• Factors Limiting UHF Telemetry Systems Operation

      Gong, H.; Herman, R. T.; Konop, P. L.; The Mitre Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1966-10)
      Demands on the use of that portion of the radio spectrum from 225 MHz to 400 MHz for military tactical operations have made it necessary to vacate the VHF telemetry band from 215 MHz to 260 MHz by I January 1970 and to convert such operations to UHF telemetry bands from 1435 MHz to 1540 MHz and 2200 MHz to 2300 MHz. The environmental, physical, and practical limitations imposed on telemetry system performance when operation is moved from VHF to UHF are described in this paper. The topics which are discussed include path loss, multipath, flame plasma effects, expected Doppler shift and Doppler rates, natural noise limitation, UHF transmitter power and stability, receiving system noise figures, airborne antennas and ground antennas. UHF telemetry operation in support of missions for aircraft, ballistic, orbital, and deep-space vehicles is evaluated mainly through a comparison with similar operations at VHF. The results of this study show that there are no technological factors which limit the instrumentation of an adequate UHF conversion.
    • A Compatible Double Sideband/Single Sideband/Constant Bandwidth FM Telemetry System for Wideband Data

      Frost, W. O.; Emens, F. H.; Williams, R.; Marshall Space Flight Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1966-10)
      This paper reviews the telemetry problems involved in transmission of wideband phenomena such as shock, vibration, and acoustic measurements. Three approaches to this problem have recently received considerable attention from the telemetry community: SS/FM, DSB/FM, and constant bandwidth FM/FM. The relative capabilities and limitations of these three techniques are discussed and their S/N performance and r-f bandwidth utilization efficiency are compared. An arrangement whereby the three techniques may be flexibly intermixed on a single RF carrier is then described. Examination and consideration of the merits of this arrangement as a future standard telemetry technique is proposed.
    • Channel Noise - A Limiting Factor on the Performance of a Class of Adaptive Techniques

      Raga, Gerald L.; Electro-Mechanical Research Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1966-10)
      The effects of channel noise on a class of adaptive sampling techniques based on the concept of removal of redundant data samples were investigated. Assuming a system of fixed bandwidth and fixed transmitter power, the channel noise forces the adaptive system to operate at a lower bit error probability than the equivalent PGM system since in the adaptive system each transmitted bit represents more information. This limitation was partially overcome by adding error criterion of unequal weighting to the data which enabled the system to operate at essentially the same bit error probability as the PCM system with a net coding efficiency greater than the coding efficiency of the error-correction code. Experimental results from subjective tests, and the RMS error demonstrate that a new error criterion must be developed for the class of adaptive techniques.
    • A User Controlled Test Data Computing System

      Fink, A. J.; Boeing Aerospace Group (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1966-10)
      Test data systems have not yet fully capitalized on the use of digital computers for the handling of test and test related data. Advancements in computing technology will make it possible to improve total efficiency of test information systems by coupling data sources to data users through remote terminals connected directly to large timesharing computing systems. The concepts which can be applied to effecting this coupling are described.
    • A Report on the Application of Data Abbreviation on Actual Range Telemetry Data

      Maestre, N. E.; Radio Corporation of America (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1966-10)
      The growing interest in the practical applications of data abbreviation and compaction to efficiently handle large quantities of significant information have led to numerous investigations and studies of this discipline. Although there is great potential in both the airborne and ground applications, it is primarily the latter that led RCA to initial independent data abbreviation and compaction studies. It is the purpose of this report to present results of the practical application of data abbreviation to actual telemetry data recorded on magnetic tapes. The presentation will include the affects of routine parameters, the amount of redundancy information removal, and, the reduction in processing time and recording facilities. Even though these studies involved the use of telemetry data from a mission that has already occurred, the need for the inclusion of data abbreviation devices into the existing ranges to process data in real time is becoming more apparent.
    • Requirement for a Data Quality Assurance Program

      Nichols, M. H. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1966-10)
      The requirement for a Data Quality Assurance Program for telemetry ground station operations is outlined. Examples are given for frequency division and time division formats to demonstrate that a practical and meaningful program is within the state-of-the-art and in fact that the basic modules have already been developed for commercial communication systems. A program is recommended for expansion of the IRIG Standards to include performance criteria and specifications of end-to-end ground station tests for determining that the criteria are satisfied for each mission.
    • Magnetic Recording of Radar Data

