• AFSCF NETWORK PLANNING

      Peterson, Colonel Peter; HQ., Air Force Satellite control Facility (AFSCF) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      The AFSCF as a common user net is a key element in the future space architecture. Space is transitioning from a R & D role to an operational role as the operating command integrate space systems into their mission systems. Because of the increasing dependence of operating commands on space systems, survivability of those elements is an additional requirement along with improved mission capability. The AFSCF will continue to support the operational satellites for TT&C either as a prime or as a back-up for the foreseeable future. In addition, the AFSCF will incorporate survivability technologies such as mobility, interoperability, extremely high frequencies and satellite relay to make its survivability consistent with the other space elements. This means the ground control architecture will evolve to a centralized ground support structure for spacecraft with a high degree of onboard TT&C and mission capability which will reduce dependence on fixed ground systems.
    • Air Force Satellite Control Facility

      Stuart,Colonel Floyd; Commander AFSCF (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      The Air Force Satellite Control Facility (AFSCF) originated over twenty years ago, and has evolved into a global satellite support network; this global network includes seven Remote Tracking Station (RTS’s) and the Satellite Test Center (STC) located in Sunnyvale, California. The AFSCF provides real-time telemetry, tracking, and command support to Department of Defense (DOD) spacecraft and launch vehicles. Since its inception, in response to changing DOD space support requirements, the SCF network has grown through expansion and modernization of its tracking, data processing, and communication capabilities. This paper discusses the past, the present, and the impending changes to the AFSCF as it continues to evolve in support of the DOD space programs.
    • AIR FORCE SATELLITE CONTROL FACILITY (AFSCF) SUPPORT OF THE SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM (STS) ORBITAL FLIGHT TEST PROGRAM

      McBride, Michael L.; Applied Research, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      The-AFSCF is tasked with providing support to NASA for the initial series of STS flights known as Orbital Flight Test (OFT) missions. This support requires modifications to the AFSCF data and voice communication elements at the remote tracking stations and the Satellite Test Center to implement interfaces between the AFSCF and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), and between the AFSCF and Space Shuttle Orbiter Vehicle itself. Data communications involves the exchange of telemetry, tracking, and command data; while voice interfaces involve air-to-ground as well as ground-based support communications networks. The modified AFSCF configuration provides a base from which expanded Orbiter vehicle and payload support may be developed. This paper identifies the modifications implemented within the AFSCF to provide STS OFT support and traces the flow of voice and data communications throughout the STS-AFSCF-GSFC network. Potential candidate support configurations to provide expanded Orbiter and payload support are also identified.
    • THE APPLICATION OF A BUBBLE MEMORY TO A BALLOON-BORNE DATA SYSTEM

      Corlis, N. E.; Hauser, G. C.; Sandia National Laboratories (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      This paper describes an eight megabit bubble memory used as a mass memory storage device on a high altitude helium filled balloon flight package. The balloon flight designated as Gamma Ray VI, a coordinated effort of Sandia National Laboratories and Bell Laboratories, was conducted in the fall of 1981 at Alice Springs, Australia. Eight onemegabit Intel bubble modules were mounted on a custom designed multilayer printed wire board to maximize the memory in the available space. A microprocessor based data interface was designed to test and control the bubble memory. The selection of bubble memory modules for this application, the design considerations of the bubble printed wire board and the microprocessor interface are discussed. The flight test and results of Gamma Ray VI are described. Future developments and applications are briefly presented.
    • AN APPLICATION OF DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING (IN THE TDRSS GROUND COMMUNICATION FAULT ISOLATION AND MONITORING SYSTEM)

