• GPS TRANSLATOR APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS FOR TEST RANGES

      McCONNELL, JOHN B.; PICKETT, ROBERT B.; Western Space and Missile Center; Federal Electric Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      Tracking system implementations based on the retransmission of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite signals from a test vehicle with signal tracking and trajectory estimation performed by ground-based range equipment are addressed. Two types of vehicle-borne frequency translators are described, techniques for correcting translator local oscillator error are proposed and potential techniques for receiving, recording and relaying translator signals using IRIG standard telemetry equipment are suggested.
    • ADVANCED TT&C FOR THE AIR FORCE SATELLITE CONTROL FACILITY CONCEPTUAL OVERVIEW

      Carroll, James T.; The Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      The Department of Defense will be moving their essential space resources into the EHF spectrum which, together with new signal structures, will counter the impacts of jamming, nuclear effects, and electronic intelligence intercept. The Air Force Satellite Control Facility (AFSCF) project for incorporating the new Satellite Data Link Standards (SDLS) into its existing antenna and communication network is described. Also, the signal structure concepts, system architecture, EHF user programs, interoperability factors, and finally, implementation plans. Taken together, these factors will implement a new SDLS Military Standard for space links.
    • LOW COST, LIGHTWEIGHT, SINGLE AXIS TRACKING SYSTEM FOR UNMANNED VEHICLE APPLICATION

      Sullivan, Arthur; Turner, William C.; Electro Magnetic Processes, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      Recent events in the Falkland Islands, and in Israel/Lebanon, have made the tactical use of unmanned airborne vehicle systems a practical reality The control of the unmanned vehicles requires a radio uplink, a downlink for vehicle position determination, for telemetering monitored events and functions, and, in some instances, transmission of television or other information. While for some situations the ground antenna can be fixed, the majority of today’s applications require a steerable antenna. This is dictated by the fact that a high gain (and therefore, narrow beam) antenna is required for maximum range, and that for most scenarios, vehicle position must be determined. The increasing use of unmanned vehicles indicates the need for a low-cost tracking antenna system. Use of the tracking antenna in transportable and/or mobile systems calls for a lightweight system. A two-axis antenna, in addition to being heavy, is more than twice the cost of a single-axis tracking antenna system. Slant range of the vehicle is determined by the use of a ranging tone and ground range is determined by comparing altitude data telemetered back from an on-board altimeter with slant range. Complete positional data are obtained given the ground range and the bearing angle from the singleaxis tracking antenna. A microprocessor-based antenna control unit allows all systematic errors of the antenna system to be calibrated out of the angle data. A binomially fed, linearly polarized, folded pillbox horn antenna, having extremely low sidelobes, permits wide angle acquisition, and high elevation angle tracking without introducing bearing angle error. The use of graphite fiber materials for antenna and rotator construction provides savings both in cost and weight. A newly developed lightweight and low-cost single-axis tracking antenna that utilizes all these techniques is described in this paper.
    • TRUTH TRAJECTORY ESTIMATION FOR GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM USER EQUIPMENT TESTS

      Lt.Col. Kruczynski, Leonard R.; U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      Testing of NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) user equipment at the U.S. Amy Proving Ground (YPG) requires accurate position and velocity information. GPS position accuracy is 15 meters spherical error probable and velocity accuracy is .1m/sec RMS per axis. Proper evaluation of GPS user equipment requires position and velocity information more accurate than the equipment under test. YPG users laser trackers to develop a real-time estimate (RTE) of the trajectory. Independent analyses show that the RTE accuracy is about 3m and that velocity accuracy is about .25/m sec overall. This paper describes the development of the RTE starting from the raw laser measurements to the calculation of position and velocity in a local coordinate frame. Included is a description of the filter. The paper also discusses the methods used to verify the accuracy of the RTE.
    • MICROCOMPUTER ARCHITECTURE FOR COMPUTER SECURITY APPLICATIONS