      Young, Ronald E.; Ampex Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1966-10)
      The methods presently utilized for magnetic recording of radar data are explained with reference to basic radar types. The PPI radar has a time continuous video signal and generally requires a transient free recorder of moderate data bandwidth. In addition, means must be provided to record the azimuth information in either synchro, sine-cosine or digital form. Such means are available and recommended approaches for each type of data are given. Time discontinuous radar such as the missile tracking monopulse group may utilize recorders normally designed for video service if certain pulse spacing criteria are observed. The wider data bandwidth of this type of signal makes the use of rotary head recorders mandatory. There are many applications for radar recording. Some of those described include operator training, debriefing and scoring and operational evaluation of the radar facility. The radar recorder can be a significant aid in data analysis for signature determination of satellites and planetary mapping. The radar recorder also furnishes a close facsimile of the operating radar signal for system evaluation when there are no targets to observe or when the main radar is shut down for any reason. As an illustration of the application of magnetic recording to the radar system an airborne data acquisition recorder is described along with a companion ground reproducer. These two units are presently in use in the evaluation of an airborne radar system and offer significant advantages over previously available recording equipment. The development of time base stable magnetic tape recorders capable of handling data bandwidth in excess of 5 MHz has added another facet to the instrumentation field - that of recording radar data on a real time basis for analysis at a later time. The discussion that follows illustrates the methods used in magnetic recording of radar data and cites a typical recording system.
    • Telemetry System Design for Saturn Vehicles

      Frost, W. O.; Norvell, D. E.; Marshall Space Flight Center; The Boeing Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1966-10)
      This paper discusses the data system requirements for large space vehicles and describes a flexible telemetry system design which is used on all stages of the Saturn IB and Saturn V vehicles. The basic vehicle telemetry design provides standard assembly building blocks forming a versatile catalogue of parts from which a stage telemetry subsystem may be assembled to meet almost any conceivable monitoring requirement. In addition to its inflight monitoring function, the telemetry subsystem also provides real time data acquisition for automatic vehicle checkout.
    • PCM Transmission with Minimum Mean-Square Error

      Clark, G. C.; Totty, R. E.; Radiation Incorporated (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1966-10)
      One source of error in PCM transmission of analog waveform is the bit errors made in the binary sequences representing a particular level. Using a mean-square error criterion, the contribution of this (channel) error to the overall reconstruction error is examined. In particular, general simplified error expressions are derived for arbitrary sequence assignments including error correcting coding. Results are given for the power gain resulting from use of several error correcting codes. The criterion used here is mean-square error (rather than word probability of error) and the coded sequence is constrained to occupy the same time interval as the uncoiled sequence.
    • Desired Telemetry System Characteristics for Shock, Vibration, and Acoustic Measurements

      Himielblau, Harry; Subcommittee G-5.9 on Telemetry Requirements; SAE Committee G-5 on Aerospace Shock & Vibration (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1966-10)
      For over a decade structural dynamicists and acousticians have registered general dissatisfaction concerning the limitations of telemetry systems, especially the insufficient number of channels and insufficient data bandwidths. To spell out the users' need for present and future telemetry, a representative group of dynamicists was organized under the SAE. Requirements for number of channels per flight, data bandwidths, minimum dynamic range (with stationary and transient data signals considered separately), certain accuracy, phase and other characteristics were established. The subcommittee is hopeful that this information will spur the telemetry community into developing and standardizing on new systems with superior characteristics.
    • New Concepts for Telemetry Converters

      Friend, Larry; Motorola, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1966-10)
      Future requirements to convert present VHF telemetry receivers to L and S-bands can be satisfied by relatively simple solid state microwave converters. Use of the recently developed Schottky barrier diodes in balanced mixers along with high frequency field effect transistors in the intermediate frequency VHF preamplifiers, show considerable promise of providing low system noise figure (e.g. 5.5 dB) and low intermodulation distortion. These broadband converters have the potential advantages of minimum cost, size, weight, and power consumption, thereby providing a convenient and practical means for converting existing telemetry systems to the new frequency bands. Design considerations and predicted performance characteristics are presented for solid state converters of this type.
    • International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 02 (1966)

      International Foundation for Telemetering, 1966-10
    • UHF Telemetry Systems Design for The Edwards High-Range

      Blakely, R. T.; Bosinoff, I.; Heenan, N. I.; The Mitre Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1966-10)
      A systems design analysis for the Edwards High-Range UHF telemetry receiving station network is described which takes into account reliability, availability, design adequacy, and initial and operating costs. Alternate High-Range configurations investigate the utility of sites using omnidirectional, sector, and steerable antenna systems in both the manned and unmanned modes of operation. In the analysis, reliability, availability, and design adequacy are combined as a measure of system effectiveness in a manner that permits the system design to be selected on the basis of maximum system effectiveness for a given total systems cost. Finally, an operational guideline is presented that permits the future programming of the range operation and expansion to be premised on probable losses incurred due to down-time.
    • Computer Controlled Telemetry Station

      Strock, O. J.; Defense Electronics, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1966-10)
      A telemetry ground station under complete operational control of a general-purpose digital computer is described. The six subsystems which comprise the station are examined in some detail to show the method of control and the flexibility and speed of operation. A specific application is described and other potential applications are explored.
    • Low Level F. E.T. PAM Multicoder

