• STATE-OF-THE-ART ASSESMENT OF IN SITU CALIBRATION EQUIPMENT

      Webb, Roger L.; Science Applications, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      Automated Calibration Systems (ACS) represent the state-of-the-art in calibration of test measurement and diagnostic of equipment (TMDE). The features and capabilities of two systems in use by the U.S. Navy are discussed in this paper. The Centrally Operated System for Metrology Information Control (COSMIC) and the Metrology Equipment Calibration and Control Analysis (MECCA) system are being developed to greatly reduce the cost of calibrating a very large inventory of test equipment at sites around the world. The benefits of an in situ calibration capability has been demonstrated at the Naval Calibration Laboratory, Tustin, California, where these calibration systems have been integrated with online databases. Future advances are anticipated through simpler human interfaces and higher throughput rates. The in situ systems now coming into use offer significant material, calibration and repair cost savings. Improved calibration support will benefit most telemetry, communication, and weapon systems.
    • SPEECH PERFORMANCE TESTS FOR VOICE PROCESSORS

      Uzdy, Z.; The Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      Voice processors, including those using linear predictive coding (LPC) algorithms, are becoming more prevalent in communication systems. Several intelligibility and speaker recognition tests were used to evaluate two currently available LPC voice processors. Both text-dependent and text-independent techniques were developed. The tests are aimed at potential users, yielding quantitative data that permit performance comparisons both of systems and of human speakers and listeners.
    • AUTOMATED DIAGNOSTIC SUPPORT FOR TMDE

      Murphy, Carl; Science Applications, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      Modern requirements for TMDE system diagnostics have led to the use of advanced computer testing methods which provide increased diagnostics power to the engineer and expanded functional operations for technicians. This paper describes these advanced computer testing methods of using hardware computer bus monitors which are human interfaced to allow routine operation and use of complicated computer and peripheral diagnostics by relatively low-training level technicians. This is a diagnostics support system which provides significant value through the human engineering, assurance of fix, and readiness of equipment. Real-time diagnostics monitoring during system operation is an operational feature which is discussed.
    • TELEMETRY SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE

      Campbell, Alan B.; ABC Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      All orderly software development proceeds through the phases of a predictable life cycle. This behavior is characteristic of telemetry software development, also. Each phase of the life cycle is definable in terms of specific milestones. Understanding the life cycle is crucial for accurate estimation of time and effort, as well as for producing reliable software on time and within budget.
    • SOFTWARE IN DRONE CONTROL

      Shaver, Robert L.; Sandia National Laboratories (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      High performance multi-use drones require complex control capability. Distributing the communications, control and navigation functions among different microprocessor systems connected in a network improves performance and reliability. Assembly language provides the means of optimizing time critical functions of communications and I/O control, which high level languages, such as PASCAL, ease development of mission management requirements. The use of real-time operating systems (RTOS) permits co-processing of a variety of functions in overall drone operation management. The RTOS is a software “bus” providing communications network for modules. Functions and modules are assigned priorities, enabled or suspended as needed to perform mission operational requirements via the RTOS.
    • SOFTWARE IN DEVELOPMENT FLIGHT TEST PACKAGES

      Maschoff, Leon W.; Sandia National Laboratories (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      This report discusses application software options that are available for the design of development flight test microprocessor packages. Prelaunch parameter updates, telemetry channel calibration, system and processor self-test, raw data store, reduced data store, and telemetry formatting are some of the on-board functions that software can perform in addition to the customary control and arithmetic calculation tasks. A specific application that implements these functions as software modules and the hardware needed for support is described. The hardware in this application includes a 16-bit microprocessor that is dedicated for real time operations and an 8-bit microprocessor that services the self-test functions.
    • A PROGRAMMABLE-SIGNAL CONDITIONING PULSE CODE MODULATED TELEMETRY ENCODER