      Waddell, R. L.; Utterback, H. K.; The Johns Hopkins University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      A Fault Isolation and Monitoring System (FIMS) for analysis of the quality of data streams transmitted between TDRSS and NASA’s Network Control Center has been completed and installed (Version 1) in the NASA White Sands Ground Terminal. Due to the demands on the system’s central computer, it was decided that as much of the operator interaction as possible should be handled by the intelligent terminal serving as the operations control console. This paper describes the methods and protocol used to implement the operator support software required to configure the monitoring system and to display and report the results of the analysis.
    • APPLICATIONS OF RECOVERABLE DIGITAL MEMORY TELEMETERS IN ARTILLERY PROJECTILES

      SZABO, LOUIS R.; GLASS, LEON H.; HONES, LEONARD D.; ARRADCOM (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      As fuzes and guidance systems become more sophisticated, the use of artillery projectile TM’s is increasing. In some applications where data requirements are simple in nature and limited in volume, and where there is a high probability of successful hardware recovery, the use of micropower digital memory systems is more desirable than the conventional, more costly RF system. Digital Memory TM systems, their capabilities and limitations, design considerations, and field and laboratory test results are presented. Some of the extreme environments and shock resistant packaging techniques are also discussed.
    • AUTOMATED CONTROL OF MULTIPLE GROUND VEHICLES

      Rice, William A.; National Range Operations Directorate (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      The Drone Formation Control System (DFCS) was developed by IBM, Federal Systems Division in 1976 under contract to the US Army White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) to provide precise automatic closed-loop control for multiple target aircraft. The unique DFCS distance measuring equipment (DME) data link allows for both range measurement and the transmission of both command and telemetry data on a single frequency (915 MHz). The DFCS is controlled by a federated chain of microprocessors linked to a large scale IBM System 360 Model 75. The unique data link embedded in a system totally driven by software allowed the DFCS to be modified for automatic control of multiple ground targets as well as aerial targets. This paper briefly describes the DFCS and the modifications performed for ground target control. The DFCS RF modulation/demodulation technique is emphasized.
    • AUTOMATED DATA SYSTEM FOR HELICOPTER STRUCTURAL FATIGUE TESTING

      Carnicke, Allen S.; United Technologies Corporation Stratford (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      Helicopter structural fatigue testing requires the monitoring and precise control of physical input loads along with the collection and analysis of large quantities of static and dynamic data. This paper describes an automated, on-line system specifically designed to structurally test a full size helicopter airframe. Microprocessor controlled shakers apply dynamic loads to the test article and simulate a typical flight profile, e.g., take-off, climb, cruise, descent, hover and landing. A minicomputer based automated data system acquires up to 128 measurement channels consisting of outputs from accelerometers and strain gages with an overall data system throughput rate of 50,000 samples per second. The test engineer can select various operational and data processing formats from computer stored menus. Data tables in engineering units plus graphical displays of time histories or spectral information are also available. The system can be run in a variable data burst mode or in a continuous monitor mode.
    • AUTOMATIC ADDRESSING OF TELEMETRY CHANNELS

      Lucero, L. A.; Sandia National Laboratories (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      To simplify telemetry software development, a design that elminates the use of software instructions to address telemetry channels is being implemented in our telemetry systems. By using the DMA function of the RCA 1802 microprocessor, once initialized, addressing of telemetry channels is automatic, requiring no software. In this report, the automatic addressing scheme is compared with an earlier technique that uses software to address telemetry channels. In comparison, the automatic addressing scheme effectively increases the software capability of the microprocessor, simplifies telemetry dataset encoding, eases data set changes, and may decrease the electronic hardware count. The software addressing technique uses at least three instructions to address each channel. The automatic addressing technique requires no software instructions. Instead, addressing is performed using a direct memory access cycle stealing technique. Application of an early version of this addressing scheme opened up the capability to execute 400 more microprocessor instructions than could be executed using the software addressing scheme. The present version of the automatic addressing scheme uses a section of PROM reserved for telemetry channel addresses. Encoding for a dataset is accomplished by programming the PROM with channel addresses in the order they are to be monitored. Software for one of our telemetry units was written using the software addressing scheme, then rewritten using the automatic addressing scheme. While 1000 bytes of memory were required by the software addressing scheme, the automatic addressing scheme required only 396 bytes. A number of prototypes using AATC have been built and tested in a telemetry lab unit. All have worked successfully.
    • BUBBLE MEMORY INSTRUMENTATION PACKAGE REPLACES DATA LINK IN PARACHUTE TEST SYSTEM AT NWC

