• ADVANCED TT&C FOR THE AIR FORCE SATELLITE CONTROL FACILITY CONCEPTUAL OVERVIEW

      Carroll, James T.; The Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      The Department of Defense will be moving their essential space resources into the EHF spectrum which, together with new signal structures, will counter the impacts of jamming, nuclear effects, and electronic intelligence intercept. The Air Force Satellite Control Facility (AFSCF) project for incorporating the new Satellite Data Link Standards (SDLS) into its existing antenna and communication network is described. Also, the signal structure concepts, system architecture, EHF user programs, interoperability factors, and finally, implementation plans. Taken together, these factors will implement a new SDLS Military Standard for space links.
    • ADVANCES IN DIGITAL MEMORY TELEMETERS FOR ARTILLERY PROJECTILES

      Szabo, Louis R.; Osborne, William I.; HQ US Army Armament Research And Development Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      The purpose of this paper is to review the progress currently being made in the semiconductor field and how these recent advances can be utilized in digital memory telemeters for gathering data from various artillery projectiles. Topics to be presented include: basic design considerations, high-g packaging techniques, and the high-g hardening of critical electronic components. In addition, a prototype memory telemeter, which is under development for ARDC’s 155mm Ballistic Simulator, and the firing data it has recorded to date will be discussed. Finally, a look at future advances in IC technology and its impact on digital memory telemeters will be presented.
    • AN ANGULAR VELOCIMETER FOR AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS

      Whaley, P. W.; University of Nebraska (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      Low-level broad-band angular vibration measurement applications are continually developing. This has generated a pressing need for a low-level angular vibration sensor capable of measuring micro-radians at frequencies from 0 to 10kHz, with a total size of the sensor on the order of a cubic centimeter. The device described in this paper has potential for satisfying such a need. Only three design parameters are required to address the minimum sensitivity level, and alternate designs with dynamic ranges and durability similar to piezoelectric accelerometers could be developed capable of measuring angles down to 10^-6 radians. Since the device is based on measuring accelerations using piezoelectric crystals, linearity, dynamic range, hysteresis, and stability qualifications, as well as cost of production are anticipated on the order of conventional piezoelectric accelerometers.
    • APPLICATION OF A STATE-OF-THE-ART PROGRAMMABLE MULTIPLEXER IN A GUN LAUNCH ENVIRONMENT

      Doherty, Michael J.; Microcom Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      This paper will deal with the application of a fully programmable multiplexer in a gun launch environment. The multiplexer utilizes an electrically erasable memory to allow gain and offset scaling on a channel by channel basis and to control sampling sequence and subcommutation. Special emphasis will be given to the thick film hybrid construction technique utilized to withstand the harsh environment.
    • APPLICATION OF GPS TO NATIONAL TEST RANGES

      Jones, Harold L.; Macdonald, Thomas J.; The Analytic Sciences Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      This paper summarizes an evaluation of the potential use of the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) as a source of Time Space Position Information (TSPI) for weapon system test and evaluation. The study was conducted in support of a Tri-Service Steering Committee chartered by the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense Research and Engineering to investigate applications of GPS for the DOD test and training ranges. The performance capabilities and life-cycle costs of GPS- and non-GPS-based instrumentation equipment are compared for eight generically-defined test ranges. Based on these analyses, a prioritized ranking of applications is presented. Finally, desirable characteristics for a family of GPS equipment are described and technical issues requiring resolution through field tests are identified.
    • APPLYING GPS TO TRAINING SYSTEMS

      Thornburg, Daryl D.; Wasielewski, Michael C.; General Dynamics Electronics Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      The United States military has long recognized the need to provide realistic training for its personnel. Improving the effectiveness of battle simulations requires accurate scoring, large engagement areas and numerous participants. The Global Positioning System (GPS), with its accurate position, velocity and time information, will significantly enhance the capability of range instrumentation systems to support field training exercises. GPS provides a precise real-time navigation solution that improves weapons simulation accuracy and simplifies participant pairing at all altitudes. GPS is a worldwide, common grid system and, as such, inherently covers large areas with a minimum of instrumentation hardware. Position location is performed with GPS at each participant. Therefore, the number of participants is limited only by the data communication from the control center. This paper discusses the application of GPS to three (3) field training types: (1) Air Combat, (2) Land Armor Engagements, and (3) War at Sea.
    • AUTOMATIC GAIN RANGING AMPLIFIER

      Talmadge, Richard E.; Liron, Emanuel; AFWAL-FIBG; Aydin Vector Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      The increasing complexity of Air Force aircraft and systems has created a demand for the collection of greater amounts of more accurate, higher dynamic range test data to solve dynamics related problems. The problems presented by higher volume can be resolved by making use of a time sharing Pulse Coded Modulation formatting technique. To meet demands for high dynamic range, the need is apparent for a device which “siphons” the wide dynamic range test data to a range which is compatible with the recording device. The Automatic Gain Ranging Amplifier performs this task and that of increasing the system’s signal to noise ratio. The AGRA has seven gain options from -12 dB to 60 dB (-12 dB is a one step 12 dB attenuation) in 12 dB steps. Gain is controlled by an internal peak detector or by an external (CMOS compatible) processor. Following the amplifier is a four rolloff frequency, six pole Butterworth low pass filter. The AGRA senses the output measurement and automatically adjusts the gain to be within the required recording levels. In this manner, a large number of measurement devices (thermocouples, strain gauges, etc.) whose output swings vary over a large range can be made compatible with a single recording device.
    • AUTOMATIC GAIN RANGING AMPLIFIER

