P. L. Greening; Kinney, T. W.; Shaw, T. R.; HARRIS CORPORATION (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      There are many functions required to command, control and maintain the health and welfare of a meteorological satellite and acquire payload sensor data in a real time scenario. This paper describes the functions and performance of a specific meteorological command/control and telemetry processing system. Further, this paper describes the communications networks which link the various command/control, telemetry, and user ground stations together. A description of the user sensor data is also presented.

      Hellman, C.; Aronson, M.; Tom, N.; Quan, W.; Ford Aerospace & Communications Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      The capability of modern satellite earth terminals has increased, expanded, and benefited from the development and application of both microprocessor and minicomputer components. Microprocessors with intrinsic low cost and capability limited only by the imagination of engineers are now key components in the fundamental communications performance of earth stations. These components are now an integral part of antenna, modem, multiplexers, status and control, and communications control hardware. The concepts of unattended earth stations, remote controlled earth stations, and smart earth stations would not be practical without the availability of microprocessor and minicomputer components. Earth station network control concepts have been developing over the last five years to solve the issue of increasing the utilization of large capital investment in Satellite Communication(SATCOM) systems. The ability to double the communications capacity of a SATCOM system without adding new satellites or earth stations has been proven. Small minicomputers integrated into earth station configurations have made this possible. Microprocessor and minicomputer technology will continue to play an increasingly important and key role in future earth station hardware design and capability. This paper describes some of these applications and speculates on the future role of those components in earth station hardware.

      Post, Cecil C.; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      A microstrip antenna feed developed for a paraboloidal reflector provides simultaneous right circular and left circular polarization and 20 dB sidelobe levels over moderate bandwidths. This arrangement obviates the need for the usual waveguide orthomode transducer and thus decreases the weight of the feed. The basic feed element is a square patch .558λ x .558λ fed at two orthogonally situated coaxial feed points inset 0.118λ from the edge, as described by Millar and Carver (Proceedings 1980 University of Illinois Allerton Antennas Application Symposium).

      Balshem, Harold; Microwave Semiconductor Corp. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      The availability of both silicon bipolar and gallium arsenide field effect microwave power transistors has been responsible for the development and manufacture of relatively high power, reliable, solid state amplifiers from L-band to K-band. Pulse power of a kilowatt at 1 GHz and 100 watts at 3.5 GHz are representative of what is practically achievable in pulse amplifiers while powers of 50 watts at 1.6 GHz, 6 watts at 6 GHz and 1 watt at 13 GHz are similarly representative of CW amplifiers. State-of-the-art development has currently achieved 1 watt at 21 GHz from a single device. Transistor characteristics, design considerations and performance of power amplifiers will be described.

      Weber, E. A.; Science Applications, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)

      Skach, Leonard J.; Oklahoma State University Electronics Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      The “Minitracker” is designed to be a highly portable S-Band autotrack antenna system, to be used to receive telemetry data from sounding rockets launched at remote launch sites when fixed-site telemetry trackers are not available. “Minitracker” uses a single channel mono-pulse RF feed with a four foot parabolic reflector. The tracker can be disassembled into small subassemblies and packed in plastic cases which can easily be shipped by commercial air freight. The controls consist of a 8 3/4" (22.225 cm) X 19" (48.26 cm) X 19" (48.26 cm) control console and an S-Band Receiver. The OSU “TRADAT” system can be used with “Minitracker” to provide trajectory data. This report will consist of a “Minitracker” system description which will include systems performance specifications and simplified circuit descriptions. The operation procedures section will consist primarily of aids in autotrack acquisition of target vehicles, and a brief description of information available when used in conjunction with the OSU built “TRADAT” system.

      Ingersoll, Jim L.; Pacific Missile Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      The Mobile Sea Range (MSR) is a set of portable instrumentation designed to allow Fleet Commanders the flexibility to exercise their forces under realistic conditions in an open ocean environment while providing for safety, exercise control, and accurate data collection for reconstruction and analysis. This instrumentation includes targets which require little or no ground control; the Data Collection System (DCS), a computer based system for correlation and recording of real-time data on a common time base; the Cooperative Tracking System (CTS), an accurate system for tracking and identification of participants; and telemetry receivers aboard ships and aircraft, for the recovery of missile telemetry data. Future developments include an Underwater Tracking System, inclusion of Global Positioning Satellite system data, and use of satellites to enlarge the operations areas and to transmit data to a mainland site for analysis.