      Rieger, James L.; Naval Weapons Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      A bubble-memory recorder for data taken from a parachute-measurement system is used to replace UHF telemetry using FM subcarriers. Significant savings in manpower for the test results, along with greater data quality and simpler, more repeatable data playback. New devices and a ground-based playback decommutator provide greater utility and normally end the requirement for a ground station.
    • CARRIER-DETECTOR EXTENDS ACQUISITION RANGE OF BPSK

      Chu, Peter; DECOM SYSTEMS, INC. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      The capture and tracking range of a Costas type BPSK (QPSK) demodulator is limited by its loop bandwidth, which is determined by the synchronization threshold at different Signal-to-Noise Ratio. A frequency locked scheme, which consists of a carrier detector and digital control network, has been developed to work in parallel with the Costas loop, so the BPSK (QPSK) demodulator would be automatically led to its pull-in range at low Signal-to-Noise Ratio. The probabilities of false dismissal for signal and false alarm signal absent are analyzed.
    • A COMMUNICATION SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE FOR INTEROPERABLE SYSTEMS

      LaVean, Gilbert E.; Sonderegger, Ronald E.; Defense Communications Agency (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      This paper describes a Worldwide Digital System Architecture that was developed in response to tasking from the Office of the Secretary of Defense to the Defense Communications Agency (DCA). This tasking directed DCA to develop a Worldwide Digital System Architecture in coordination with the Military Departments, the TRI-TAC office, and other interested agencies and commands. The main purpose for developing this architecture is to take a first step toward assuring that the many command and control communications and information processing systems are sufficiently interoperable in order to achieve needed survivability and endurability.
    • COMSAT SATELLITE CONTROL NETWORKS

      Johnson, Charles E.; Communications Satellite Corporation Palo Alto (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      The COMSAT family of companies is actively involved in the operation of the Intelsat, COMSAT General, and Satellite Business Systems (SBS) ground networks which currently control twenty-five communications satellites utilizing three control centers and thirteen ground stations with forty-five antennas. Satellites controlled include INTELSAT IV (7), INTELSAT IVA (5), INTELSAT V (4), COMSTAR (4), MARISAT (3), and SBS (2). COMSAT also operates a launch services network consisting of a COMSAT Launch Control Center and Intelsat ground stations, as required, to guide spacecraft to the proper orbit station. Intelsat V flight 4 was launched in March 1982. Two additional Intelsat V’s and one SBS are scheduled for launch this year. The latter will be on the first commercial shuttle mission. The ground control networks contain a commonality traceable to COMSAT’s influence in the design of the satellites and experience in the control of communications satellites dating back to the launch of the Early Bird in 1965. This paper presents an overview of operational and planned networks in which COMSAT plays a significant role.
    • CONSOLIDATED SPACE OPERATIONS CENTER (CSOC)

      Smith, Douglas L.; Launch and Control Systems Acquisition Space Command Los Angeles AFS (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      The Consolidated Space Operations Center (CSOC) will fulfill the nation’s need for an endurable and secure facility for the command and control of DOD Shuttle and satellite missions. For greater endurance, economy, and efficiency, it capitalizes on technical opportunities to integrate satellite-control capabilities. Additionally, CSOC functionally internets military and civilian resources to support military space operations.
    • A DATA MEMORY SYSTEM FOR A SEAFLOOR EARTHQUAKE MEASURING INSTRUMENT

