• A New Approach to Effective Digital Filter Design

      Duncan, P. H.; Douglas Aircraft Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1965-05)
      In this paper the effect of modifying digital filter weights derived on a least squares error basis through multiplication by certain weighting functions is investigated. It is shown that this approach amounts to adopting frequency resolution as a filter performance criterion, in a manner analogous to resolution in spectral estimates along the lines of Blackman and Tukey. Weight formulation using the method is very simple, and working transfer functions are easily estimated without computation. Simple, effective designs are presented for low, high and band-pass (or band-stop) filters of the "cosine" or in-phase type, for cosine "low low-pass" and "sampling" filters, and for "sine" or quadrature "sampling" filters, as well as differentiators.
    • A New Approach to Solid-State Communicator Design

      Schoenwetter, H. K.; General Devices, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1965-05)
      An electronic commutator is described which employs only two types of modules and is expandable one channel at a time. Either high or low level commutators can be constructed. Data input circuits are completely isolated from gating voltages. Power per channel is 10 milliwatts; volume, 0.4 cubic inch. Commutator modules are suitable for air/spacecraft environments.
    • New Techniques in Telemetry Data Processing for the Apollo/Saturn S-II Program

      Moore, Paul D.; Frederickson, Water G.; North American Aviation, Inc.; Radiation Incorporated (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1965-05)
      The Apollo/Saturn S-II telemetry data processing systems are described from concept through development and fabrication. The systems are large-scale, dual computer-controlled systems that accept PCM, PAM, PDM, FM/FM, and FM data and are capable of processing raw data for display as time-history digital plots, tabulations, or oscillograph recordings. Stored-program decommutators which eliminate distribution patchboards for each data word are integrated into the system, thus, providing a flexible means of routing data with a minimum of human error. High-speed digital plotter/printers produce final annotated plots of selected channels for engineering reports, Small general-purpose computers are integrated in the system to establish data flow discipline. The computers function as an entry for operation control and for preparation and loading information to all programmable equipment, interconnecting digital equipment, process monitoring, and diagnostic testing of subsystem operation. Versatility of computer or manual systems control provides an optimum telemetry data processing environment. Advanced techniques are briefly discussed as related to these and other telemetry data processing systems.
    • A Novel PMCM System for Geophysical Research

      Toney, P. A.; Walter, J. M.; Dynatronics, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1965-05)
      The concepts leading to development of an inexpensive digital data acquisition system employing novel Pulse-Morse Code Modulation and providing accuracy comparable to that of PCM are discussed. The several system-level and circuit-level considerations permitting the complete elimination of separate signal conditioning equipment and receiving-site synchronization, recording and processing equipment are presented. Finally, there is a brief commentary on future applications of the device and suggestions for related work.
    • The Operational Pre-D for the Atlantis Missile Range

      Shollenberger, George D.; Defense Electronics, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1965-05)
      This newly-developed receiving and predetection recording system currently being integrated into the Atlantic Missile Range should prove of considerable interest to the telemetry systems engineer. The system, designated TRKI-12, will become part of the familiar "Range Rehabilitation Program." The TRKI-12 is capable of handling up to twelve simultaneous telemetry signals of any known or projected telemetry format. Frequency-translation methods used enable recording and reproduction of high bit-rate PCM and other wide-bandwidth signals with minimum distortion. A wideband FM recording method gives true DC to 500-kc bandwidth recordings. The system incorporates a diversity reception and combining concept enabling optimum combination of telemetry data from diversity antenna systems without undesirable byproducts or need for special phase-correction. The description herein, which includes design constraints and limitations for a system of this type, should yield information of concern to the range user and should be especially useful in establishing efficient and economical range interfaces.
    • An Operational Test Instrument for PCM Bit Synchronizers/Signal Conditioners

