• MMSE Equalization for Aeronautical Telemetry Channels

      Rice, Michael; Afran, Md. Shah; Saquib, Mohammad; Brigham Young University; University of Texas at Dallas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      This paper presents performance analysis of the minimum mean squared error (MMSE) equalizers applied to aeronautical telemetry channels. The challenge for equalizing received samples of the modulated signal lies in the fact that the underlying continuous-time SOQPSK-TG waveform is not wide-sense stationary. However it is assumed so in order to meet real-time implementation requirements. Two approximations of the autocorrelation function of the SOQPSK-TG waveform are used for designing MMSE equalizers. Their performance are investigated against the zero forcing equalizer for measured aeronautical telemetry channels.
    • Comparing Packet Fill Strategies in Ethernet-Based Data Acquisition Systems

      Penna, Sérgio D.; EMBRAER Flight Test Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      Ethernet-based data acquisition systems are becoming more and more common in the Flight Test Instrumentation environment. Digitized analog sensor output and various other types of digital data is captured and inserted into Ethernet packets using a "packet fill" strategy that in general is under control of the user. This paper discuss and compares two strategies "FILL-TO-TIME" and "FILL-TO- SIZE" for the acquisition of ARINC-429 digital data bus.
    • Moving Data Analysis into the Acquisition Hardware

      Buckley, Dave; Curtiss-Wright (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      Data acquisition for flight test is typically handled by dedicated hardware which performs specific functions and targets specific interfaces and buses. Through the use of an FPGA state machine based design approach, performance and robustness can be guaranteed. Up to now sufficient flexibility has been provided by allowing the user to configure the hardware depending on the particular application. However by allowing custom algorithms to be run on the data acquisition hardware, far greater control and flexibility can be offered to the flight test engineer. As the volume of the acquired data increases, this extra control can be used to vastly reduce the amount of data to be recorded or telemetered. Also real-time analysis of test points can now be done where post processing would previously have been required. This paper examines examples of data acquisition, recording and processing and investigates where data reduction and time savings can be achieved by enabling the flight test engineer to run his own algorithms on the hardware.
    • Buy versus Develop: A NAND Flash Controller Case Study

      Budd, Chris; SMART High Reliability Solutions, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      The decision to buy or develop any system component is a difficult one. Clearly, the development time and cost is less when using an off-the-shelf component; however, these components attempt to meet the requirements of a main-stream market segment. Outside of those markets, a designer may need to add unique features to solve problems for specialty markets; one example is SSDs for telemetry markets where one critical component is the NAND flash controller. This paper will focus on some of the requirement differences and why it is so important for SSD designers to develop their own controller for these markets.
    • New Mobile Telemetry Ground Station for Sounding Rocket, Stratospheric Balloon, and LEOP Satellite Support

      Haefner, Dennis; Kimpe, Andreas; Turner, Peter; DLR Mobile Rocket Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      The new telemetry station of the DLR Mobile Rocket Base (MORABA) is a fully equipped commanding, tracking, and data acquisition ground station developed particularly for sounding rockets and stratospheric research balloons. Furthermore, it serves as a support system for satellite missions during launch and early orbit phases. Its primary design goal was maximum mobility and versatility. Hence, the station is optimized for easy transportation in standard 20-foot ISO containers, fast setup, and highest independence regarding location and infrastructure. It can be operated at tropical temperatures and arctic conditions alike. The TT&C station comprises two independent antenna systems made by ORBIT Communication Systems. The main antenna features a segmented five-meter parabolic dish on a very fast elevation-over-azimuth pedestal and an S-band tracking feed with supplementary acquisition aid. The feed supports simultaneous uplink and downlink in the S-band, both with polarization diversity for improved signal quality even under adverse conditions. A small 1.5-meter secondary antenna with autonomous tracking equipment provides backup to the main system for fast target acquisition and wide angle tracking capability.
    • Determination of Position Around Near-Earth Asteroids Using Communication Relays

      Nelson, Evan; Creusere, Charles D.; Butcher, Eric; New Mexico State University; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      In this paper we consider the possibility of using a communications system that is operating between probes on the surface of an asteroid and an orbiting satellite to more accurately determine spatial positions. This is done by measuring the round trip communication delay between the orbiter and various surface probes to estimate distance. From these distance measurements, the position can be determined using trilateration - the same basic technique behind the earth-based GPS system. Within the framework of this scenario, the location of the probes or the orbiter can be determined depending on the scenario.
    • Dynamic Capacity Allocation Algorithms for iNET Link Manager