      Koelle, D. E.; Kleinau, W.; MBB Space Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      The paper describes a new GEO platform design with the special features of modularity and integrated transfer propulsion. It is a candidate for the 3000 kg-class of communication satellites required for the next decade INTELSAT VII and multi-nation (TVBS). The technical results of a study performed for the German Ministry of Research and Technology (BMFT) are presented regarding the GEO platform and its performance in terms of communication payload and mission lifetime. The reference system design has a total launch mass of 14.3 Mg (metric tons) in LEO including 10.9 Mg transfer propellants mass. The initial mass in CEO is 3.4 Mg allowing for 400 to 700 kg communication equipment, depending on power level, eclipse capability requirements (batteries) and mission lifetime. The launch vehicle for this platform is the Space Shuttle, the associated launch cost would be only 20 Mio. Dollars (1980), without additional cost for any type of perigee or transfer stage. The platform propels itself from LEO (300 km) to the geosynchronous orbit with a 6 impulse transfer, provided by a 5 kN engine (1100 lbs thrust level). This launch mode - although not being the optimum from the performance standpoint - proves to be the most economic one, compared to other alternatives, by example Shuttle + Centaur, with some 52 Mio. Dollars (80) total launch cost.

      Johnson, Russ; Metzler, Tom; Ball Aerospace Systems Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      With the increasing sophistication of telemetry and tracking systems, an omnidirectional antenna plays a major role in assuring adequate telemetry system signal to noise ratio regardless of test platform orientation. However, the increased demands on antenna performance often impact the antenna complexity, size and weight. This paper describes a simple yet extremely rugged antenna designed to conformally mount to a large diameter missile and provide omnidirectional coverage at four discrete frequency bands while minimizing structural impact on the missile.

      Dahl, Ernest A.; NATO PUTTS System (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      The NATO Test Range at Stavanger, Norway permits cold environment testing of NATO Systems, common TLM data processing for many types of missiles, with both ship/shore control as well as evaluation. Figure 1 shows the location.

      Stanley, George V.; Naval Ocean Systems Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      The U.S. Navy makes heavy usage of all segments of the electromagnetic spectrum for such diverse applications as communications, control (positioning) of ships and aircraft, target identification, and passive and active electronic warfare. The density of emitters results in a severe electromagnetic interference (EMI) environment in even a moderate size Battle Force. This environment can preclude usage of spectrum resources unless sophisticated spectrum engineering is performed to alleviate the EMI problems and assure system performance. The Navy’s ability to perform this engineering function in the planning stage of a deployment is historically limited by a lack of data, engineering tools, procedures, and trained personnel with sufficient insight into the problem to perform the needed analyses. Similarly, the ability of the afloat spectrum user to re-engineer the spectrum allocation in the face of changing requirements cannot be accomplished during the operational phase of the mission because of the lack of time, experience, and engineering tools. Recent advances in the development of automated spectrum management tools, methodology, and data management have resulted in the fielding of several automated systems which solve parts of the overall spectrum management problem. The lessons learned from these fielded models, in turn, have led to the development of a set of validated operational requirements and architectures and a subsequent system design for an overall Navy spectrum management system. The architecture is based upon a division of functional responsibilities between ashore support activities performing area-wide management (ashore and afloat), and afloat users managing the actual assigned spectrum with a Battle Group. The SUMS system will have the ability to optimally and efficiently solve large sets of EMI, system performance, and spectrum use engineering problems. The prototype of the system will be fielded during 1982-83 for both ashore area-wide and afloat elements.

      WOOLDRIDGE, FRANCIS R.; NAVY SPACE SYSTEMS ACTIVITY (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      The distribution of environmental data by the Navy Oceanography Command to support worldwide fleet operations is discussed. The fact that these operations are being conducted from platforms which are under sea, on the ocean surface and in the air, forms the basis for a variety of unique distribution methods. The organization of the Naval Oceanography Command is shown along with the fleet units operating with geophysics personnel attached. Methods of distribution include data sources to support the generation of numerical products and tactical operations. Fleet communications links are described including the data processing systems being installed at shore stations and onboard ships.

      Captain Newell, John W.; Naval Electronic Systems Command (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      The significant advantages of quality and capacity, offered by Satellite Communications are now fully recognized throughout the Navy and DOD. Efficient use of the vital UHF SATCOM links is evolving as challenging command and control requirements are being met through micro-processor based system engineering. Extension of Navy SATCOM developments into the SHF and EHF portion of the spectrum offers further advanced capabilities to meet increasing tactical and strategic C³ requirements including anti-jam and LPI wartime capabilities. This paper reviews the several Navy SATCOM programs in being and in development to provide space age improvements in communications for the Fleet.

      Smith, Cassius C.; TRW White Sands Ground Terminal (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) is controlled by a local computer network of nine Digital PDP-11/70s and a Univac 1100/82. Distributed processing of specific software tasks provides for high-speed response to time critical loop support, as well as increased reliability and flexibility of the overall system. Man-machine interface, spacecraft monitor/control and computer failover is supported by the distribution of tasks to specific computers within the network. Altogether, the network support of TDRSS makes possible tremendous increases in capability over conventional satellite ground stations.