      Cumings, R. G.; Davies, R. A.; Defense Electronics, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1965-05)
      The application for a device which will effectively test a PCM bit synchronizer/signal conditioner is described. The general requirements for a bit synchronizer analyzer are listed and some of the problems in implementing these requirements are discussed, including some problems relating to PCM signal conditioners. A description of an instrument capable of performing the required measurements is given.
    • Optimization of Potentiometric Type Pressure Transducers

      Welsh, Luther; Marks, Eugene A.; Bourns, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1965-05)
      Potentiometric pressure transducer designs can be optimized to allow application of a given model or family to a very wide range of pressures with consistently low static error band. Analytical and empirical design relationships are developed and correlated to suggest specific optimization techniques.
    • Propagation Characteristics of the Space Channel

      Baghdady, Elie J.; ADCOM, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1965-05)
      A discussion is provided of the propagation phenomena, and their associated disturbances, that have been observed to cause significant degradation of the performance of space instrumentation and communication links.
    • A Radiation Hardened L-Band Telemetry Transmitter

      Butler, Dan M.; Ling-Temco-Vought, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1965-05)
      The advent of requirements for nuclear radiation hardened telemetering components is accompanied by numerous technological problems. Future vehicles may impose severe environmental problems on a telemetering transmitter, as well as the need for relatively high r. f. power output. This paper describes the development of a nuclear radiation hardened telemetry transmitter, designed for operation in the 1435-1535 MC/S band at a nominal 100 W average R.F. power. The development phases covered in the paper consist of (1) design and radiation test of three low power transmitter exciters, (2) design and test of three transmitters, including the 100 W power amplifier and circuit modifications as dictated by radiation test, and (3) change in selection of the final R. F. tube. The paper includes a description of the resultant developmental transmitter, some comments on the major radiation effects problems, and some of the considerations in the radiation test of the transmitter. The author concludes with current status remarks.
    • Receiver Noise Factor

      Hildner, Ernest G.; National Bureau of Standards (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1965-05)
      The Institute of Radio Engineers definition of receiver noise factor is reviewed and adopted for this paper. The definition’s implications are explored. CW-and dispersed-signal source measurement techniques are discussed and the mathematical base for each method is displayed. The quantities which must be measured in each method are pointed out with the respective advantages and disadvantages. It is concluded that the dispersed-signal source measurement technique is simpler than the CW-signal source techniques considered in this paper.
    • Recent Developments Pertaining to Solid-State S-Band Transmitters

      Slone, Sam; Fjeldsteld, Norman B.; Monitor Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1965-05)
      This paper discusses the performance of some recent R. F. power transistors as frequency multipliers and relates this information to their use in solid state V. H. F. and U. H. F. Telemetry Transmitters. The step-recovery diode is - similarly discussed. Both devices are shown to have great promise for ultimately lowering the complexity, size, and price of Solid State S Band and L Band Telemetry Transmitters.
    • Research and Development Work on Personal Telemetry Systems

      Marko, Adolf R.; Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1965-05)
    • Rocket Trajectory Analysis from Telemetered Acceleration and Attitude Data

      Cooper, Oscar L.; Research Foundation, Oklahoma State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1965-05)
      Double integration of the longitudinal acceleration of a sounding rocket is useful as a simple means of determining its trajectory. Reasonably accurate altitude calculations can be made by this method except when surface winds alter the launch angle of the rocket. Surface wind velocity corrections can be introduced to correct velocity and position information in the horizontal direction, but accurate wind correction data is difficult to obtain for all rockets. A special solar aspect sensor was designed to be used with a commercially available magnetic aspect sensor for rocket attitude determination. This attitude data allows the longitudinal acceleration to be broken more accurately into three vector components. A feasibility study of the aspect system was made using three Aerobee-150 rockets. A digital computer trajectory program was written to utilize aspect and acceleration data for trajectory analysis. It is evident that rocket attitude data is a useful supplement to the longitudinal acceleration data for trajectory determination. More accurate magnetic aspect data is necessary, however, to refine the longitudinal acceleration technique.
    • A Single-Transistor, L-Band Telemetering Transmitter

