Michaud, Colonel Normand; Hollander, Sidney; Hq Air Force Satellite Control Facility (AFSCF); The Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      This paper updates the previous work,¹ which described the overall telemetry and data processing capabilities of the Data System Modernization (DSM) system being developed at the Air Force Satellite Control Facility (AFSCF). Having passed the System Critical Design Review milestone, the DSM program is proceeding with the design and implementation of various elements which support both the real-time routing, processing, storage, and display of satellite telemetry data, as well as the off-line recall of raw or processed telemetry data for trend analysis and satellite operations planning. A Data Distribution Element routes data received from 13 Remote Tracking Station (RTS) antennas and other sources to dedicated telemetry processing elements located within eight Satellite Test Center (STC) Mission Control Complexes (MCCs), a Range Control Complex (RCC), and the System Development and Test Laboratory (STDL). Two types of telemetry preprocessing elements are provided: one for processing telemetry data of rates less than 32 kilobits per second (or for processing selected measurands from telemetry data of rates up to 1.024 megabits per second), and the other for processing high-rate telemetry up to 5 megabits per second. Computer programs executing within one of two large mainframe computers and a Telemetry Contact Support Equipment Group in each MCC selectively decommutate, compress, calibrate, and store the telemetry data. Once processed, the data is formatted into unique, user-defined displays for real-time or post-contact analysis. Interfaces are also provided to satellite commanding routines for the authentication or verification of commands that have been transmitted to the satellite during the contact. Additional computer programs provide the capability to extract designated measurands from the processed telemetry history files, and format them, into messages for near realtime transmission to users remotely located from the STC. A capability is also provided to interface future telemetry preprocessing equipment, such as that required to support multiple scientific payloads aboard the Space Shuttle.

      Bartok, Carol DiNolfo; Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      Network performance analysis is an essential element in the operation of the NASA Deep Space Network. The primary function of the Deep Space Network is to support the communication, radio navigation and radio science needs of the flight project users. As a part of Network Control Center Operations, it is the task of the Performance Analysis Group to provide the Network with the analysis support required to assure that actual Network performance meets or exceeds committed levels throughout the mission. The Performance Analysis Group provides time-critical monitoring and analysis for the Tracking, Telemetry and Command Systems of the Deep Space Network. The group is organized into units that are specialized to provide the functional requirements of each system. It provides failure analysis to determine causes of Network failures and data outages, as well as providing technical assistance to the operations organization for recovery from failures. It generates the predictions used to point the antennas, acquire the radio frequency, and to validate the monitored Network performance. Also, it provides technical interfaces with the user projects as required for the smooth running of the operation. As a result of this specialized expertise, complex and time-critical problems that arise receive an immediate decision-making response.

      Carnicke, Allen S.; United Technologies Corporation Stratford (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      Helicopter structural fatigue testing requires the monitoring and precise control of physical input loads along with the collection and analysis of large quantities of static and dynamic data. This paper describes an automated, on-line system specifically designed to structurally test a full size helicopter airframe. Microprocessor controlled shakers apply dynamic loads to the test article and simulate a typical flight profile, e.g., take-off, climb, cruise, descent, hover and landing. A minicomputer based automated data system acquires up to 128 measurement channels consisting of outputs from accelerometers and strain gages with an overall data system throughput rate of 50,000 samples per second. The test engineer can select various operational and data processing formats from computer stored menus. Data tables in engineering units plus graphical displays of time histories or spectral information are also available. The system can be run in a variable data burst mode or in a continuous monitor mode.

      Sullivan, James F.; Ford Aerospace & Communications Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      Recent policy statements from senior Air Force personnel places a high priority on the survivability of “deliverable products” from space systems, throughout the conflict spectrum. The timely delivery of these products is dependent on the endurability of the spacecraft, the bit-stream carrying the products, and the ground terminals. Transportable/Mobile Terminals afford a viable option to provide a control segment that can be balanced with the endurability of the space and user segments. This paper examines Transportable/Mobile Terminals whose mission is to provide tracking, telemetry and command support to mission satellites through the conflict spectrum. The role and relationship of TMT’s in the totality of the Satellite Command and Control architecture is discussed in an operational, as well as technical, context. Topics of discussion include threats and countermeasures, sensitivity of design to requirements, the impact of satellite autonomy and the relationship of TMT’s to other planned improvements to the Satellite Command and Control architecture.