      Seidl, Loren R.; Advanced System Security & Network Technology Hughes Aircraft Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
    • TELEMETERING AND COMMUNICATIONS USING PROGRAMMABLE CONTROLLERS

      SCHIFTER, TRUDI RAE; GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY INDUSTRIAL SALES DIVISION SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
    • EHF SOLID STATE TRANSMITTERS FOR SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS

      Raue, Jorg E.; TRW Electronic Systems Group One Space Park (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
    • EMP: CONSIDERATIONS FOR SYSTEM DESIGN

      Levy, Paul H.; Physics International Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      An overview of the Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) environment is presented, including a review of vulnerable systems and a comparison with EMI and lightning. The effects of an EMP on communications and telemetry systems are discussed, stressing the impact on system performance. EMP protection techniques suitable for signal processing applications are reviewed, including cable design, shielding topology, filtering and interface protection. The functional and operational constraints imposed by such techniques are identified. Typical hardness verification requirements are summarized, and the role of analysis and experiment in the hardening process are examined. State-of-the-art analytical tools and simulation facilities/techniques are discussed. As an example, a tactical EMP hardening problem is considered, using the EMP shielding topology approach presented in the paper.
    • USING THE STD BUS FOR ENCODER/DECODER SYSTEMS ABOARD A HIGH-ALTITUDE BALLOON PLATFORM

      Willis, Jim; Stabilized High Altitude Research Platform Physical Science Laboratory New Mexico State University Las Cruces (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      The Physical Science Laboratory (PSL) is developing a balloon-launched platform that will support a wide range of high-altitude projects. The Stabilized High Altitude Research Platform (SHARP) will house several on-board microprocessor-based subsystems to provide telemetry, command, and navigation data. Support for a wide variety of scientific experiments requires versatile electronic subsystems aboard the platform. Using the STD bus as a building block component, the Laboratory has designed and fabricated such subsystems. The STD bus, a standard interface throughout the computer industry, was chosen for the design because of its availability, ruggedness, versatility, and wide selection of compatible, off-the-shelf components.
    • DEVELOPING COMPUTERIZED, MOBILE TELEMETRY DATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS

      Cunningham, Mike; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      In today’s world, the fixed telemetry ground station is giving way to the mobile telemetry ground station. More and more systems are being developed to take advantage of mobility, allowing the ground station to be deployed to the testing area. To accomplish this, the Physical Science Laboratory (PSL) has developed methods to design mobile facilities to house modern, computerized telemetry stations that not only ensure equipment survivability, but also take into account the ergonomic considerations that are vital to operator performance.
    • SYSTEM ENGINEERING USING “TOY” COMPUTERS

      Mitchell, Steven W.; Sheets, K. Yvonne; ARGOSystems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      The current proliteration of microcomputers and software provides the system engineer and program manager a useful set of tools that can be adapted to support and enhance the program management effort. The functions that can be implemented effectively include scheduling, word processing, budgeting, limited data base applications, requirements tracing, document control, electronic mail/bulletin boards, and the tracking of contractual details. This paper describes strategies and architectures useful fo r implementing microcomputers into the program office environment. Also discussed is a software development methodology specifically tailored for the use at microcomputer applications software. * K. Yvonne Sheets is employed by Space Research, Inc., 440 Redondo Ave., Suite 202, Long Beach, Ca. 90814, and is under contract to ARGOSystams, Inc.
    • AN ANGULAR VELOCIMETER FOR AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS

      Whaley, P. W.; University of Nebraska (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      Low-level broad-band angular vibration measurement applications are continually developing. This has generated a pressing need for a low-level angular vibration sensor capable of measuring micro-radians at frequencies from 0 to 10kHz, with a total size of the sensor on the order of a cubic centimeter. The device described in this paper has potential for satisfying such a need. Only three design parameters are required to address the minimum sensitivity level, and alternate designs with dynamic ranges and durability similar to piezoelectric accelerometers could be developed capable of measuring angles down to 10^-6 radians. Since the device is based on measuring accelerations using piezoelectric crystals, linearity, dynamic range, hysteresis, and stability qualifications, as well as cost of production are anticipated on the order of conventional piezoelectric accelerometers.
    • REVIEW PLANS FOR NEW CENTER FOR MAGNETIC RECORDING RESEARCH AT UC SAN DIEGO

