• TENA and JMETC in Telemetry Applications

      Hudgins, Gene; Poch, Keith; Treakle, Tom; Secondine, Juana; TENA Software Development Activity (SDA) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      The Test and Training Enabling Architecture (TENA) is a validated, common architecture which provides for real-time software system interoperability as well as interfaces to existing range assets, C4ISR systems, and simulations. The TENA Middleware, currently at Release 6.0.4, has been used by the range community for testing, training, evaluation, and feedback in many major exercises and events since 2002, and has been selected as the interoperability solution in the Joint Mission Environment Test Capability's (JMETC's) distributed testing. Through investment in the Test Resource Management Center's (TRMC's) Test & Evaluation (T&E) / Science & Technology (S&T) Program and innovative use at ranges including the Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF), Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), Redstone Test Center (RTC), and Edwards AFB, TENA is increasingly expanding to and being utilized by the Telemetry community.
    • Tri-Service C-Band Roadmap Study (TSCRS) Findings and Way Ahead

      Musteric, Steven A.; King, Nathan; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      The purpose of the Tri-Service C-Band Roadmap Study (TSCRS) is to identify technology gaps and shortfalls associated with aeronautical mobile telemetry operations utilizing the 4400 to 5150MHz frequency band (C-Band). The goal of this study is to provide the information needed by the military services to generate an investment strategy to develop C-Band telemetry capabilities. This paper discusses TSCRS findings. Specifically, C-Band telemetry "gaps" related to operations on ground stations and in test articles are covered. The paper addresses key C-Band telemetry challenges across mission domains and provides a quick look at the DoD investment strategy for maturing technologies relative to these challenges.
    • New Mobile Telemetry Ground Station for Sounding Rocket, Stratospheric Balloon, and LEOP Satellite Support

      Haefner, Dennis; Kimpe, Andreas; Turner, Peter; DLR Mobile Rocket Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      The new telemetry station of the DLR Mobile Rocket Base (MORABA) is a fully equipped commanding, tracking, and data acquisition ground station developed particularly for sounding rockets and stratospheric research balloons. Furthermore, it serves as a support system for satellite missions during launch and early orbit phases. Its primary design goal was maximum mobility and versatility. Hence, the station is optimized for easy transportation in standard 20-foot ISO containers, fast setup, and highest independence regarding location and infrastructure. It can be operated at tropical temperatures and arctic conditions alike. The TT&C station comprises two independent antenna systems made by ORBIT Communication Systems. The main antenna features a segmented five-meter parabolic dish on a very fast elevation-over-azimuth pedestal and an S-band tracking feed with supplementary acquisition aid. The feed supports simultaneous uplink and downlink in the S-band, both with polarization diversity for improved signal quality even under adverse conditions. A small 1.5-meter secondary antenna with autonomous tracking equipment provides backup to the main system for fast target acquisition and wide angle tracking capability.
    • Enhanced Query Data Recorder (EQDR) - A Next Generation Network Recorder Built Around iNET Standards

      Wigent, Mark A.; Mazzario, Andrea M.; Leidos; Kauai Software Solutions (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      The Enhanced Query Data Recorder (EQDR) has been developed under the Test Resource Management Center's (TRMC) Spectrum Efficient Technologies (SET) T&E S&T program. The EQDR is a network flight recorder built around the iNET standards and which is intended to meet the future needs of the networked telemetry environment. The EQDR is designed to support the "fetch" of recorded test data during a test without interruption to the ongoing recording of data from the test article vehicle network. The key benefits of the network data recorder as implemented in the EQDR are increased flexibility and efficiency of test in an environment with increasing demands on spectrum available for telemetered data. EQDR enables retrieval of individual recorded parameters on an as-needed basis. Having the flexibility to send data only when it is required rather than throughout the duration of the test significantly increases the efficiency with which limited spectrum resources are used. EQDR enables parametric-level data retrieval, based not only on time interval and data source, but also on the content of the recorded data messages. EQDR enables selective, efficient retrieval of individual parameters using indexes derived from the actual values of recorded data.
    • PCM Backfill: Providing PCM to the Control Room Without Dropouts