      ECKSTEIN, HOWARD M.; MICROCOM CORPORATION (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      The development of variable format airborne PCM data acquisition systems has generally been predicated upon advances in the field of solid state memory device technology. The introduction of Electrically Eraseable Programmable Read Only Memory (EEPROM) devices has generated renewed interest in the design of fully programmable PCM encoders. This paper will describe the evolution of one such micro-miniature PCM encoder system incorporating the following features: ∙ Complete Frame Format Program Capability ∙ Software Controlled Single Ended/Differential Input Program Capability ∙ Individual Sample - Gain/Offset Scaling Capability ∙ Hard Wire Program/Erase/Program Capability ∙ Variable Word Resolution ∙ Small Size
    • HARDWARE/SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE FOR A MICROPROCESSOR AIRBORNE TELEMETRY ENCODER

      Kellom, Arthur W.; Sandia National Laboratories (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      Successful programming of a microprocessor for airborne telemetry requires attention to proven programming techniques, as well as consideration of additional constraints that are required by the hardware involved. This paper describes a custom microprocessorcontrolled telemetry encoder developed by Sandia National Laboratories. The telemetry is used to encode and transmit data from warhead development and quality assurance tests. This paper briefly describes the encoder, discusses in some detail the structure of the software, and concludes with a mention of future telemetry development planned. The general principles of encoding are emphasized rather than an extensive discussion of software used in this system.
    • BUS STRUCTURED SOFTWARE FOR A MODERN PCM DECOMMUTATOR

      CRAWFORD, MICHAEL A.; SWEITZER, RALPH F.; LORAL DATA SYSTEMS (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      The expanding requirement in Modern Telemetry Systems for Real-Time Data Processing has necessitated the commutation of a vast majority of the data processing functions into Front End Processors. Even the fastest of Host Processors has proven incapable of keeping pace with high speed data rates (up to 4 Megawords). The commutation of processing power into the telemetry front end has elicited the employment of distributive processing techniques in order to attain the desired throughput. A distributive processing system architecture achieves high processing throughput by apportioning data analysis functions. By defining and programming unique processing nodes to selectively acquire, distribute, compress, and/or convert data, extensive simultaneous operations are executable. Hardware merged bus structures have lent themselves conveniently to this method of data distribution and control. Conversely, conventional software structures are unsuited to distributive processing architectures which must support a broad spectrum of modular configurations. Primarily, this is evidenced when the composite system software must be repetitively customized as additional processing power or new capabilities are incorporated. Composite software that delivers a high degree of system configuration adaptability is nominally large and complex, is limited in application, depletes system memory resources and complicates sustaining software maintenance. In addition, an undesirable human interface is normally unavoidable with composite software since it requires that the user learn the specific front end system’s terminology and individual components. Bus Structure Software consigns itself to effectively support distributive processing techniques providing for adaptive system configurations. This disquisition will address the concepts of bus structured software and its application to distributive processing. Furthermore, this paper will discuss the architectural capability to service a wide range of telemetry users without specialized system tailoring. A typical implementation of this convention, the Advanced Decommutation System (ADS) designed by LORAL DATA SYSTEMS, San Diego, California will also be presented.
    • NAVY ENVIRONMENTAL DATA DISTRIBUTION

      WOOLDRIDGE, FRANCIS R.; NAVY SPACE SYSTEMS ACTIVITY (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      The distribution of environmental data by the Navy Oceanography Command to support worldwide fleet operations is discussed. The fact that these operations are being conducted from platforms which are under sea, on the ocean surface and in the air, forms the basis for a variety of unique distribution methods. The organization of the Naval Oceanography Command is shown along with the fleet units operating with geophysics personnel attached. Methods of distribution include data sources to support the generation of numerical products and tactical operations. Fleet communications links are described including the data processing systems being installed at shore stations and onboard ships.
    • A METEOROLOGICAL COMMAND AND CONTROL SYSTEM