      Rudee, M.Lea; University of California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      In order to meet the acute national need for a major research and teaching effort in magnetic recording technology, the University of California, San Diego has established a Center for Magnetic Recording Research. At the core of the Center will be four faculty whose interdisciplinary research interests are in magnetic recording. Four endowed professorships will be used to attract this core faculty. The Center will also include other faculty at UCSD and throughout the University of California. UCSD has committed land and $1 million and the Regents of the University of California an additional $1 million to be matched by $3 million of industrial funds to construct a building to house the Center. Industry will also provide some research equipment and partial research support for five years. It is intended that the Center will have national visibility and achieve international leadership in the field.
    • NAVSTAR GPS HOST VEHICLE TELEMETRY SYSTEM

      Putnam, Robert M.; SMSgt. Lopez, Martin H.; USAF Space Division Los Angeles Air Force Station; The Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      The Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS) is presently undergoing full-scale engineering development by the Department of Defense. A unique telemetry system has been developed to support field test and evaluation of the GPS user equipment. Most of the field testing is being conducted at the U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground, which is equipped to receive and process GPS telemetry. The telemetry system allows real-time processing of GPS test data to support rapid on-site test planning, operations, and analysis. Telemetry transmission hardware has been integrated on a variety of GPS host vehicles. These include the Air Force’s C-141 cargo aircraft, B-52G bomber, and F-16A fighter, the Navy’s Convair 880 and A-6E attack aircraft, and the Army’s UH-60 helicopter and M-35 truck. Portable test station (PTS) units have also been developed to support the telemetry system. The PTS will function as ground support equipment for host vehicle modification center installation checkout, staging area premission checks, and telemetry transmission system troubleshooting. it also functions as a GPS-unique self-contained, man-portable telemetry receiving station for real-time GPS performance demonstrations and for remote range telemetry display and processing.
    • REMOTELY OPERATED VEHICLE OVERVIEW

      Wernli, Robert L.; Naval Ocean Systems Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      During the last two decades a technological assault has been made on the world’s oceans. Advances in technology extended man’s reach to the greatest ocean depths while he was enclosed in the protective shell of a submersible vehicle. However, manned submersibles are costly, and the ultimate safety of the operators can never be totally guaranteed. This is even more evident in the offshore oil industry where divers are used to perform many of the more routine inspection and work operations. Diver safety is important and the acquisition and operation of dive systems is quite costly. Thus, the new challenge: to get man back out of the sea, but keep his ability there. The technology for this challenge has been addressed for more than a decade by the United States Navy. Unmanned vehicles and work systems have been developed to perform undersea tasks, while the operator was positioned topside in a safe, comfortable environment. During the last several years, the application of this technology has appeared in the offshore oil industry, with the use of unmanned systems growing from less than 10 to over 200. By using the unmanned systems to perform those tasks previously restricted to “manned” systems, the doors have been opened to apply todays “robotics” technology to the problem. The future development of undersea robots will draw heavily on existing industrial robotics technology. It will supply the technology base required to advance the state-of-the-art, so that future systems will be able to autonomously perform entire work scenarios, with minimal supervisory control from a topside operator. This presentation will present an overview of unmanned undersea vehicles presently being used by the Navy and industry, and those areas where major strides can be achieved through the application of robotics technology.
    • USING MANCHESTER ENCODED DATA TRANSMISSION FOR ROV TELEMETRY