      Fecko, Mariusz; Change, Kirk; Cichocki, Andrzej; Kim, Heechang; Gadgil, Shree; Sarraf, Mohsen; Barton, Melbourne; Wong, Larry; Samtani, Sunil; O'Connell, Ray; et al. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      In an iNET telemetry network, Link Manager (LM) dynamically allocates capacity to radio links to achieve desired QoS guarantees. Under the T&E S&T iMANPOL program, we developed an enhanced capacity allocation algorithm that can better cope with severe congestion and misbehaving users and traffic flows. We compare the E-LM with the LM baseline algorithm (B-LM), which employs priority-weighted allocation. The B-LM is expected to perform well for the majority of traffic patterns, but does not prevent an ill-behaved traffic class from causing excessive latency on other radio links. The E-LM ensures that each class has a "guaranteed" portion of the total available bandwidth that is proportional to the weight of the class. If the traffic loading of a class is lower than its quota, the difference can be flexibly shared by other classes across multiple links. If the traffic loading of a class is higher than its quota, its demand may still be satisfied, provided that the capacity is not taken away from well-behaved traffic classes that stay below their quotas. The qualitative analysis shows the E-LM provides lower latencies for the well-behaved links in overloading conditions and increases the overall system throughput when the traffic is unbalanced. We conducted extensive experiments to confirm that analysis, with the E-LM reducing latency of well-behaved flows up to 90%, and increasing overall throughput up to 65% over the B-LM.
    • A Comparison of Compressive Sensing Approaches for LIDAR Return Pulse Capture, Transmission, and Storage

      Creusere, Charles D.; Castorena, Juan; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      Massive amounts of data are typically acquired in third generation full-waveform (FW) LIDAR systems to generate image-like depthmaps of a scene of acceptable quality. The sampling systems acquiring this data, however, seldom take into account the low information rate generally present in the FW signals and, consequently, they sample very inefficiently. Our main goal here is to compare two efficient sampling models and processes for the individual time-resolved FW signals collected by a LIDAR system. Specifically, we compare two approaches of sub-Nyquist sampling of the continuous-time LIDAR FW return pulses: (i) modeling FW signals as short-duration pulses with multiple bandlimited echoes, and (ii) modeling them as signals with finite rates of innovation (FRI).
    • Earth Orbital Debris - History and Implications

      Hill, Jerry; Avum, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      Objects of varying sizes shapes, and origins, referred to as space debris, or "space junk," have been accumulating in Earth orbit for over a half century. This personal glimpse into this fascinating subject discusses sources of space debris and the implications of this debris to working near Earth space vehicles and orbiting laboratories.
    • Using C# and WPF to Create Fast Plots for Telemetry Analysis on Large Data Sets

      Burns, Steven; Endress, William; Raytheon Missile Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      Upon completion of a test where telemetry(TM) data was collected, the resulting TM file will usually contain millions of data points. Traditionally MatLab™, Mathlab™, or some third party software is used to plot the data. These methods may not always be desirable due to the expense of licensing, restrictions on the ability to create custom graphs and the inability to quickly plot large amounts of data. These problems were solved by using Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) graphics capabilities in conjunction with C# to develop a unique set of algorithms to display custom graphs of unlimited size with quick response.
    • ViaSat's 50 Year Legacy in Range Telemetry: Its Past, Present and Future

      Gattoni, Armando R.; ViaSat Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      In April of 2000, ViaSat (Carlsbad, CA) acquired the Communications and Tracking Systems division of Scientific Atlanta (Atlanta, GA). Through that acquisition ViaSat can trace a fifty year heritage of range telemetry product and system development. This paper describes some of ViaSat's key contributions during those years, beginning with CORTS (Conversion of Range Telemetry Systems) and including development of Monoscan Converters for single-channel monopulse tracking, the 410 WA and Series 930 Telemetry Receivers, E-Scan autotracking and numerous tracking antenna systems. This paper includes recent (within ten years) systems and products specifically developed for telemetry applications, and concludes with what ViaSat believes the future holds for telemetry tracking systems.
    • A Modular and Extensible User Interface for the Telemetry and Control of a Remotely Operated Vehicle

      Kosbar, Kurt; Morrow, Tyler; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      This paper discusses the rover engagement display (RED), an application that integrates network communication, control systems, numerical and visual analysis of telemetry, and a graphical user interface for communicating with the embedded systems of a remote vehicle. The target vehicle is a wheeled rover participating in the University Rover Challenge, a competition that observes the performance of rovers in an environment similar to that of the planet Mars. Communication with the rover occurs via a TCP connection and messages adhere to a simple protocol. The RED user interface is visually modular in an attempt to provide additional scalability and extensibility. Control algorithms, user interface design concepts, and code architecture (C#) are discussed.
    • Performance Analysis of Zero Forcing and Minimum Mean Square Error Equalizers on Multiple Input Multiple Output System on a Spinning Vehicle

      Kosbar, Kurt; Kulkarni, Aditya; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      Channel equalizers based on minimum mean square error (MMSE) and zero forcing (ZF) criteria have been formulated for a general scalable multiple input multiple output (MIMO) system and implemented for a 2x2 MIMO system with spatial multiplexing (SM) for Rayleigh channel associated with additive white Gaussian noise. A model to emulate transmitters and receivers on a spinning vehicle has been developed. A transceiver based on the BLAST architecture is developed in this work. A mathematical framework to explain the behavior of the ZF and MMSE equalizers is formulated. The performance of the equalizers has been validated for a case with one of the communication entities being a spinning aero vehicle. Performance analysis with respect to variation of angular separation between the antennas and relative antenna gain for each case is presented. Based on the simulation results a setup with optimal design parameters for placement of antennas, choice of the equalizers and transmit power is proposed.
    • Direction of Arrival Estimation of Broadband Signal Using Single Antenna