      P. L. Greening; Kinney, T. W.; Shaw, T. R.; HARRIS CORPORATION (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      There are many functions required to command, control and maintain the health and welfare of a meteorological satellite and acquire payload sensor data in a real time scenario. This paper describes the functions and performance of a specific meteorological command/control and telemetry processing system. Further, this paper describes the communications networks which link the various command/control, telemetry, and user ground stations together. A description of the user sensor data is also presented.
    • GOES COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM

      Fermelia, L. R.; Hughes Aircraft Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
    • DMSP PRIMARY SENSOR DATA ACQUISITION

      Lieske, Roger W.; Westinghouse Aerospace Divisions (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      A Data acquisition system which provides global pictorial cloud cover data for operational military meteorological purposes is described with emphasis on significant design features. These features include near constant geometric resolution through use of an oscillating scanner and variable instantaneous field of view (IFOV), thermal infrared channel output linear with temperature, visible wavelength sensitivity continuous from sub-solar to sublunar, along scan gain control permitting albedo images through the terminator, glare suppression enabling sensing of nighttime scenes in the presence of solar illumination on the spacecraft, wow/flutter correction of video data sampling to that of a reference scan motion, and dual geometric resolution capability from a single detector by synthesis of low resolution data.
    • DISPLAY, ANALYSIS AND DISSEMINATION OF METEOROLOGICAL INFORMATION

      Baker, Neal K.; The Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      Meteorological forecasting is a combination of art and science. The need for the human intelligence process still remains. Computers have revolutioned the science of meteorology, but many forecasting tasks still require a large amount of human interpretation and interaction. The forecaster needs to have rapid access to information in order to verify, review, modify, and interpret the computer results. Currently the forecasters review the various data types separately. The system under development will synthesize and display to the forecaster satellite imagery, graphical overlays of the meteorological fields, and alphanumeric reports in a timely manner. A local network will place the forecaster directly on an electronic network which spans the world. Additional tools are provided to the forecaster, such as animation and pseudo-color, to enhance the human recognition processes. Multiple level zooms are utilized to span the range from global to mesoscale phenomena. The forecaster then draws in the human interpreted details. The system merges the human input and adds the computer generated portions. The combined forecast information is disseminated to the weather central and field users. The system will reduce the product generation time by fifty percent. In. addition, special products can be rapidly made up and sent to the users.
    • ACQUISITION, PROCESSING, AND APPLICATIONS OF METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITE DATA AT THE AIR FORCE GLOBAL WEATHER CENTRAL

      Major Johnson, William R.; HQ Air Weather Service (MAC) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      The Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) is the world’s largest military meteorological facility. A large portion of its men, women, and computer resources are dedicated to the acquisition, processing, display, and application of meteorological and space environmental data. In this paper, I will address only meteorological and space environmental data.
    • TOMAHAWK CRUISE MISSILE SAFETY OF FLIGHT VIA RF LINK

      Blackwood, Joe R.; Cruise Missile Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      The Tomahawk cruise missile is configured for launch from a submarine, surface ship, or ground installation. The boost-phase propulsion is supplied by a jettisonable, solid-fuel booster engine. Upon jettison of the booster, an airbreathing, liquid-fuel turbofan engine is ignited to provide propulsion for the duration of the flight. Flight control is autonomous. The development of a program such as the Tomahawk requires that missiles be configured for test flights. These configurations require telemetry and tracking systems to aid in flight performance evaluation and an RF link range safety command system to provide for safe conduct of the flight. The subject of this paper is the range safety command system with emphasis on emergency commanded flight termination, automatic flight termination modes, remote flight control capability, and prelaunch checkout of the system.
    • A RELIABILITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM FOR THE ATLAS LAUNCH VEHICLE TELEMETRY PACKAGE