      Ryerson, D. E.; Lopez, A. A.; Sandia National Laboratories (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      A Seafloor Earthquake Measurement System for measuring strong motion seismic data has been developed and tested by Sandia National Laboratories as part of the Department of Energy Offshore Instrumentation Program. The system’s function is to gather data for the design and regulation of offshore structures such as oil platforms and pipelines. The seafloor package is a self-contained unit capable of operating unattended for up to one year with data readout on command via an underwater acoustic telemetry system. One of the problems with such a system is the large memory required to store seismic data. This memory also must consume very little power to conserve battery life. To meet these conditions a combination low-power CMOS buffer memory and a one-million-bit magnetic bubble main memory with switched power was developed. This paper describes these memories and how they are controlled by a microprocessor to save the “best” data since the last data readout.
    • DESIGN OF A FOUR-CHANNEL, 50 MBPS, STATISTICAL MULTIPLEXER AND DEMULTIPLEXER

      O’Donnell, John T.; Digital Communications AYDIN MONITOR Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      This paper discusses the design of a 50 Mbps Statistical Multiplexer and Demultiplexer, Model 781, manufactured by AYDIN MONITOR Systems of Fort Washington, PA. Two Model 781s connected through a 50 Mbps communications link constitute a full-duplex, 4-channel data link with a maximum aggregate throughput capability of 48 Mbps.
    • DIGITAL TV TRI-STATE DELTA MODULATION SYSTEM FOR SPACE SHUTTLE KU-BAND DOWNLINK

      Udalov, Sergei; Huth, Gaylord K.; Batson, Bartus H.; Roberts, Donald; Axiomatix Corp.; NASA/Johnson Space Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      The anticipated requirements for Shuttle Orbiter Ku-band downlink communication include the transmission of a digital video signal which, in addition to accommodating the black-and-white TV pictures, must also be able to relay to the ground the color TV information encoded in either field-sequential or NTSC color formats. Furthermore, at the expense of additional onboard hardware and increased bandwidth due to the digitization process, the picture privacy feature can be provided for the downlink. Thus, an objective for the future Space Shuttle TV equipment is the development of a digitization technique which is not only compatible with data rates in the range of 20 -30 Mbps, but also provides good quality pictures. This paper desribes a tri-state delta modulation/demodulation (TSDM) technique which is a good compromise between implementation complexity and performance. The salient feature of TSDM is that it provides for efficient run-length encoding of constant-intensity segments of a TV picture. Axiomatix has developed a hardware implementation of a highspeed TSDM transmitter and receiver for black-and-white TV or field-sequential color or NTSC format color. The hardware aspects of this TSDM are discussed in the paper also.
    • DISCUSSION OF CLASSICAL AND PUBLIC KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY

      Hershey, John E.; Institute for Telecommunication Sciences (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      Classical and public key cryptography for communications privacy are discussed regarding their relative implementation complexity and overall applicability.
    • DISTRIBUTED CONTROL A CANDIDATE MILITARY COMSAT CONTROL SYSTEM

      MARCHIONDA, PAUL R.; The Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)
      Advanced Military Satellite Communications Systems providing communications capability supporting projected minimum essential military wartime communications that will accommodate force message distribution, force direction and force report back, and force/force or group-to-group communications. These dedicated communications resources must be continuously available to the wide variety of military users. It is necessary, therefore, that the command/control implementation of these systems be capable of (a) long-term resource allocation to fulfill user requirements with a minimum of delay and system overhead, and (b) insuring system capability to fulfill real-time users service requests. Anticipated operational use indicates that a considerable amount of day-to-day control will be required to coordinate the user access to communications, to provide communications for internal user network control, and to support routine system maintenance activities. This paper discusses a candidate centralized system management and distributed control framework that provides a system operations capability meeting the interconnection requirements needed for such a military type communications satellite system.
    • DMSP BLOCK 5D-2 SPACECRAFT Telemetry Real-Time Analysis and Display System (TRADS)

      Allen, David L.; The Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1982-09)