      D'Elio, C.; Poole, J.; RCA Electronic Components and Devices (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1965-05)
    • A Six-Channel Physiological Telemetering System

      Robrock, R. B., II; Ko, W. H.; Case Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1965-05)
      A six channel FM/FM physiological telemetering system was designed to measure two surface temperatures, an internal temperature, the respiration rate, and position and muscle spasm of a paralyzed patient. Tunnel diode subcarrier oscillators operating from a constant-current source provided excellent temperature and long term stability while permitting a complete transmission package with size 0.6" x 2.5" x 2.5" and weight 15 gm. A compatible transistorized receiving system was also constructed.
    • A Solid-State Microwave Relay System

      Beanland, Charles J.; Microwave Associates, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1965-05)
      The paper outlines the design parameters and system performance of a solid-state microwave relay equipment. The design is suitable for the transmission of television signals, multichannel telephony and wideband data information. Circuit techniques are described and illustrative numbers quoted for an equipment operating in the 2 KMc/s microwave relay band.
    • Standards Re-evaluation for Wideband Magnetic Tape Recording

      Ratner, Vic A.; Defense Electronics, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1965-05)
    • Subminiature Inductive Transducers used with High Carrier Frequencies

      Straugh, H.; Associated Engineering, Ltd. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1965-05)
      This paper describes the development and construction of subminiature inductive transducers which can be operated with carrier frequencies up to 400 Kcs. Two types have been developed for operation at 150°C which are able to withstand an acceleration of 2000g, and a high-temperature (600°C) transducer is now in the final stage of development. The body of the low-temperature transducer is made of high-temperature epoxy resin, and that of the high-temperature transducer of ceramic material. Iron wire is used as core material to reduce eddy current losses. The dimensions of the transducers are 0.25 inch diameter and 0.5 inch long, and 0.125 inch diameter and 0.25 inch long, including terminations. A linear displacement of the armature material can be measured at distances up to 0.01 inch, and because of the high carrier frequency, the vibration of this armature can be up to 30 Kcs. Both ferrous and non-ferrous armature material can be used for displacement measurement. The inductive transducers have been used to measure piston movement at right angles to the cylinder axis in an internal combustion engine, in conjunction with a lead-out system. Tests using a telemetry system (radio link) are now being carried out. Details of the construction and performance are described and future development discussed. The use of the inductive transducer as a pressure transducer is also mentioned.
    • Telemetering Physiologic Data from Athletes

      Rose, Kenneth D.; University of Nebraska (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1965-05)
      Employing a team composed of physicians, electrical engineers, and specialists in physical education, significant dynamic physiological data has been gathered by means of radiotelemetry from athletes undergoing strenuous effort, participating in team sports, and from spectators viewing football games. Using a transistorized A.M.-F.M. transmitter carried in a padded compartment strapped comfortably onto the low back and weighing 30 oz. complete, ECG, pulse, temperature and respiration signals have been transmitted for distances up to 500 yards. The multiple technical problems surrounding distance telemetering of physiological information during active and vigorous muscular effort are discussed. Somatic muscle interference, the most troublesome artefact in dynamic electrocardiography, has been successfully circumvented by instantaneous recording of data from the momentarily inactive subject. Application of computer techniques to the analysis of exercise electrocardiograms must await procedural improvement and standardization and collection of adequate data on which to base valid programming.
    • Telemetry for 250,000-G Gun Environment

      Finger, Daniel W.; Harry Diamond Laboratories (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1965-05)
      Techniques for packaging telemetry components and systems to withstand gun launch accelerations up to 250,000-g are discussed, and the necessary and sufficient conditions for survival are established. The principal requirements are that all voids be eliminated from the package and that encapsulating resins be adequately contained. The ultra-high-g projectiles used in hypervelocity research for which these telemeters were designed are briefly described. In addition, a brief description is given of high-g telemetry systems used in the gun-fired rockets and projectiles of project HARP.