Harney, Paul F.; NASA Ames Research Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      The overall objective of the advanced fighter technology integration/F-16 (AFTI/F-16) advanced development program is to demonstrate, separately and in combination, advanced fighter technologies to improve air-to-air and air-to-surface weapon delivery and survivability. Real-time monitoring of aircraft operation during flight testing is necessary not only for safety considerations but also for rapid preliminary evaluation of flight test results. The complexity of the AFTI/F-16 aircraft requires an extensive capability to accomplish real-time data goals; this paper describes that capability and the resultant product.

      Radomsky, Israel; Hochman, D.; Israel Military Industries (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      The Israel Military Industries (IMI), Systems Division, has had requirements for telemetry systems and measurements techniques to obtain data regarding projectiles performance in-flight and in-bore. This paper presents a brief description of a new programmble PCM telemetry system which employs several novel techniques like flexible multiplexing, programmable signal conditioner on a channel per channel basis for multiple gains and offsets), and a miniature size due to thick film hybrid construction and all thses along with very high shock survivability and long term reliability. This paper also presents a description of a very low cost telemetry package for measuring the in-flight spin rate using a specially designed transmitting antenna, a telemetry package for measuring event type phenomena and analog data (acceleration, pressure, strains, etc.) while the projectile is traveling in-bore. Examples of data obtained during actual firings are presented and discussed.
    • Utilization of Fiber Optics in Large Scale Landline Telemetry Systems

      Saulsberry, Garen J.; Willis, James L.; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      The large-scale landline telemetry system may benefit from the application of fiber optics. With present technology, practical means exist to design, implement, and test longdistance, data-transmission systems using fiber optics. Fiber optics and Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMA) equipment provide application and tradeoff advantages over a hard-wire system. Procedures for equipment verification must be developed to confirm and verify system performance of the design criteria. Practical computations may be made using values representative of actual system performance. A solution is provided to a typical data transmission problem.

      Nicolais, Ray; Ellis, Donald H.; AEROSYSTEMS ASSOCIATES; AYDIN VECTOR Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      With the advent of digital technology in aircraft systems, the need for advancements in digital data acquisition systems for flight testing became apparent. A thorough review of aircraft systems integration employing the MIL-STD-1553 multiplex data bus revealed the need for flight test systems that incorporate the advanced digital techniques and provide an interface to the data bus. This paper provides an overview of the MIL-STD-1553 requirements including word structure and protocol, with special emphasis on the requirements for synchronization and time tagging of the data acquired from the bus. The data bus is a serial digital transmission system for interchange of control signals, status and data between equipment internal to the aircraft (or other vehicle). The basic multiplexing technique is Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) with the information coded in 20-bit (16-bit data) words. The transmitted waveform is biphase operating at a bit rate of 1.0 megabit per second. Transmissions are bi-directional on a twisted pair shielded cable. The requirements for a bus monitor unit which interfaces with the data bus for acquisition and processing of information are described. The design for a Programmable Bus Monitor (PBM) is detailed. The PBM provides a highly flexible and effective interface between the MIL-STD-1553 data bus and an advanced digital flight test system.

      Stevens, Walter H.; Ryan, John J.; AYDIN VECTOR Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      A description of a unique approach for construction of modular data acquisition systems using a family of standard thick film hybrid circuits. Each module is described in terms of its universal function and examples of various system constructions are explained. Demonstrating the advantages of this approach in offering minimum size, weight, and high reliability, with resonable cost for various program applications.

      Hahn, Karl; Sangamo Weston, Schlumberger (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      In any telemetry data system whose functions are distributed over a number of physical units, it is desirable, if not necessary that these units be woven into a unified control network. It is this control network that makes a telemetry system out of the separate units. It turns out that this problem can be solved inexpensively, allowing new telemetry units to be easily added to the system, and without impacting the data flow between units. This paper describes one such solution, and details its flexibility and power. Some topics covered are central control, device independence, and relationships between user stations and physical units.

      Kelly, Mike; Sangamo Weston, Schlumberger (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      This purpose of this paper is to show how structured programming methodologies, used in the design and development of computer programs, can and should be used in the design and development of telemetry systems. One important concept presented in that of thinking of the telemetry system as a complete system from the very beginning such that a total system design can evolve “naturally”. Many of the problems associated with telemetry systems today are due to the fact that the various “pieces” of the system were designed independently and without regard for each other. Also discussed are the various levels of documentation produced along with Engineering and Marketing responsibilities as they relate to systems design.

      Katz, Joseph; Jet Propulsion Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      Light emitting devices based on AlGaAs lasers are very useful radiation sources in free space optical communications systems. After a brief review of the properties of individual injection lasers, more complex devices are described. These include, or are relevant to, monolithic integration configurations of the lasers with their electronic driving circuitry, power combining methods of semiconductor lasers, and electronic methods of steering the radiation patterns of semiconductor lasers and laser arrays. Fabrication of such devices is one of the major prerequisites for realizing the full potential advantages of free space optical communications.