      Piontkowski, John S.; Stimadorakis, John; Tele-Dynamics of United Technologies; Omnitek, Incorporated (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      The scope of this paper deals with methods and processes undertaken to provide a significant reliability upgrade to an existing telemetry instrumentation subsystem. Selected components are produced using modern hybrid microcircuit technology in place of the previously configured discrete design approach. A comparative analysis is performed to demonstrate the resulting dramatic reliability improvement.
    • RANGE SAFETY RECEIVER-DECODER FOR SPACE SHUTTLE LAUNCH VEHICLE

      Busby , Lawrence A.; Kramb, Edwin A. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      Flight Termination Sub-Systems for range safety purposes are a part of all spacecraft launch vehicles. The Command Receiver and Decoder portion of this sub-system receives the rf up-link signal and initiates the flight termination action. For launch vehicles for unmanned spacecraft, the range safety up-link command signal is composed of selected IRIG audio tones, in a specified sequence, frequency modulated on an rf carrier. For the Space Shuttle launches, a more sophisticated high-alphabet modulation technique is used. This provides for a better probability against an undesired output caused by interfering signals. The Shuttle system uses a complex command modulation format composed of various audio tones frequency modulated on the standard UHF carrier. The characters in the command word are made up of two simultaneously transmitted tones selected from seven possible frequencies. These seven tones, taken two at a time, provide an alphabet of twenty-one different characters from which a command word is formed. The transmitted sequence of characters is selectable from mission to mission. Approximately 1012 possible code combinations exist for any one mission. For the Space Shuttle launches, the range safety Command Receiver-Decoders will be used on the Solid Rocket Boosters and the External Tank portions of the complex launch vehicle. The receiver section of these units is a single superheterodyne design fixed tuned to the proper rf center frequency at the time of manufacture. The decoder section utilizes a microprocessor to effect the decoding function. The decoder is “programmed” prior to flight to recognize only the code of the mission. In addition, the microprocessor is used to accomplish the audio tone demodulation using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm. Solid state output switches provide the decoder output voltages to the flight termination destruct mechanism.
    • ADVANCED MANEUVERING REENTRY VEHICLE INSTRUMENTATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUES

      Galleher, G. W.; Locklair, A. J.; McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      This paper describes instrumentation and communications techniques used in the data gathering process for presently on going high performance advanced maneuvering reentry vehicle test flights. Transducers and signal conditioning design considerations including flight test results of vibration and acoustic data (gathered simultaneously by eight FM and one 24,824 sps PCM channel), nose and control surface load cells, control actuation, flow rates, control and aerodynamic pressures, heat shield in-depth thermocouples, nose recession (nuclear and acoustic) are discussed. Also presented are the instrumentation techniques used to verify the integrity of the RF subsystem in addition to a description of the PCM, Data Delay and FM video links.
    • 30 GHZ IMAGE ENHANCED MIXER “FRONT-END” FOR SPACEBORNE LOW NOISE RECEIVER USAGE

      H. DeGruyl; Ng, E.; Okean, H.C.; Steffek, L.J.; Tallerico, T.; LNR Communications, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1981-10)
      A Ka-band low noise “front-end” currently under development for ultimate spaceborne receiver deployment, consists of a 27.5-30 GHz image-enhanced mixer integrated with a 3.7-6.2 GHz FET low noise IF amplifier and driven by a self-contained 23.8 GHz phaselocked LO source. The image enhanced mixer, designed for 5 dB overall “front-end” SSB noise figure, utilizes a balanced pair of in-house high quality GaAs Schottky mixer diodes embedded in a composite waveguide/TEM “crossbar” balanced mixer structure possessing inherent mutual RF/LO isolation. The three stage FET IF amplifier, implemented in a single-ended microstrip configuration, has, in a preliminary breadboard, exhibited 24.5 ±0.5 dB gain and 1.5 to 2.4 dB noise figure over the 3.7-6.2 GHz band. The LO source, consisting of a C-band high power FET VCO, phase locked to an external 500 MHz crystal reference, and driving a C-to-K band varactor quadruplet, will provide up to 40 mW LO drive at 23.8 GHz.