      Morgan, Jon; Jones, Charles H.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      One of the initial control room capabilities to be demonstrated by iNET program is the ability to provide data displays in the control room that do not contain data dropouts. This concept is called PCM Backfill where PCM data is both transmitted via traditional SST and recorded onboard via an iNET compatible recorder. When data dropouts occur, data requests are made over the telemetry network to the recorder for the missing portions of the PCM data stream. The retrieved data is sent over the telemetry network to the backfill application and ultimately delivered to a pristine data display. The integration of traditional SST and the PCM Backfill capability provides both real-time safety of flight data side-by-side with pristine data suitable for advanced analysis.
    • A Synergistic Test Flight: Smart Sensors, EQDR and PCM Backfill

      Jones, Charles H.; Wigent, Mark; Morgan, Jon; Beech, Russ; Edwards Air Force Base; LEIDOS; NVE Corp. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      This is the story of three projects, which use three different research funding sources, coming together to demonstrate a small, but complete, instrumentation system that advances several technologies. The Onboard Smart Sensor (OSS) project is a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project that incorporates IEEE 1451.4 sensors into an existing Common Airborne Instrumentation System (CAIS) based instrumentation system. These sensors are "smart" in that they can self-identify basic information via a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS). The Enhanced Query Data Recorder (EQDR) is being developed under the T&E Science & Technology Spectrum Efficient Technology (S&T SET) portfolio. This recorder is based on the integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) specifications. One of the objectives of iNET is to be able to query a recorder in real-time and transfer the request across a network telemetry link. The third project provides Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) backfill to compensate for dropouts. One of the envisioned applications enabled by the iNET architecture is the ability to provide PCM displays in the control room that do not have dropouts. This is called PCM Backfill. The basic scenario is that PCM is both transmitted (as it traditionally has been via serial streaming telemetry (SST)) and recorded onboard. When dropouts occur, a request over the telemetry network is made to the recorder (the EQDR in this case) and the dropped portions of the PCM stream are sent over the telemetry network to backfill the ground display. By adding a PCM-to- Ethernet/iNET bridge, the OSS and legacy instrumentation system can provide data to both the standard PCM and to the EQDR. Combined, this mini-system demonstrates a vision of having intelligence and networking ability across the entire instrumentation system – from sensor to display.
    • Telemetry (TM) Has Changed Quite a Bit Over the Past 53 Years

      Hochner, Bill (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
    • ViaSat's 50 Year Legacy in Range Telemetry: Its Past, Present and Future

      Gattoni, Armando R.; ViaSat Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      In April of 2000, ViaSat (Carlsbad, CA) acquired the Communications and Tracking Systems division of Scientific Atlanta (Atlanta, GA). Through that acquisition ViaSat can trace a fifty year heritage of range telemetry product and system development. This paper describes some of ViaSat's key contributions during those years, beginning with CORTS (Conversion of Range Telemetry Systems) and including development of Monoscan Converters for single-channel monopulse tracking, the 410 WA and Series 930 Telemetry Receivers, E-Scan autotracking and numerous tracking antenna systems. This paper includes recent (within ten years) systems and products specifically developed for telemetry applications, and concludes with what ViaSat believes the future holds for telemetry tracking systems.
    • Earth Orbital Debris - History and Implications

      Hill, Jerry; Avum, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      Objects of varying sizes shapes, and origins, referred to as space debris, or "space junk," have been accumulating in Earth orbit for over a half century. This personal glimpse into this fascinating subject discusses sources of space debris and the implications of this debris to working near Earth space vehicles and orbiting laboratories.
    • A Comparison of Compressive Sensing Approaches for LIDAR Return Pulse Capture, Transmission, and Storage

      Creusere, Charles D.; Castorena, Juan; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      Massive amounts of data are typically acquired in third generation full-waveform (FW) LIDAR systems to generate image-like depthmaps of a scene of acceptable quality. The sampling systems acquiring this data, however, seldom take into account the low information rate generally present in the FW signals and, consequently, they sample very inefficiently. Our main goal here is to compare two efficient sampling models and processes for the individual time-resolved FW signals collected by a LIDAR system. Specifically, we compare two approaches of sub-Nyquist sampling of the continuous-time LIDAR FW return pulses: (i) modeling FW signals as short-duration pulses with multiple bandlimited echoes, and (ii) modeling them as signals with finite rates of innovation (FRI).
    • Direction of Arrival Estimation of Broadband Signal Using Single Antenna