      Lesh, James R.; Supervisor, Communications Concepts Research Jet Propulsion Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      Optical communications technology promises substantial size, weight and power consumption savings for space to space high data rate communications over presently used microwave technology. These benefits are further increased by making the most efficient use of the available optical signal energy. This presentation will describe the progress to date on a project to design, build and demonstrate in the laboratory an optical communication system capable of conveying 2.5 bits of information per effective received photon. Such high power efficiencies will reduce the need for photon collection at the receiver and will greatly reduce the requirements for optical pointing accuracy, both at the transmitter as well as the receiver. A longer range program to demonstrate even higher photon efficiencies will also be described.

      Chafin, Roy L.; Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      There are several underlying factors in the design of an operations organization to control a high technology spacecraft tracking system. The first is the princple of differentiation and integration. The multitude of tasks must be divided so that each individual or team can accomplish assignments without being overloaded. Then, the efforts of all the elements in the organization must be integrated for a consistent attack on the problem of tracking a spacecraft. The differentiation tends to be primarily along technical or functional lines, and by time span, but there are other considerations. The integration is provided by the organization’s coordination and control elements. Operating positions can be designed to be procedurally operated, knowledge operated, or somewhere in-between. “Procedurally operated” means that the operator follows a strict procedure. He does not need to know how the system works, only which procedure to follow. A “knowledge based” operating position means that the operator understands the system sufficiently well to know what to do to accomplish a task. He does not need written procedures. The selection of either procedural based or knowledge based operations influences the operator skill level required, the organization design, and the support required. The system’s uncertainty level, stability level, and complexity are examined to evaluate the level of procedural operation possible.

      Law, Eugene L.; Pacific Missile Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      This paper discusses the performance of pulse code modulation/frequency modulation (PCM/FM), pulse code modulation/phase modulation (PCM/PM) and phase shift keying (PSK) in the “real-world” of range telemetry. The topics addressed include: 1. Radio frequency (RF) spectra 2. Bit error rate (BER) versus pre-detection signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) 3. Peak carrier deviation 4. Premodulation and receiver predetection filtering 5. PCM codes 6. Magnetic recording The purpose of this paper is to provide the reader with information needed to choose the best modulation method, PCM code, premodulation filter bandwidth and type, receiver settings, and recording method for a particular application.

      Peterson, Colonel Peter; HQ., Air Force Satellite control Facility (AFSCF) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      The AFSCF as a common user net is a key element in the future space architecture. Space is transitioning from a R & D role to an operational role as the operating command integrate space systems into their mission systems. Because of the increasing dependence of operating commands on space systems, survivability of those elements is an additional requirement along with improved mission capability. The AFSCF will continue to support the operational satellites for TT&C either as a prime or as a back-up for the foreseeable future. In addition, the AFSCF will incorporate survivability technologies such as mobility, interoperability, extremely high frequencies and satellite relay to make its survivability consistent with the other space elements. This means the ground control architecture will evolve to a centralized ground support structure for spacecraft with a high degree of onboard TT&C and mission capability which will reduce dependence on fixed ground systems.

      Lt. Gibson, Col. R.H.; Maj. Sutton, R.V.; Rodriguez, T.M.; Tamura, Y.; Air Force Systems Command; The Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      Flexibility and survivability of Space Communications dictate the interoperability of communication links between as many satellites as feasible. Interoperability increases survivability by providing alternate paths. Interoperability also improves total system reliability and cost effectiveness, and it permits a flexible, distributed communications architecture to evolve. To implement this approach, functional satellite data link standards are needed to pull together mission data relay, communications, and tracking, telemetry and command (TT&C) requirements so that they can be satisfied by a common link design. The basic requirement which unifies these diverse users is their need for uplink jamming protection and scintillation resistance (in a perturbed atmosphere) at low (75 bps to 19.2Kbps) data rates. While the downlink and crosslink requirements are more diverse, they do not constitute major drivers of the standard. This paper describes Space Division’s standardization effort, the links to be standardized, the parameters that must be defined and an evolutionary implementation approach. The first satellite-ground links to be standardized will use 44/20 GHz with wideband spreading for jam resistance, while the crosslinks will use 60 GHz to avoid terrestrial jamming. Key issues are discussed, such as the conflicting requirements between TT&C and communications and the tradeoffs between minimum designs and flexibility.