      Uhrig, H. K.; European Space Agency (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      The European Space Agency is used to refer to its telemetry, telecommand and tracking stations as ground stations because they do not cover only TT&C as used in the world of telecommunication satellites. At present ESA is erecting a new generation of ground stations. They are not on newly opened sites. Partly they are self-contained stations and partly they are major replacements and upgradings of subsystems of existing stations. The design of all of these stations follows a common modular concept by breaking it down into subsystems which correspond to the functional tasks a station has to perform. The organisation of this paper is as follows : Section 2 describes the task of the ground station, Section 3 is concerned with its system breakdown, Section 4 outlines those modules which are common to all new ground stations, Section 5 lists briefly the sites and the stations found there and Section 6 tries to provide an outlook on the forthcoming development.

      Birch, J. N.; Birch Associates, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      The DoD is planning a new Mil Sat Com Program, one which will provide the U.S. Military with a capability to maintain the peace or if need be, fight a war.

      Perschy, James A.; Johns Hopkins Road (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      Two computers, utilized on-board the Navy satellites NOVA, launched in May 1981, and GEOSAT, to be launched in early 1984, are reviewed. The NOVA computer is an extension of the TRIAD design presented at the 1972 Government Microcircuit Applications Conference. The NOVA computer is the third generation digital data handling system for the Navy Transit Navigation Satellites. Covered in this paper is the computer architecture, hardware design, and relation to other satellite systems. The design of the NOVA computer software and its in-orbit performance is covered in a companion paper. The NOVA computer is an integral part of the on-board data handling system. It formats the Transit navigation message, stores and analyzes telemetry, and executes commands to extend the autonomous operation time of the satellite. The GEOSAT computer is a signal processor for a satellite born radar altimeter. It is an extension of the SEASAT-A design presented at the 1977 JBIS Symposium on Computer Techniques for Satellite Control and Data Processing. Its principal design feature is the incorporation of a microprocessor. The GEOSAT computer performs return signal acquisition, range tracking, receiver gain control, calibration, ocean wave height estimation, telemetry formatting, and command decoding. This paper gives a brief description of the GEOSAT computer functional performance, hardware, and software.

      Mirugesan, S.; Rao, C. Kameswara; Shanmugam, C.N.; Goel, P.S.; ISRO Satellite Centre (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      APPLE, India’s first three axis stabilised communication satellite, was launched by the ARIANE launcher on June 19,1981. The communication payload operates in C-band (4-6 GHz) and facilitates experiments in communication technology and its applications. Attitude and Orbit control System (AOCS) of APPLE, whose on orbit performance is satisfactory despite the non deployment of one of the solar panels, is briefly described. Various functions on the Attitude Control Electronics (ACE) are described with details on processing schemes for Pulsewidth Pulse Frequency Modulator, Yaw error computation using hybrid SINE convertor, Magnetic torquer control and Thruster selection. Further, future trends in onboard processing for communication satellites are highlighted.

      Whisnant, J. Miller; Jenkins, Robert E.; Utterback, Harry K.; The Johns Hopkins University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      A major hardware change to the TRANSIT Navy Navigation Satellite System (NNSS) is underway. A new generation of satellites called NOVA are being built which have onboard a general purpose minicomputer, high precision clock, orbit adjustment system (OATS), and disturbance compensation system (DISCOS). This paper describes the software and processing for the on-board computer. The software is a system of interrupt driven, real-time programs which perform various data management and control functions and allows great flexibility in the operation of the satellite. In addition to loading special programs and data and dumping specified regions of memory, data management includes loading and then retransmitting navigation message data and collection of both telemetry (TM) data and DISCOS thruster firing data. Through its interface with the spacecraft TM and command systems, the on-board computer also serves as a powerful control device, especially in the orbit adjust phase immediately after launch. It has already been demonstrated with a previous version of these satellites that this highly flexible software system can be quickly reconfigured after launch to recover from failures to other satellite hardware systems. Also described in this paper are other satellite subsystems which interact with the flight computer and the system of ground support computers and software.

      Davies, R.S.; Chethik, F.; Kota, S.L.; Ford Aerospace & Communications Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      Future satellite networks may include satellites that provide multiple uplink and downlink coverage antenna beams together with signal processing subsystems. Where the number of earth terminals is large and the traffic is diffuse, efficient methods for routing signals need to be developed. This paper addresses the switching and routing processes for both long term connections (stream traffic) and short messages (burst traffic). Onboard routing appears most efficient for burst traffic where as stream traffic is best handled by means of a ground based traffic controller. An integrated control system concept is suggested together with access and multiplex formats to accommodate mixed traffic.