      Mackey, Lawrence A.; Undersea Vehicle Department (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      The communication link between the surface operator and an underwater Remote Operated Vehicle (ROV) provides the critical function of monitoring and controlling the movements of the ROV. If the communication link is weak, the ability to operate the ROV is weak. The reliability of that communication link can be significantly improved by the use of Manchester coding in time division multiplex (TDM) data telemetry systems that provide a self-clocking method of data transmission. This method of data transmission is presently used on both military (MIL-STD-1553), and commercial aircraft supplying data communication between subsystems onboard. One important part of telemetry that this paper discusses is the various signals that must be telemetered between the surface and the ROV. The complexity of sending these signals varies with the type of signal and the requited quality/resolution required at the opposite end of the line. Also of importance is the media over which the data is being transmitted. Transmitting data up and down long umbilical cables is not unlike data transmission elsewhere, however there are subtle potential problem areas that most other systems are able to avoid. The possible methods of transmission range from using a twisted pair of wires, to the state of the art sophistication of fiber-optics. Each method has merits and pitfalls that the potential user must be aware of before trying to use them.
    • THE INFLUENCE OF M ICROPROCESSORS ON SPACE (AIR/GROUND) SYSTEMS

      James, Lawrence P.; Systems Computer Operations (WSMC/RSCO) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      This paper discusses current and future trends in technology for on-board processing and the impact of these trends upon the architecture and processing capabilities of the ground receiving stations. Both the advantages and disadvantages of increased digital processing and software controlled multiplexing are addressed from the ground station processing viewpoint. Increased on-board processing should lead to a decrease in telemetry data rates as well as a diminished role for the ground support stations. This is shown by the paper to be a false assumption. Indeed, the reverse of this supposition is explored in detail and shown to be correct.
    • TOWARDS A UNIVERSAL DESIGN FOR ROV TELEMETRY VIA FIBER OPTICS

      Kono, Michael E.; Brininstool, Michael R.; Naval Ocean Systems Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      A brief description is presented on a current application of fiber optic technology to Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) design. Significant advantage is realized in terms of weight and space, EMI immunity, high bandwidth, and long length transmission capability. Current design practice utilized a standard graded index 50/125 micron telecommunications fiber “ruggedized” with a composite armor. On-going development seeks to make this cable element small and expendable while preserving the high bandwidth and low loss nature of the fiber. To free the system designer from mechanical considerations, the cable is pre-spooled and carried and deployed by the vehicle. Three dedicated communications channels are proposed on the single fiber by utilizing optical wavelength multiplexing.
    • SPACELAB HIGH DENSITY DIGITAL RECORDERS

      Blais, Richard A.; NASA (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      In 1979, NASA was faced with the problem of providing a ground facility magnetic tape recorder to store and retrieve serial Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) bit streams of up to 50 megabits per second (MBPS) which originated within Spacelab and its experiments. These recorders were required at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Johnson Space Center (JSC), and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The Spacelab requirements presented a wide variety of problems which no existing “offthe- shelf” recorder could accommodate at the time. As a consequence, an extensive and complex performance specification was developed. This specification necessitated many advances in the “state-of-the-art” in the field of High Density Digital Recorders. The 9000 SL High Density Digital Recorders designed and fabricated by Thorn-EMI Technology, Inc., under contract to NASA, have successfully met or exceeded all of the Spacelab requirements as identified in the performance specification. These recorders demonstrate the latest in high density digital recording technology. This technology includes the capability of recording 50 MBPS of data with a bit error rate of better than 1 bit in 108, completely automatic bit synchronization, auto selection of the optimum replay equalization, and a data coding scheme giving up to 50% greater data packing density than traditional codes.
    • Imageless Mixer for Data Translation

      Rieger, James L.; Woodworth, Paul H.; Naval Weapons Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      An imageless mixer is described for translation of a wideband data signal to an unoccupied portion of a telemetry link spectrum. The translation produced is identical to translations performed by existing double-sideband systems, but at a saving in hardware and with reduced adjustment. A computer program provided allows evaluation of various phaseshift filters for desired bandwidth and precision.