interaction by transmitting modified waveforms that simultaneously allow for both full power transmission and single-channel operation. This approach effectively restores the nominal antenna performance, thereby resulting in better overall coverage and less pattern-induced dropouts. Telemetry performance results from recent flight testing are presented to validate the benefits of this approach.
    • Telemetry Receive/Record & Re-Radiation Pod

      Johnson, Bruce; Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      This paper discusses the mission needs, design/development, and testing of the (L, S & C Band) Telemetry Receive/Record & Re-Radiation pod.
    • Flight Test Results from C-Band Missile Telemetry Project

      Kujiraoka, Scott; Felder, Russ; Johnson, Ben (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      Over the past few years, papers have been presented relating to the design and development of a telemetry section used to compare the performance between S-Band and C-Band telemetry links. In addition, the flight test plans to make this comparison have been discussed. Captive Carry Test Flights (on a F-18 fighter jet) over the NAVAIR Sea and Land Ranges at Point Mugu and China Lake were conducted during the April-July 2014 timeframe. In addition a Live Fire Test Flight over the Land Range of the specially outfitted missile was performed in July 2014 as well. This paper will discuss these series of flights tests and provide a performance assessment of the data quality between the C-Band and S-Band telemetry data links. In addition, lessons learned from the various test flights will be included as well. Due to publication deadlines, the results will be summarized at the actual conference.
    • C Band Telemetry at Airbus Flight Test Centre

      Fréaud, Gilles; Airbus (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      Airbus is authorized to use S-band for Telemetry transmission until 2015. In October 2011, the decision was taken to move to C-band in 2013, to cope with Airbus development aircraft planning. The objective was a real challenge for 2 main reasons: C-band channel was not characterized in Airbus transmission environment and it was necessary to validate the propagation performance for Flight Tests uses. The selected solution is based on Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (COFDM) modulation. There was no existing solution so it has led the Airbus Test Centre to drive the development of its own C Band solution. C-band telemetry at Airbus has been tested and evaluated in flight from April 2012. The first goal was to check the coverage and the impact of the bad weather condition. Besides, it was necessary to characterize the channel to choose the optimised parameters for the waveform in the Toulouse Blagnac environment. This selection of parameters allows the high quality and increased data rate required for Airbus Telemetry to be reached. The test results consolidated the choice of a COFDM modulation, when given the high sensitivity to multipath of usual Frequency Modulation in the airport environment full of buildings and aircrafts. Moreover, it has been possible to reach a similar quality to the S-band telemetry systems, thanks to a fine tuning of the waveform parameters, and tracking system. Deployment of the system by modifying 8 reception antennas and 12 development aircrafts was done over a span of 4 weeks in January 2014. No impact on Airbus A350 certification campaign occurred due to close collaboration with Flight Test Operations. The new Telemetry system enables an increase of telemetry capabilities in the future, especially the data throughput, simplified remote control and monitoring. This experience is an opportunity to set up a new standard.
    • Remote Perimeter Monitoring for Agricultural Applications

      Kosbar, Kurt; Crow, Nicholas; Meyer, James; Harrelson, Dustin; Cook, Bradley; Gassel, Jason; Harrington, Brandon; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      A monitoring system has been developed to detect when a large vehicle is gaining access to an area such as an agricultural field or facility through a control gate. The system uses multiple sensors, including Hall-effect, anisotropic magnetoresistor, ultrasonic ranging, and vision. A user is alerted using a conventional cell phone network of the presence of the vehicle. The system is microcontroller based, uses photovoltaic power supply, and leverages commercial off the shelf components wherever feasible. The system detection algorithm was made adaptable, to minimize false alarms and missed detections.
    • Trade-offs of Antenna Fabrication Techniques

      Ryken, Marv; Microwave Subsystems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      This paper addresses the future military munitions' system requirements for antennas in terms of the existing versus new fabrication technology. The antenna requirements of the future smart munitions will be GPS for precision guidance and TM for system performance testing. The environmental requirements remain the same; large temperature operating range with operation at high temperatures and high shock capable. As usual, the munitions are getting smaller, frequency bandwidth is getting larger, and the cost of the antennas must be minimized in production quantities. In particular this paper compares the existing antenna fabrication technology of Teflon based dielectric printed circuits versus multilayer alumina in the green state, a technology that has been perfected for fabricating microwave integrated circuits (MIC's). The trade-offs that will be addressed are temperature, shock, cost, tunability, loss, size, dielectric constant, and frequency bandwidth. There has been a significant effort to miniaturize the GPS and TM antenna using higher dielectric constant materials. The most popular direction of this effort has been to use ceramic impregnated Teflon. The ultimate temperature performance is the material with a dielectric constant around 2 since this material exhibits a very low coefficient of change with temperature. Materials are available with nominal dielectric constants of 6 and 10 to reduce the size of the antenna but the coefficient of change with temperature is very large and leaves these materials marginal for military temperature ranges. There have also been two other problems with Teflon based printed circuit boards, forming and bonding the boards in a 3D shape and homogeneity of the dielectric constant in the board and after bonding. These problems usually make tuning a requirement and drive the cost of antenna fabrication up. There has been a revolution in MIC's. The circuits are now being made with multiple layers of ceramic (alumina) with interlayer conductive connections and a nominal dielectric constant of 10. The layers are formed in the green state and fired at high temperature and the resulting alumina substrate has a very low coefficient of change with temperature and low loss. Since this procedure is now beyond development, the cost is low and the volume capability is high. Another significant point is that the part can be any shape since the substrate is done in the green state (formable) and then fired.
    • A Modified OQPSK Detection for SOQPSK-TG in Aeronautical Telemetry