      Xin, Hao; Yu, Xiaoju; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      In this paper, we propose a novel technique using a single antenna for direction of arrival (DOA) estimation of broadband microwave signals. We designed and fabricated a microstrip-leaky-wave receiving antenna, which has good matching and reasonable radiation efficiency in the frequency range of interest: 2 - 3.5 GHz. Because the frequency response of the antenna is strongly incident-angle dependent, by using the spectral information at the antenna, we are able to estimate the DOA of a broadband microwave signal with a high degree of accuracy. Simulations and experiments show that the proposed technique enables good DOA estimation performance within a 90˚ range.
    • Synchronous Data Pathing: Synchronous Data Bandwidth Requirements and Its Impact on Telemetry Systems

      Uhland, Greg; U.S. Air Force (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      With industry standard synchronous data, the clock is effectively over twice the rate of the data (Figure 1.). The resultant problem is increased synchronous infrastructure bandwidth requirements and/or costly system architectures designed to avoid transport of synchronous data. This paper will discuss a potential solution.
    • Remote Monitoring and Control of Residential and Commercial Energy Use

      Kosbar, Kurt; Marchman, Christopher; Bertels, Jacob; Gibbs, Dalton; Novosad, Samuel; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      This paper describes a device that integrates remote monitoring and control electronics into a commercial off the shelf 120 VAC power distribution strip and surge protector. An integrated microcontroller collects data on power usage from each of four AC outlets, along with two USB ports, and relays this information to a remote location. Using a conventional web browser to generate a graphical user interface, an untrained user can easily visualize their current and past energy usage patterns, and send commands to control individual outlets.
    • iNET MDL from a User Perspective

      Moore, Jessica D.; Stiers, Richard D.; Boeing Test & Evaluation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      During concept development of a new core analog acquisition system, Boeing Flight Test identified a need for a set of more efficient and cost effective Test System configuration and setup tools, preferably supported by an industry standard. Like most big test organizations we support years and years of legacy tools. Currently all new functions are required to be hosted within the legacy environment. Legacy environments tend to be big, slow, and expensive to update and maintain. In searching for a better way to do business, we evaluated iNET/MDL, IHAL, and XidML standards. For a variety of reasons which will be discussed in this paper, we have chosen to focus on the iNET MDL standard as the means for producing a new vendoragnostic, simpler and more cost-effective system interface. Our initial evaluation uncovered several gaps in the data structure and concept of operations. The iNET community acknowledged the gaps and encouraged us to work with them to enhance the standard. The iNET MDL concept of operations also represents a significant operational paradigm shift. Through an industry users group, we have been working to refine and enhance the data structures and concept of operations. This paper will describe the journey from a demonstration environment to an enterprise implementation of MDL as it relates to data acquisition setup and control.
    • iNET System Manager

      Noonan, Patrick J.; Newton, Todd A.; Willden, Gregory C.; Grace, Thomas B.; Malatesta, William A.; Southwest Research Institute; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      Network-based telemetry systems have unprecedented amounts of flexibility due to the ability to monitor, control, configure, coordinate, and visualize the operations of the flight test system. As a result of this flexibility, multiple tests can be conducted in a single flight; all it takes is reconfiguration of portions of the system. However, management of such a dynamic system is a complex task. As such, the integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) Program is currently developing a System Manager application to provide a model for coordinated management of networked telemetry. The System Manager provides a user application for monitoring, controlling, configuring, coordinating, and visualizing the operations of the Telemetry Network System (TmNS) network. This paper describes the key requirements, capabilities, and development approach of the System Manager.
    • Security Architecture for Telemetry Networks

      Dean, Richard; Moazzami, Farzad; Astatke, Yacob; Moten, Daryl; Jambureskan, Sekaran; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      This paper develops a Security Architecture for a network of telemetry networks as is envisioned for future telemetry systems. We show a model for an aggregation of Test Centers as might be deployed for the envisioned network telemetry. We build a security architecture grounded in best practices for security design as captured in the NIST family of standards and guidelines captured in the SANS 20 critical controls.
    • Initial iNET TA Networking Testing

      Newton, Todd A.; Timme, M. Wayne; Abbott, Ben A.; Grace, Thomas B.; Malatesta, William A.; Southwest Research Institute; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      One of the core philosophies of the integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project is to leverage standard networking technologies whenever possible to reduce development cost and to allow standard networking applications to function. This also provides the best long-term scalability to new unforeseen applications much as the Internet has grown through its open standards. The Developmental Flight Test phase is currently under way to perform initial flight testing of the Test Article (TA) Network. This paper provides an overview of the planned TA Network Testing and the expected results. Current results from flight testing will be presented at the conference.