      Talmadge, Richard E.; Liron, Emanuel; AFWAL-FIBG; Aydin Vector Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      The increasing complexity of Air Force aircraft and systems has created a demand for the collection of greater amounts of more accurate, higher dynamic range test data to solve dynamics related problems. The problems presented by higher volume can be resolved by making use of a time sharing Pulse Coded Modulation formatting technique. To meet demands for high dynamic range, the need is apparent for a device which “siphons” the wide dynamic range test data to a range which is compatible with the recording device. The Automatic Gain Ranging Amplifier performs this task and that of increasing the system’s signal to noise ratio. The AGRA has seven gain options from -12 dB to 60 dB (-12 dB is a one step 12 dB attenuation) in 12 dB steps. Gain is controlled by an internal peak detector or by an external (CMOS compatible) processor. Following the amplifier is a four rolloff frequency, six pole Butterworth low pass filter. The AGRA senses the output measurement and automatically adjusts the gain to be within the required recording levels. In this manner, a large number of measurement devices (thermocouples, strain gauges, etc.) whose output swings vary over a large range can be made compatible with a single recording device.
    • AUTOMATING SATELLITE COMMAND AND CONTROL

      Golden, Constance J.; Ford Aerospace & Communications Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      Existing spacecraft/satellite control requires access to a group of “experts” familiar with each satellite subsystem to be able to analyze and correct spacecraft malfunctions. When remote, mobile satellite control systems are deployed, these “experts” will not be available. Automation of many of the functions currently being performed by these experts and the operators at the consoles will allow these mobile systems to operate autonomously while correcting for anomalies that can be logically identified. This automation can be achieved by implementing artificial intelligence (AI) processes/techniques to the fault detection, command correction process. Techniques from the artificial intelligence development process and algorithms from statistical forecasting methods will be analyzed and tested for applicability in providing automated spacecraft health and status information for one DOD program. Key issues in applying these processes to all critical DOD programs will be identified and discussed.
    • BECHTEL’S SATELLITE NETWORK

      Davies, T. A.; Information Services Technical Services Bechtel Power Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      Bechtel’s Satellite Business Systems (SBS) network began operations during the month of May 1983. Both voice and data traffic are carried on the network. Voice traffic originates in the Ann Arbor, Gaithersburg, Houston, Louisville, Norwalk, San Francisco, Walnut Creek, and Washington, D.C. Bechtel offices. Voice transmission allows calls to be originated in these network locations and terminated in any other location either on-net or off-net in the continental United States. Data traffic is transmitted to and from Univac computer complexes in San Francisco and Dallas.
    • BIT SYNCHRONIZATION IN THE PRESENCE OF ASYMMETRIC CHANNEL NOISE

      Tsang, Chit-Sang; Lindsey, W. C.; LinCom Corporation; University of Southern California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      Bit synchronization in the presence of asymmetric channel noise has not appeared in the open literature. It is the purpose of this paper to study the performance of a popular digital clock synchronizer, the Digital Data Transition Tracking Loop (DTTL), in the presence of asymmetric noise. A comparison of the DTTL and Cross Spectrum Synchronization Loop (CSSL) is also provided for special parameter values of greatest interest. Numerical results are presented for design of bit synchronizer in this environment.
    • BIT SYNCHRONIZERS FOR PSK AND THEIR DIGITAL IMPLEMENTATION

      Holmes, Jack K.; Holmes Associates, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      Bit synchronizers play an important role in phase-shift-keyed systems (as well as noncoherent systems) with the trend towards all-digital versions. This paper discusses the various types of bit synchronizers and the additional functions and subsystems that must be used to make them efficient at low values of SNR and bit-transition density. It also discusses the digitization of bit synchronizers, along with the performance measures commonly used.
    • COMMUNICATIONS INTERFACE EQUIPMENT AN ADVANCED ORBITER INTERFACE SYSTEM FOR PAYLOADS COMMAND/TELEMETRY

      Lt. York, Col. D.; Hoagland, J. C.; USAF; Rockwell International (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      The Communication Interface Equipment (CIE) developed by the United States Air Force for the Space Transportation System provides an improved command and telemetry link between the Orbiter and attached or detached payloads. This unique equipment allows for the secure data transfer and communication directly to the ground tracking data relay satellite system and to payloads while using the Communication Subsystem of the Orbiter as a relay. The extended capabilities of the CIE provide for digital and analog command conversion, di-bit decoding, multiple payload commanding, acceptance of any telemetry . format, and transfer of telemetry data without modification at rates up to 1.024 Mbps to via the Orbiter Communications Subsystem.
    • COMPUTERIZED TEST TECHNIQUES FOR INSTRUMENTATION MAGNETIC TAPE RECORDERS