      Reber, Tilo F.; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      This paper concerns itself with the interface between men and computerized telemetry systems. This interface relates to the operation, planning, and implementation of setup and data processing functions. One of the major problems in operating a telemetry system is the programming of equipment parameters. This programming is often done by skilled “real-time” software personnel. This is both a costly and restrictive approach. The author has developed a “friendly” menu-driven, operator interactive, approach to solving these problems. The man-machine interface consists of software developed to present telemetry system options to an operator for selection. These options are displayed via the operator’s CRT. These displays are menus and they are formatted to display operator options in telemetry language. The object is to allow normal telemetry operators to configure the equipment setup and the data processing parameters. Once the configuration has been defined, the system can be configured quickly and precisely by the computer software. Changes to a setup or data processing configuration can be made by telemetry operators without the help of full-time programmers.

      Dolinar, Sam; Jet Propulsion Laboratories (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)

      Baker, George; Martin Marietta Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      The quantity of measurements and broad frequency spectrum of interest for dynamic measurements required to support the development phase of the MX Missile, in conjunction with a limited downlink telemetry bandwidth, necessitated a unique vibration measurement system. This was accomplished by on-board vibration data processing comprising a sensor system (transducer/ low noise cable/charge amplifier) and a multichannel digital Vibration Data Processor (VDP). The processor is a 1/3 octave frequency band analyzer, employing digital filter circuitry covering 22 bands over a frequency range from 14 Hz to 2245 Hz, providing an output that represents the energy(G²) per band/time interval. A Master Data Control Unit (MU) controls the VDP operation via a full duplex data bus. This paper will describe the sensor system, with its designed in-post installation test/verification features and the capabilities and design features of the VDP. Processor characteristics such as the self-test operation whereby all 1/3 octave analysis bands are verified, the ability to meet a 60 dB dynamic range, the indivudual instructions code capability along with other features will be presented. The most important facet of this onboard processing allows a downlink data bandwidth conservation ranging up to 184:1 which is compatible with the digital telemetering system.

      Padilla, Jose R.; Martin Marietta Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      More will be learned about planet Jupiter in the 45-minute Jupiter Probe mission than has been learned in nearly 500 years.

      Nicolais, Ray; Ellis, Donald H.; AEROSYSTEMS ASSOCIATES; AYDIN VECTOR Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      With the advent of digital technology in aircraft systems, the need for advancements in digital data acquisition systems for flight testing became apparent. A thorough review of aircraft systems integration employing the MIL-STD-1553 multiplex data bus revealed the need for flight test systems that incorporate the advanced digital techniques and provide an interface to the data bus. This paper provides an overview of the MIL-STD-1553 requirements including word structure and protocol, with special emphasis on the requirements for synchronization and time tagging of the data acquired from the bus. The data bus is a serial digital transmission system for interchange of control signals, status and data between equipment internal to the aircraft (or other vehicle). The basic multiplexing technique is Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) with the information coded in 20-bit (16-bit data) words. The transmitted waveform is biphase operating at a bit rate of 1.0 megabit per second. Transmissions are bi-directional on a twisted pair shielded cable. The requirements for a bus monitor unit which interfaces with the data bus for acquisition and processing of information are described. The design for a Programmable Bus Monitor (PBM) is detailed. The PBM provides a highly flexible and effective interface between the MIL-STD-1553 data bus and an advanced digital flight test system.

      Stevens, Walter H.; Ryan, John J.; AYDIN VECTOR Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      A description of a unique approach for construction of modular data acquisition systems using a family of standard thick film hybrid circuits. Each module is described in terms of its universal function and examples of various system constructions are explained. Demonstrating the advantages of this approach in offering minimum size, weight, and high reliability, with resonable cost for various program applications.

      Zelon, Michael; Space Transportation & Systems Group Rockwell International (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      The payload interrogator (PI) for communication between the orbiter and detached DOD/NASA payloads is described. Salient features of the PI are discussed, including its capabilities and limitations. For compatible operation in the orbiter’s electromagnetic environment, the PI is equipped with a dual triplexer assembly. A limiter diode circuitry allows the PI to be safely exposed to high effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP) payloads at close range. A dual conversion PM short-loop receiver has a sufficient dynamic range for undistorted reception of near and distant payload signals. The PI acquires signals from compatible transponders within ±112 kHz of its center frequency. The center frequency can be set at 125-kHz steps for the spaceflight tracking and data network (STDN), 370 kHz for the deep space network (DSN), and 5 MHz for the space satellite control facility (SCF). The PI has falselock- on protection capability to accommodate reliable acquisition of standard NASA and DOD payload transponders. The wideband phase detector demodulates baseband information, and by the use of AGC, provides three independent constant-level data outputs. Each of the 861 frequency channels is generated instantaneously by the receiver and transmitter synthesizers. The PM-modulated RF carrier transfers command information to the detached payloads. The RF output power is adjustable to assure reliable communication with payloads of various sensitivities (G/T). A wide and narrow carrier sweep capability is provided to accommodate any frequency uncertainty of payloads. The transmitter has an ON-OFF modulation control to avoid false-lock-on problems. The PSP command input modulation index is fixed, while the modulation index for the PS is a function of the input voltage. The PI receiver’s complementary transmit channels are spaced 115 kHz for STDN, 341 kHz for DSN, and 4 MHz for SCF. The PI is compatible with the orbiter’s configuration control equipment—GCIL, the PSP and PS for I/O data transfer, the Ku-band subsystem for “bent pipe” baseband telemetry transmission to ground, the MDM for the PI’s telemetry transfer, and the RHCP/LHCP antenna subsystem. Overall PI capabilities and limitations for communication with unique payloads are also presented.

