• HUMAN FACTORS IN OPERATIONS DESIGN

      Chafin, Roy L.; Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      There are several underlying factors in the design of an operations organization to control a high technology spacecraft tracking system. The first is the princple of differentiation and integration. The multitude of tasks must be divided so that each individual or team can accomplish assignments without being overloaded. Then, the efforts of all the elements in the organization must be integrated for a consistent attack on the problem of tracking a spacecraft. The differentiation tends to be primarily along technical or functional lines, and by time span, but there are other considerations. The integration is provided by the organization’s coordination and control elements. Operating positions can be designed to be procedurally operated, knowledge operated, or somewhere in-between. “Procedurally operated” means that the operator follows a strict procedure. He does not need to know how the system works, only which procedure to follow. A “knowledge based” operating position means that the operator understands the system sufficiently well to know what to do to accomplish a task. He does not need written procedures. The selection of either procedural based or knowledge based operations influences the operator skill level required, the organization design, and the support required. The system’s uncertainty level, stability level, and complexity are examined to evaluate the level of procedural operation possible.
    • NASA DEEP SPACE NETWORK OPERATIONS CONTROL

      Weisman, William D.; Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      Overall direction, coordination and control of the real-time activities of the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) is the responsibility of the Network Operations Control Team located at the Operations Control Center at JPL in Pasadena. Real-time operation of the DSN is a complex task, requiring efficient interaction among operations personnel, hardware, software, communications and mechanical systems. Control is maintained by the team at JPL through allocation of responsibility for specific operational facilities to specific team members. The Network Operations Control Team is comprised of an Operations Chief, a Track Chief, and one or more Deep Space Station (DSS) Controllers. The Operations Chief is responsible for overall performance of the Operations Control Center, and provides a single point of interface with the Control Center to end user organizations. The Track Chief is responsible for overall performance of the DSN as a facility, while the Station controllers are assigned responsibility for monitoring and coordinating the operational activities at individual Deep Space Stations.
    • NASA DEEP SPACE NETWORK OPERATIONS ORGANIZATION

      Chafin, Roy L.; Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
    • NASA DEEP SPACE NETWORK OPERATIONS PLANNING AND PREPARATION

      Jensen, W. N.; Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      The first contact that a project or user has with NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) Operations is with the Operations Planning Group. This group establishes an early interface with the user’s planning organization to educate the user on DSN capabilities and limitations. It negotiates and documents DSN support commitments to provide a firm foundation for developing the project support plans. The group develops plans and schedules to prepare the network for project support. Part of this activity is to monitor and evaluate the testing and training required in preparation of mission support. The DSN Operations Planning Group provides a team of one or two individuals dedicated to each user or project depending on the magnitude of the coordination activity. This team works through the planning and preparation activity and continues to support the project after the spacecraft launch to the end of the mission. The team provides a coordinating role after launch. It also provides planning and preparation for specific events such as planetary encounters.
    • NASA DEEP SPACE NETWORK OPERATIONS SCHEDULING

      Enari, Dennis M.; Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      Network Operations Scheduling provides the scheduling management for allocating the NASA Deep Space Network resources to support flight projects and other authorized users. As a part of Network Control Center Operations, it is the task of Network Operations Scheduling to forecast, detect conflicts, support conflict resolution and schedule the allocation of the network. The products of scheduling provide management and users of the network with information that will give them visibility concerning network loading, mission support and facility utilization. Subsequent management decisions based on this information concern advanced Fiscal budgeting and station shift staffing. The structure of the scheduling system provides an orderly advancement of general user requirements during the early stages of planning to an expanded detailed set of requirements at the final stage of planning.
    • NASA DEEP SPACE NETWORK PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

      Bartok, Carol DiNolfo; Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      Network performance analysis is an essential element in the operation of the NASA Deep Space Network. The primary function of the Deep Space Network is to support the communication, radio navigation and radio science needs of the flight project users. As a part of Network Control Center Operations, it is the task of the Performance Analysis Group to provide the Network with the analysis support required to assure that actual Network performance meets or exceeds committed levels throughout the mission. The Performance Analysis Group provides time-critical monitoring and analysis for the Tracking, Telemetry and Command Systems of the Deep Space Network. The group is organized into units that are specialized to provide the functional requirements of each system. It provides failure analysis to determine causes of Network failures and data outages, as well as providing technical assistance to the operations organization for recovery from failures. It generates the predictions used to point the antennas, acquire the radio frequency, and to validate the monitored Network performance. Also, it provides technical interfaces with the user projects as required for the smooth running of the operation. As a result of this specialized expertise, complex and time-critical problems that arise receive an immediate decision-making response.