      Schoeck, Kenneth O.; Kobylecky, George M.; Western Space and Missile Center; Federal Electric Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      Since development of the initial system in 1980, the Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC) has been refining computerized test techniques for instrumentation magnetic tape recorder/reproducers. These tests include standard IRIG tests such as flutter, time base error (TBE), interchannel time displacement error (ITDE), harmonic distortion, frequency response and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), as well as slot noise, crosstalk and intermodulation distortion (IMD). The test philosophy is to duplicate results that can be obtained manually, but at the same time greatly reduce test time and operator intervention. Such parameters as data sampling periods and number of samples have been refined to obtain maximum correlation and minimum test times. Also, a complete set of self-check and troubleshooting programs have been developed.
    • CONVOLUTIONAL CODING/VITERBI DECODING OF PCM/FM

      Cox, T. F.; Nichols, M. H.; Naval Weapons Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      Tests were run with a binary PCM/FM transmission channel using limiter/discriminator detection and (7, 1/2) convolutional coding with Viterbi decoding. In all cases, soft decision decoding showed little or no improvement relative to hard decision, evidently because of the pops in the FM demodulator. Under optimum PCM/FM conditions, namely p-p deviation = 0.7 fs and IFBW = fs, the coding improvement at BER = 10^-6 was about 2.2 dB. The binary symbol rate in the transmission channel is fs. In the course of the test, it was discovered that with PCM/FM under optimum conditions, channel errors frequently occurred in pairs. This severely reduces the value of parity bit when used with uncoded PCM/FM and also degrades the Viterbi decoder performance by about 1 dB.
    • DATA COMPRESSION -PROMISE AND PRACTICE

      Dixon, Robert C.; Hughes Aircraft Company Microelectronic Systems Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
    • DATA LINK CONSIDERATIONS FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

      Rupp, John P.; PC Systems Tempe, Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      The benefits of increased production, more predictable product quality and greater return on investment can be directly related to improved process control. The micro electronics development and manufacturing explosion has provided unusual opportunities for control system engineers to implement improved control system design. The most recent opportunity for these benefits is the present day distributed control systems. These systems exist only because of the microprocessor-base controller, video displays and communication links. The basic elements of this system are equipments, programming and data movement. It is this later element, data movement, with the associated programming that is the thrust of this presentation. The initial portion addresses data. The second portion address the movement. Plant locations, geography, environment, materials, processes, and products are only some of the factors that determine the kinds of data. The types of data that are utilized in industrial applications are analyzed and characterized for consideration. The movement of data is discussed with respect to equipment feature, transmission rates, distances between equipments, conformance to standards, programing and other pertinent factors. The types of equipment presently available are analyzed and characterized for considerations. A discussion of future developments will conclude the presentation.
    • DEEP SPACE OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS EXPERIMENT

      Kinman, Peter; Katz, Joseph; Gagliardi, Robert; California Institute of Technology; University of Southern California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      An optical communications experiment between a deep space vehicle and an earth terminal is under consideration for later in this decade. The experimental link would be incoherent (direct detection) and would employ two-way cooperative pointing. The deep space optical transceiver would ride piggyback on a spacecraft with an independent scientific objective. Thus, this optical transceiver is being designed for minimum spacecraft impact — specifically, low mass and low power. The choices of laser transmitter, coding/modulation scheme, and pointing mechanization are discussed. A representative telemetry link budget is presented.
    • DESIGN OF A SETUP BUS EXPANSION INTERFACE

      Garcia, Michael S.; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      The Setup Bus Expansion Interface, a software selectable, 8 channel, digital demultiplexor was designed as an augmentation to the Telemetry Controller System (TMCS) at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexico. The TMCS performs ‘front end’ synchronization and decommutation duties for the Telemetry Data Center at WSMR, utilizing EMR 700 series equipment hosted by a DEC PDP 11/44 computer/processor. The Setup Bus Expansion Interface has increased the capability of this system by transforming the single setup output bus of the host computer to a selectable 8 bus structure, allowing output of variable parameters to the 700 series equipment entirely from the host computer. The interface also offers dual selectable input on one channel to provide for the future implementation of a multiplex processor into the TMCS.
    • DEVELOPING COMPUTERIZED, MOBILE TELEMETRY DATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS

      Cunningham, Mike; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1983-10)
      In today’s world, the fixed telemetry ground station is giving way to the mobile telemetry ground station. More and more systems are being developed to take advantage of mobility, allowing the ground station to be deployed to the testing area. To accomplish this, the Physical Science Laboratory (PSL) has developed methods to design mobile facilities to house modern, computerized telemetry stations that not only ensure equipment survivability, but also take into account the ergonomic considerations that are vital to operator performance.