Traffic Signal Control
Systems & Industrial Engineering
AdvisorHead, K. Larry
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractSignal control systems have experienced tremendous development both in hardware and in control strategies in the past 50 years since the advent of the first electronic traffic signal control device. The state-of-art real-time signal control strategies rely heavily on infrastructure-based sensors, including in-pavement or video based loop detectors for data collection. With the emergence of connected vehicle technology, mobility applications utilizing vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) communications enable the intersection to acquire a much more complete picture of the nearby vehicle states. Based on this new source of data, traffic controllers should be able to make "smarter" decisions. This dissertation investigates the traffic signal control strategies in a connected vehicle environment considering mobility as well as safety. A system architecture for connected vehicle based signal control applications under both a simulation environment and in the real world has been developed. The proposed architecture can be applied to applications such as adaptive signal control, signal priority including transit signal priority (TSP), freight signal priority (FSP), emergency vehicle preemption, and integration of adaptive signal control and signal priority. Within the framework, the trajectory awareness of connected vehicles component processes and stores the connected vehicle data from Basic Safety Message (BSM). A lane level intersection map that represents the geometric structure was developed. Combined with the map and vehicle information from BSMs, the connected vehicles can be located on the map. Some important questions specific to connected vehicle are addressed in this component. A geo-fencing area makes sure the roadside equipment (RSE) receives the BSM from only vehicles on the roadway and within the Dedicated Short-range Communications (DSRC) range. A mechanism to maintain anonymity of vehicle trajectories to ensure privacy is also developed. Vehicle data from the trajectory awareness of connected vehicles component can be used as the input to a real-time phase allocation algorithm that considers the mobility aspect of the intersection operations. The phase allocation algorithm applies a two-level optimization scheme based on the dual ring controller in which phase sequence and duration are optimized simultaneously. Two objective functions are considered: minimization of total vehicle delay and minimization of queue length. Due to the low penetration rate of the connected vehicles, an algorithm that estimates the states of unequipped vehicles based on connected vehicle data is developed to construct a complete arrival table for the phase allocation algorithm. A real-world intersection is modeled in VISSIM to validate the algorithms. Dangerous driving behaviors may occur if a vehicle is trapped in the dilemma zone which represents one safety aspect of signalized intersection operation. An analytical model for estimating the number of vehicles in dilemma zone (NVDZ) is developed on the basis of signal timing, arterial geometry, traffic demand, and driving characteristics. The analytical model of NVDZ calculation is integrated into the signal optimization to perform dilemma zone protection. Delay and NVDZ are formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem addressing efficiency and safety together. Examples show that delay and NVDZ are competing objectives and cannot be optimized simultaneously. An economic model is applied to find the minimum combined cost of the two objectives using a monetized objective function. In the connected vehicle environment, the NVDZ can be calculated from connected vehicle data and dilemma zone protection is integrated into the phase allocation algorithm. Due to the complex nature of traffic control systems, it is desirable to utilize traffic simulation in order to test and evaluate the effectiveness and safety of new models before implementing them in the field. Therefore, developing such a simulation platform is very important. This dissertation proposes a simulation environment that can be applied to different connected vehicle related signal control applications in VISSIM. Both hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) and software-in-the-loop (SIL) simulation are used. The simulation environment tries to mimic the real world complexity and follows the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J2735 standard DSRC messaging so that models and algorithms tested in the simulation can be directly applied in the field with minimal modification. Comprehensive testing and evaluation of the proposed models are conducted in two simulation networks and one field intersection. Traffic signal priority is an operational strategy to apply special signal timings to reduce the delay of certain types of vehicles. The common way of serving signal priority is based on the "first come first serve" rule which may not be optimal in terms of total priority delay. A priority system that can serve multiple requests with different priority levels should perform better than the current method. Traditionally, coordination is treated in a different framework from signal priority. However, the objectives of coordination and signal priority are similar. In this dissertation, adaptive signal control, signal priority and coordination are integrated into a unified framework. The signal priority algorithm generates a feasible set of optimal signal schedules that minimize the priority delay. The phase allocation algorithm considers the set as additional constraints and tries to minimize the total regular vehicle delay within the set. Different test scenarios including coordination request, priority vehicle request and combination of coordination and priority requests are developed and tested.
Degree ProgramGraduate College
Systems & Industrial Engineering