      Xingwen, Ding; Jianyong, Song; Ming, Chen; Manhong, Lu; Beijing Research Institute of Telemetry (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      SOQPSK-TG is a highly bandwidth-efficient constant-envelope modulation so that it has been applied in aeronautical telemetry widely. We develop a simple detection of SOQPSK-TG which is based on a modified OQPSK detection. The simple detection has the advantages of low complexity and good performance. And it's also suitable for other varieties of SOQPSK and FQPSK.
    • A Comparison of Three Equalization Techniques for iNET-formatted SOQPSK-TG

      Rice, Michael; Afran, Md. Shah; Saquib, Mohammad; Cole-Rhodes, Arlene; Moazzami, Farzad; Brigham Young University; University of Texas at Dallas; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of the zero-forcing, minimum mean-squared error, and constant-modulus equalizers in improving the BER performance of iNET-formatted SOQPSK-TG. The equalization algorithms leverage the existence of known bit sequences in the preamble and ASM fields of the iNET packet to realize data-aided equalizers. The effectiveness of these equalization techniques over ten test channels, derived from channel sounding experiments at Edwards AFB, was evaluated. The BER curves for nine out of the ten test channels display the desirable "waterfall" shape. The BER curve for the remaining test channel displays a "BER floor." Fortunately, the "BER floor" is low enough to allow error correcting codes, such as the iNET LDPC code, to correct the errors and provide virtually error-free performance.
    • In-Flight Wireless Acquisition: an Experience

      Guilot, Jean-Michel; ADAS (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      The wireless acquisition system LISA has been designed for mechanical phenomenon analysis onboard aircrafts. It has been in use for more than one year now. This paper describes the organization of this equipment and the experiences related by first users.
    • Video Bus Integrated Telemetry System

      Diehl, Michael; Kuipers, Steven; Swain, Jason; Tiaden, Ryan; Nelson, Wil; Wilcos, Tab; U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) personnel developed the Video Bus Integrated Telemetry System (VBITS) for air delivery testing at YPG. The system consists of a common rack for mounting both video and telemetry equipment, which makes installation easier and more time efficient. Prior to the one-rack concept, the video, TSPI, and telemetry were all installed as separate entities competing for space, power, and time. Requirements to downlink High-Definition (HD) video from the aircraft prompted research into technological improvements in transmitters, onboard encoders, and recorders. These advances allowed the integration of video, analog sensors, and aircraft bus data into a single telemetry stream. Future advancements will include combining multiple HD video sources in a single downlink.
    • History and Evolution of Metadata Standards for the FTI Community

      Cooke, Alan; Curtiss-Wright (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      The paper discusses the history and background of metadata standards for the FTI community over the last 20 years and speculates on how they may develop in the future. It starts by highlighting the deficiencies of proprietary formats and the resulting problems. It then discusses the characteristics and features of specific industry standard metadata descriptions such as TMATS, iHAL, MDL and XidML in addition to their levels of maturity. The attributes of what constitutes a fully mature FTI metadata standard is then discussed. It is suggested that any standard must serve at least two functions, Configuration and Validation, and outlines what exactly each means. Finally, it is argued that there is now a significant level of convergence and consensus in both the scope and application of metadata, and in the associated concept of operations (ConOps). The details of this Concept of Operations are then discussed along with suggestions as to how this may evolve in the coming years.
    • Tri-Service C-Band Roadmap Study (TSCRS) Findings and Way Ahead

      Musteric, Steven A.; King, Nathan; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      The purpose of the Tri-Service C-Band Roadmap Study (TSCRS) is to identify technology gaps and shortfalls associated with aeronautical mobile telemetry operations utilizing the 4400 to 5150MHz frequency band (C-Band). The goal of this study is to provide the information needed by the military services to generate an investment strategy to develop C-Band telemetry capabilities. This paper discusses TSCRS findings. Specifically, C-Band telemetry "gaps" related to operations on ground stations and in test articles are covered. The paper addresses key C-Band telemetry challenges across mission domains and provides a quick look at the DoD investment strategy for maturing technologies relative to these challenges.
    • TENA and JMETC in Telemetry Applications