      Xin, Hao; Yu, Xiaoju; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      In this paper, we propose a novel technique using a single antenna for direction of arrival (DOA) estimation of broadband microwave signals. We designed and fabricated a microstrip-leaky-wave receiving antenna, which has good matching and reasonable radiation efficiency in the frequency range of interest: 2 - 3.5 GHz. Because the frequency response of the antenna is strongly incident-angle dependent, by using the spectral information at the antenna, we are able to estimate the DOA of a broadband microwave signal with a high degree of accuracy. Simulations and experiments show that the proposed technique enables good DOA estimation performance within a 90˚ range.
    • Performance Analysis of Zero Forcing and Minimum Mean Square Error Equalizers on Multiple Input Multiple Output System on a Spinning Vehicle

      Kosbar, Kurt; Kulkarni, Aditya; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      Channel equalizers based on minimum mean square error (MMSE) and zero forcing (ZF) criteria have been formulated for a general scalable multiple input multiple output (MIMO) system and implemented for a 2x2 MIMO system with spatial multiplexing (SM) for Rayleigh channel associated with additive white Gaussian noise. A model to emulate transmitters and receivers on a spinning vehicle has been developed. A transceiver based on the BLAST architecture is developed in this work. A mathematical framework to explain the behavior of the ZF and MMSE equalizers is formulated. The performance of the equalizers has been validated for a case with one of the communication entities being a spinning aero vehicle. Performance analysis with respect to variation of angular separation between the antennas and relative antenna gain for each case is presented. Based on the simulation results a setup with optimal design parameters for placement of antennas, choice of the equalizers and transmit power is proposed.
    • Video Bus Integrated Telemetry System

      Diehl, Michael; Kuipers, Steven; Swain, Jason; Tiaden, Ryan; Nelson, Wil; Wilcos, Tab; U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) personnel developed the Video Bus Integrated Telemetry System (VBITS) for air delivery testing at YPG. The system consists of a common rack for mounting both video and telemetry equipment, which makes installation easier and more time efficient. Prior to the one-rack concept, the video, TSPI, and telemetry were all installed as separate entities competing for space, power, and time. Requirements to downlink High-Definition (HD) video from the aircraft prompted research into technological improvements in transmitters, onboard encoders, and recorders. These advances allowed the integration of video, analog sensors, and aircraft bus data into a single telemetry stream. Future advancements will include combining multiple HD video sources in a single downlink.
    • On the Application of Time-Reversed Space-Time Block Code to Aeronautical Telemetry

      Rice, Michael; Afran, Md. Shah; Saquib, Mohammed; Brigham Young University; University of Texas at Dallas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      Generalized time-reversed space-time block codes (GTR-STBC) are introduced as a conceptual tool to examine the impact of unequal power allocation in aeronautical telemetry channels. Two transmitting antennas are employed to exploit partial channel state information. GTR-STBC are observed to perform the best trade-off between the signal-to-noise ratio and inter symbol interference. It is also observed that the optimum transmitter power profile for the measured channel is significantly different than that in the statistical channel model.
    • A Modular and Extensible User Interface for the Telemetry and Control of a Remotely Operated Vehicle

      Kosbar, Kurt; Morrow, Tyler; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      This paper discusses the rover engagement display (RED), an application that integrates network communication, control systems, numerical and visual analysis of telemetry, and a graphical user interface for communicating with the embedded systems of a remote vehicle. The target vehicle is a wheeled rover participating in the University Rover Challenge, a competition that observes the performance of rovers in an environment similar to that of the planet Mars. Communication with the rover occurs via a TCP connection and messages adhere to a simple protocol. The RED user interface is visually modular in an attempt to provide additional scalability and extensibility. Control algorithms, user interface design concepts, and code architecture (C#) are discussed.
    • Synchronous Data Pathing: Synchronous Data Bandwidth Requirements and Its Impact on Telemetry Systems