      GUADIANA, JUAN M.; NAVAL SHIP WEAPON SYSTEMS ENGINEERING STATION (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      The U.S. Navy has traditionally operated several missile ranges around the world. However, as the exercises it conducts require greater areas and improved security, it has taken the more ambitious exercises to open ocean, away from ranges. Portable shipboard Telemetry Receiving Systems are designed based on similar methods to those used by range system designers. However, the portable field station must be very small (less then 600 lbs) and system designers are hard pressed to include sophisticated hardware to offset the lower performance of light weight front ends. After the design stage, it is always found that no further weight or volume may be allocated to test equipment. The result has been to practice exercising the live round (missile) for the purpose of testing the ground station. This Test System was designed to meet a need for a portable system to test shipboard telemetry systems used for evaluating performance of missile systems in the surface missile fleet. The technical information presented describes the capabilities of a small test system that is programmable to accurately simulate any missile in the current Navy inventory. It provides test and calibration signals so that telemetry system status may be verified, giving the field operator unprecedented confidence in the station’s condition. The Programmable RT Test System is a product of Navy’s Engineering Initiative Program which supports limited engineering efforts designed to enhance service to the fleet.

      Robbins, Robert B.; Data Systems Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      The use of a Digital Equipment Corporation VAX computer under the VMS operating system, in a real-time telemetry environment, brings with it many advantages. These advantages pertain to its ability to handle real-time telemetry processing in an efficient and relatively straight forward manner. The author will use the TELSET, TELDAX and TELFOR telemetry software systems as the basis for demonstrating the techniques which have allowed the real-time telemetry user to take advantage of a 32-bit, virtual addressing, architecture.

      Ashley, Carl G.; Pacific Missile Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      The Telemetry Group (TG) of the Range Commanders Council is the primary means of exchanging telemetry technical and operational information and coordinating and standardizing systems, techniques, methods, and procedures. The TG is concerned with such telemetry gathering instrumentation as airborne sensing devices and modulation and multiplexing equipment. In addition, the group monitors developments in telemetry processing and storage systems and special display devices. The group is also responsible for writing and updating the Telemetry Standards Document and a series of five volumes on Text Methods for Telemetry Systems and Subsystems.

      Weisman, William D.; Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      Overall direction, coordination and control of the real-time activities of the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) is the responsibility of the Network Operations Control Team located at the Operations Control Center at JPL in Pasadena. Real-time operation of the DSN is a complex task, requiring efficient interaction among operations personnel, hardware, software, communications and mechanical systems. Control is maintained by the team at JPL through allocation of responsibility for specific operational facilities to specific team members. The Network Operations Control Team is comprised of an Operations Chief, a Track Chief, and one or more Deep Space Station (DSS) Controllers. The Operations Chief is responsible for overall performance of the Operations Control Center, and provides a single point of interface with the Control Center to end user organizations. The Track Chief is responsible for overall performance of the DSN as a facility, while the Station controllers are assigned responsibility for monitoring and coordinating the operational activities at individual Deep Space Stations.
    • International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 18 (1982)

      Unknown author (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)