      Kroger, Marlin G.; Palos Verdes Estates (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      This paper addresses the development of an architecture or framework to guide the design of future communications links and networks to support tactical military operations. In the next decade military forces are planned to be much more mobile and dispersed than they are today. Improved sensors and information processing capabilities will provide information needed to manage defense actions against numerically superior enemy forces, but the effective use of that information will require greatly improved communications capability. The resultant digital information traffic which consists of bursts of data between and among users and data sources must be accomodated efficiently, something that neither the present circuit-switches nor the current store-and-forward message transmission systems do well. Also, there is a requirement for much more interoperability between the systems of different services and nations. Internetwork routing of data transmissions can provide more robust connectivity via alternate paths, to cope with jamming and physical attacks on specific transmission media or nodes. An approach to data network interconnection structure that has emerged over the past several years is the concept of a hierarchial set of protocol layers, each one building on the one below. In total, they constitute a reference model for “open systems interconnection.” The most common version of such a reference model is the International Organization for Standardization’s reference model of Open Systems Interconnection (ISO OSI) (1). The ISO OSI model has been designed to serve the fixed plant, benign-environment commercial user. DoD has special needs for security, precedence, internetwork data transfer and user mobility that are not yet reflected in the ISO model. Because of these special needs candidate DoD models that are different from the ISO model have been proposed. However, an important consideration in the choice of or development of a DoD standard is that DoD Systems should be able to use commercial equipment and interface with commercial data networks. Also a consideration is that the reference model used for strategic and tactical communications should be a standard throughout DoD, although specific protocols could differ as necessary to support tactical vs. strategic needs. In total, these requirements and considerations constitute a significant design challenge that must be addressed promptly if DoD is to have any influence on the finalization of the ISO OSI model to get it to accomodate DoD requirements as much as possible.

      Cox, Timothy F.; Nichols, Myron H.; Naval Weapons Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      Four-level PCM/FM is investigated for reduced spectrum occupancy relative to binary PCM/FM. The spectrum occupancy can be reduced to 65% of binary PCM/FM at a carrier power cost of 4dB, to 58% at a carrier power cost of 7.6dB and to 50% at a carrier power cost of 10.2dB. This performance was achieved using a range type telemetry receiver. Spectra, waveforms, circuit details and BER characteristics are given.

      Chu, Peter; DECOM SYSTEMS, INC. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      The capture and tracking range of a Costas type BPSK (QPSK) demodulator is limited by its loop bandwidth, which is determined by the synchronization threshold at different Signal-to-Noise Ratio. A frequency locked scheme, which consists of a carrier detector and digital control network, has been developed to work in parallel with the Costas loop, so the BPSK (QPSK) demodulator would be automatically led to its pull-in range at low Signal-to-Noise Ratio. The probabilities of false dismissal for signal and false alarm signal absent are analyzed.

      LaVean, Gilbert E.; Sonderegger, Ronald E.; Defense Communications Agency (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      This paper describes a Worldwide Digital System Architecture that was developed in response to tasking from the Office of the Secretary of Defense to the Defense Communications Agency (DCA). This tasking directed DCA to develop a Worldwide Digital System Architecture in coordination with the Military Departments, the TRI-TAC office, and other interested agencies and commands. The main purpose for developing this architecture is to take a first step toward assuring that the many command and control communications and information processing systems are sufficiently interoperable in order to achieve needed survivability and endurability.

      Johnson, Charles E.; Communications Satellite Corporation Palo Alto (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      The COMSAT family of companies is actively involved in the operation of the Intelsat, COMSAT General, and Satellite Business Systems (SBS) ground networks which currently control twenty-five communications satellites utilizing three control centers and thirteen ground stations with forty-five antennas. Satellites controlled include INTELSAT IV (7), INTELSAT IVA (5), INTELSAT V (4), COMSTAR (4), MARISAT (3), and SBS (2). COMSAT also operates a launch services network consisting of a COMSAT Launch Control Center and Intelsat ground stations, as required, to guide spacecraft to the proper orbit station. Intelsat V flight 4 was launched in March 1982. Two additional Intelsat V’s and one SBS are scheduled for launch this year. The latter will be on the first commercial shuttle mission. The ground control networks contain a commonality traceable to COMSAT’s influence in the design of the satellites and experience in the control of communications satellites dating back to the launch of the Early Bird in 1965. This paper presents an overview of operational and planned networks in which COMSAT plays a significant role.

      shan, Zhang Qi; Zhihua, Li; Beijing Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics; Qinghua University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      The basis of mathematics which can form a telemetering system is orthogonal functions. Three kinds of orthogonal functions are used up to now. First of them is sine and cosine functions. Second one is block pulse functions. The third one is walsh functions. Their corresponding systems are FDM, TDM and SDM. There are also other orthogonal sets which can form telemetering system, such as Legendre polynomials and Hermite polynomials. Hewever. They are too complex for engineering practice. Except these functions mentioned above, is there any other orthogonal functions which is suitable for engineering practice? In this paper we presented a new type of orthogonal functions. Its construction is similar to Walsh functions. The amplitudes of the functions are +1, -1 and 0. In the sence that they close the gap between walsh functions and block functions, it is called Bride functions. The definition and properties are discussed in more detail here. The construction of system is also similar to that of SDM.

      Sullivan, Arthur; Electro Magnetic Processes, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      This paper presents a description of RADSCAN, a novel conically scanning tracking feed which has only one moving part and utilizes a solid state optical commutator for reference. The feed operates continuously from 1435 to 2400 MHz thereby covering all the existing telemetry bonds in addition to the proposed new bond from 2300 to 2400 MHz. The performance of RADSCAN is compared to that obtainable with the single-channel monopulse technique.