      Uhland, Greg; U.S. Air Force (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      With industry standard synchronous data, the clock is effectively over twice the rate of the data (Figure 1.). The resultant problem is increased synchronous infrastructure bandwidth requirements and/or costly system architectures designed to avoid transport of synchronous data. This paper will discuss a potential solution.
    • LED Communication Using a High Speed Digital Camera

      Borah, Deva K.; Curry, Elam; Perez-Ramirez, Javier; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      An optical communication system using a light-emitting diode (LED) as a transmitter and a high speed digital camera as a receiver is considered. The camera collects data at a rate of 1,200 frames per second (FPS). The pixel values are then processed using equal gain combining (EGC), best pixel selection (BPS), and maximal ratio combining (MRC) techniques. The bit error rate (BER) performance of these techniques is analyzed, and the effect of using different numbers of pixels for receiver processing is considered. The effect of the camera's pixel grid being at an angle with respect to the LED's direct path is experimentally explored.
    • Moving Object Detection Based on Ordered Dithering Codebook Model

      Guo, Jing-Ming; Thinh, Nguyen Van; Lee, Hua; National Taiwan University of Science and Technology; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      This paper presents an effective multi-layer background modeling method to detect moving objects by exploiting the advantage of novel distinctive features and hierarchical structure of the Codebook (CB) model. In the block-based structure, the mean-color feature within a block often does not contain sufficient texture information, causing incorrect classification especially in large block size layers. Thus, the Binary Ordered Dithering (BOD) feature becomes an important supplement to the mean RGB feature In summary, the uniqueness of this approach is the incorporation of the halftoning scheme with the codebook model for superior performance over the existing methods.
    • High-Performance Tomographic Imaging and Applications

      Lee, Hua; Wang, Yuan-Fang; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      Tomographic imaging systems utilize various probing waveforms, such as microwaves, acoustic and ultrasound, and light, for different application objectives. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of various tomographic imaging systems operating in different modalities of mono-static, bi-static, and multi-static format in both transmission and reflection modes. Tomographic acoustic microscopy, ground-penetrating radar imaging, synthetic-aperture sonar imaging, 3D medical endoscopy and terrain survey are included as direct examples of the imaging technology, with historical overview, physical modeling and system analysis, and experiments.
    • Tracking Track Targets in External Store Separation Using Computer Vision

      Kusomoto, André Yoshimi; de Vasconcelos, Luis Edwardo Guarino; Leite, Nelson Paiva Oliveira; Lopes, Cristina Monis Araújo; Pirk, Rogério; Instituto de Pesquisas e Ensaios em Voo; Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2014-10)
      Flight tests and flight safety are tightly coupled. For a given experimental test flight, the main objective to be achieved is related to the test bed and crew integrity (i.e. Bring back the test bed in one piece). Furthermore, the aircraft operational safety (i.e. continued airworthiness) relies into the accuracy of gathered information, provided by the airborne Flight Test Instrumentation (FTI) system. Typically, the FTI system includes: a data acquisition system; a transmission system; a data recorder; multiple sensors and auxiliary equipment such as Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Receiver. In a specific Flight Test Campaign (FTC), such as external stores separation FTC, the associated risk is high because the non-linear and unpredicted aerodynamics couplings between the released store and the aircraft structure (e.g. wings) could lead to a catastrophic collision condition. Typically, the setup for such FTC is a big technical challenge for the instrumentation group because the determination of six degrees of freedom (6Dof) trajectory of the release store becomes mandatory. Such information could be by the means of an optical tracking system that requires the integration of two or more hi-speed hi-resolution video cameras into FTI. Unfortunately, the FTI and the Real-Time Telemetry Link (RTL) limited bandwidth imposes several restrictions for the development and implementation of a real-time application to be used at the Ground Telemetry System (GTS) for the verification of the separation safety and the validation of the test point. This paper, presents the implementation of computer vision techniques and Camshift algorithm as an approach to tracking individual track targets on the store surface which can be perform onboard and in real time or near real time. The development of the algorithm is presented as well several experimental test results that use videos frames gathered from previous FTC executed by Instituto de Pesquisas e Ensaios em Voo (Flight Test and Research Institute - IPEV). Preliminary results present satisfactory performance.