      Tinsley, Harold D.; SCI Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      The MX Instrumentation Multiplexer Set is used to acquire data during test flights of the MX Missile. The Multiplexer Set consists of a Multiplexer Programmer Controller Unit (MU), from 2 to 32 Remote Multiplexer Units (RU’s), and any number of Power Supply Verifier Units (PSV’S). The primary purpose of the MU is to operate as the programmable system controller, acquire local data inputs, and format this data along with data from the RU’s in a PCM Output. The RU’s interface to the MU via Instruction and Reply Data Buses providing remote data acquisition. The PSV’s provide an accurate stimulus voltage to the analog sources along with a control to offset the analog signal for test verification. Thirty-one of the possible 32 RU’s connect to the MU by two pairs of vehicle data buses, while the remaining RU is connected via the umbilical data bus. This ground resident RU is identical to the flight RU’s, but its functional requirement is quite different as it is primarily used to load and verify MU programs. Each of the vehicle data buses can be up to 130 feet in length with a 250 foot length allowed for the umbilical bus. An ideal terminated bus is not feasible in the MX application since the bus configuration changes as the missile stages. Staging will produce opens or shorts on the cable; to insure proper operation of all remaining RU’s on the bus, the interface isolation transformer incorporates both voltage and current windings to provide maximum secondary signal level with minimum reflection distortion. The data bus operates at 3.2 MHz using a Manchester II coded signal. The MU can sample 160 local differential analog channels that are programmable in gain, off-set, and to a maximum rate of 170,665 samples per second. A flexible grouping of 8 discrete inputs from the 96 discrete channels is programmable to a rate of 51,200 samples per second. The MU can also access data from four serial digital channels and provide outputs on eight command channels. During pre-flight the commands can be ground initiated, and following launch they can be time event programmed as well as being programmed repetitive in either mode. The PCM rate is 1.6 Mbps and the MU stores five in-flight selectable formats in a 4096 words by 16 bits CMOS RAM memory. Each RU can access 28 analog and 8 discrete channels, and the RU can control two command and six verification channels. The PSV does not interface to the data bus; it is controlled via a MU or RU command channel. The system can be externally synchronized or operated from an internal clock with a graceful transfer to eliminate data loss. Small size, light weight, low power and high reliability are primary characteristics of the system. Built-in monitors and fully automated computer controlled test equipment provide rapid and extreme parameter testing with a high degree of fault isolation.
    • DMSP BLOCK 5D-2 SPACECRAFT Telemetry Real-Time Analysis and Display System (TRADS)

      Allen, David L.; The Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)

      Hoagland, J.C.; Rockwell International (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      During operational space flight, the communications and telemetry subsystem of the Space Shuttle orbiter uses S-band and Ku-band links to provide, in addition to tracking, reception of digitized-voice, commands, and printed or diagrammatic data at a maximum rate of 216 kilobits per second (kbps). The subsystem also provides a transmission capability for digitized voice, telemetry, television, and data at a maximum rate of 50 megabits per second (mbps). S-band links may be established directly with a ground station and both S-band and Ku-band links may be routed through The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) tracking and data relay satellite system (TDRSS). A simultaneous capability to communicate with other satellites or spacecraft, using a variety of formats and modulation techniques on more than 850 S-band channels, is provided. Ultra-high frequency (UHF) is used for communication with extravehicular astronauts as well as for a backup subsystem for state vector update. Audio and television subsystems serve on-board needs as well as interfacing with the radio frequency (RF) equipment. During aerodynamic flight following entry, the S-band link can be supplemented or replaced by a UHF link that provides two-way simplex voice communication with air traffic control facilities.

      Pedroza, Moises; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      The WSMR Telemetry Tracking Systems consist of ten (10) automatic trackers and four (4) manual trackers. These trackers operate in the frequency ranges of 1435 to 1540 MHz and 2200 to 2300 MHz. Two Telemetry Acquisition Systems (TAS) with 24-foot parabolic antennas are located at fixed sites. A 6-foot parabolic antenna system has been converted from a mobile unit to a fixed-site system. Seven Transportable Telemetry Acquisition Systems (TTAS) with 8-foot parabolic antennas can be located on and off the range along with a mobile microwave relay station to support range tests. The RF subsystems on the seven TTAS’s have been miniaturized and integrated with the feed assembly resulting in a vast improvement in autotrack reliability. The digital slave tracking capability of the seven TTAS’s and two TAS’s has been improved by a joint effort between two WSMR organizations. Tracking System Interface (TSI) hardware and software were both developed in-house at WSMR by the Instrumentation Directorate. The National Range Operations Directorate, Data Collection Division, Telemetry Branch interfaced and installed the TSI to the tracking systems. The TSI utilizes two (2) Z80 microprocessors and is capable of slaving to instrumentation RADAR data in one of two modes. The first mode is dependent on the UNIVAC 1108, WSMR real-time computer complex, to convert the RADAR XYZ data to site oriented azimuth and elevation data. The second mode allows the telemetry trackers to accept RADAR XYZ data directly and perform its own coordinate conversion. An additional feature of the TSI is the test mode for self-checks, servo tests, and system readiness tests.