      Gregory, Terence R.; General Devices, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1966-10)
      This paper describes a new all solid state airborne low level PAM multicoder that employs N-channel FET for all the analog switching functions of the system. The unit features a 72KHz true chopper amplifier that affords complete isolation between input and output. This unit is fully developed and went into production in June 1966 offering many advanced features to airborne telemetry system users. Each input channel presents a true differential analog switch into the low level D. C. amplifier. The operating characteristics such as C. M. R. (100 db) out to 1KHz, no D. C. drift or gain-change, and selectable pedestal levels add to ease of operation and flexibility. Heavy use of integrated circuits was also made including monolythics, hybrids and discrete elements. The gating logic, chopper amplifier front end, and carrier amplifier/synchronous demodulator each have a separate power supply winding thus providing excellent isolation for user applications. Mechanical construction employs plug in boards affording ease of manufacture and complete interchangeability of boards between units. The system is discussed as to unique features and techniques necessary to build the unit and satisfy stringent specifications.
    • Application of Walsh Functions to Data Acquisition Systems

      Morton, Walter (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1966-10)
      The Walsh functions are considered with respect to the following system functions: 1. Concise signal representation. 2. Arithmetic operations. 3. Convolution and filtering. 4. Transfer function analysis. 5. Special measurements and functions: 5.1 Phase. 5.2 Digitally controlled function generator (DCFG). 5.3 Power density spectrum. 5.4 Correlation functions. The foregoing operations are required of equipment in the following areas of application: 1. Seismic data processing. 2. Hybrid data systems and simulation studies. 3. Special purpose Instrumentation.
    • A Miniaturized RF Acceleration Measuring System

      Trapp, D. L.; Sandia Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1966-10)
      This paper will describe the design and development of a miniaturized high-shock package utilizing an FM modulated 19.8 mc transmitter and a piezoresistive accelerometer. This program was initiated in October 1965 for the purpose of measuring deceleration profiles generated by small diameter (1-1/4 inch) vehicles that penetrate targets of known composition with input velocities up to 1500 feet per second. Shock levels were anticipated to be in the 0 - 10,000 g range, with rise times varying as a function of projectile ogives and anticipated to be as fast as 100 μsec. The system was designed to an existing volume described by a right circular cylinder, 1 inch in diameter by 6 inches in length, and an allowable volume of 3/4-inch diameter by 4-inches long was allocated for the 19.8 mc transmitting antenna. The first operational usage of this system was in late January 1966.
    • A Scientific Lunar Payload Communications System

      Wilker, L. B.; Space-General Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1966-10)
      Based on the selection of scientific instruments suitable for application to the payload, conceptual designs were synthesized of payload packages, including the supporting subsystems. Parametric and/or conceptual design studies were conducted of such areas as communications. The primary communications link was to be payload to lunar survey probe communication facility carried with the Apollo vehicle, e.g., modified LEM. No burden was to be placed on the basic Apollo communication system. Payload-to-earth link was also to be considered as an alternate mode, particularly for the long duration instrument operation. The communications system described in this report is a natural outgrowth of the mission requirements and presents a realistic approach to a solution of the communications problems. As such, the system described could be readily instrumented, utilizing current state-of-the-art hardware and techniques.
    • A New Analog Magnetic Recording Technique

      Johnson, W. R.; Jorgensen, F.; Fairchild Winston Research (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1966-10)
      The magnetic recording process using ac bias is reviewed and applied in a discussion of recording heads. The difficulties in obtaining a sharp gradient are explained. A new magnetic recording head that overcomes the weaknesses of conventional heads is described and compared with the conventional ring core head. Performance data are listed and show improvement in frequency response, decrease in harmonic and intermodulation distortion, reduced electronics and higher reliability.
    • New Concept in High Reliability Tape Recorders for Spaceborne Data Storage

      Burdorf, D. L.; Kinelogic Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1966-10)
      The need for large bit capacity in on-board data storage for deep-space probes, spacecraft, satellites, and aircraft, has created a requirement for a tape recorder of ultra-high reliability. In an ideal recorder, the conventional capstan would be eliminated and the reels would be driven such that the linear velocity and the tension of the tape between reels would be constant from the beginning to the end of the reel. The heads would also be the only elements in contact with the tape. Reliability would be enhanced by driving the reels, rather than the tape, through a reduction in the number of moving parts. Reducing the number of elements in contact with the tape would also increase tape life. The Iso-Elastic Drive, closely approaches the ideal recorder drive system. The reels are driven by a seamless polyester belt which is in direct contact with the periphery of the tape reel. The belt is driven at constant linear velocity (resulting in low flutter) and in such a manner that it generates a constant tension in the tape connecting the two reels and passing across the heads. Constant tape tension in a high-reliability recorder is necessary in order to optimize 1) tape tracking and guidance, 2) effective bias level on the tape during direct-type recording, 3) playback level, 4) head wear, and 5) drop-outs. The Iso-Elastic Drive reduces the number of moving parts by approximately 30% as compared with conventional recorders. The tape drive has the additional desirable characteristic of operation equally well in either direction.