      Hudgins, Gene; Poch, Keith; Treakle, Tom; Secondine, Juana; TENA Software Development Activity (SDA) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      The Test and Training Enabling Architecture (TENA) is a validated, common architecture which provides for real-time software system interoperability as well as interfaces to existing range assets, C4ISR systems, and simulations. The TENA Middleware, currently at Release 6.0.4, has been used by the range community for testing, training, evaluation, and feedback in many major exercises and events since 2002, and has been selected as the interoperability solution in the Joint Mission Environment Test Capability's (JMETC's) distributed testing. Through investment in the Test Resource Management Center's (TRMC's) Test & Evaluation (T&E) / Science & Technology (S&T) Program and innovative use at ranges including the Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF), Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), Redstone Test Center (RTC), and Edwards AFB, TENA is increasingly expanding to and being utilized by the Telemetry community.
    • Energy Efficient Water-Filling Algorithm for MIMO-OFDMA Cellular System

      Kassa, Hailu Belay; Mariam, Dereje H.; Moazzami, Farzad; Astatke, Yacob; Addis Ababa University; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      In this work we evaluated the performance of different water filling algorithms. We have selected four power allocation algorithms: Conventional water-filling (CWF), Constant power water-filling, Inverse Water-filling (IWF), and Adaptive Iterative Water-Filling (AIWF) algorithms. Capacity is the performance metric we used to compare the above algorithms by taking the optimality of transmission power allocation to each sub-channel into account. The power allocation can be calculated with a reference of the water level value that has different approaches for different algorithms. The water level can either be fixed once it is found, or it may be adaptive or different for different sub-channels. Hence, the results show that the adaptive iterative water filling (AIWF) algorithm has a better effect on the performance of MIMO-OFDM system by allocating power adaptively.
    • FMCW Subsurface Microwave Imaging with Hexagonal Antenna Arrays

      Lee, Hua; Radzicki, Vincent R.; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) imaging is typically conducted in the pulse-echo mono-static format with a simple CW pulse as the probing signal. Recently, the data-acquisition hardware has been extended to the use of linear multi-element arrays. This paper presents an advanced GPR imaging system with FMCW probing waveforms, with a seven-element hexagonal array and software-defined data-acquisition hardware. The use of FMCW probing signals is for the optimization of the information contents of the returned waveforms. The utilization of the hexagonal unit is to produce sub-images with direction-independent resolution capability. In this paper, mathematical analysis, system modeling, field experiments, and image reconstruction are included to illustrate the performance and capability of the engineering concepts.
    • LED Communication Using a High Speed Digital Camera

      Borah, Deva K.; Curry, Elam; Perez-Ramirez, Javier; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      An optical communication system using a light-emitting diode (LED) as a transmitter and a high speed digital camera as a receiver is considered. The camera collects data at a rate of 1,200 frames per second (FPS). The pixel values are then processed using equal gain combining (EGC), best pixel selection (BPS), and maximal ratio combining (MRC) techniques. The bit error rate (BER) performance of these techniques is analyzed, and the effect of using different numbers of pixels for receiver processing is considered. The effect of the camera's pixel grid being at an angle with respect to the LED's direct path is experimentally explored.
    • High-Performance Tomographic Imaging and Applications

      Lee, Hua; Wang, Yuan-Fang; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      Tomographic imaging systems utilize various probing waveforms, such as microwaves, acoustic and ultrasound, and light, for different application objectives. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of various tomographic imaging systems operating in different modalities of mono-static, bi-static, and multi-static format in both transmission and reflection modes. Tomographic acoustic microscopy, ground-penetrating radar imaging, synthetic-aperture sonar imaging, 3D medical endoscopy and terrain survey are included as direct examples of the imaging technology, with historical overview, physical modeling and system analysis, and experiments.
    • Adaptive Modulation Schemes for OFDM and SOQPSK Using Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) and Godard Dispersion

      Han, Jieying; Walkenhorst, Brett T.; Wang, Enkuang D.; Georgia Tech Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      In this paper, we develop a new approach which enables adaptation across two modulation schemes in the iNET standard: orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) and shaped-offset quadrature phased-shift keying (SOQPSK). We present the error vector magnitude (EVM) for OFDM and second-order Godard dispersion (D(²)) for SOQPSK as our link metrics that measure the degradation due to thermal noise and channel effects and then derive the mathematical relationship between these two metrics. This relationship enables us to utilize a set of empirically-derived rules that incorporate both modulation schemes.