Horan, Stephen; Minnix, Timothy; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      Small satellites have been perceived as having limited access to NASA's Space Network consisting of the TDR satellites and associated ground terminals. This paper presents the potential for access of the space network using basic small satellite design constraints and a simple helical antenna for the communications links. From the analysis derived through simulation of the orbit of both satellites, small satellites can be shown to have up to 30 minutes per orbit of single-TDRS access. Data rates on the order of 100 kbps are possible in this configuration with total daily data volumes in excess of 100 Mbits being achievable. Design parameters are given for a variety of orbital inclination angles and spacecraft transmission powers to illustrate the expected available contact time for such small satellites to the Space Network. This is compared with typical access time through a fixed ground station.

      Reinsmith, Lee V.; TYBRIN Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      This paper describes the application software used in the Message Processing System at the Air Force Development Test Center (AFDTC), Eglin AFB. The focus is on the Alpha AXP application software designed and developed to log, process, and reformat IRIG Chapter 8 1553 data. The main data reduction and editing capabilities of the processing phase are explained: message output selection, message output sampling, message translation, error identification, and IRIG Chapter 8 time editing. The design of and methods used to produce the output files, the BBNProbe STD file, and the 1553 message summary report are described. This software’s flexibility and comprehensiveness in processing, reducing, and re-formatting 1553 message data will enable AFDTC to satisfy current and future post-mission processing requirements.

      Goulet, Dennis A.; Coleman, Harriet; Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      The U.S. Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) has established a secure network linking training and Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT&E) ranges with sponsor sites. These links allow the remote monitoring and archiving of range data and audio, access to Center modeling, simulation and analysis facilities, the ability to remotely upgrade development and operating system software, and the ability to perform remote diagnostics and trouble-shooting of range resources from the Exercise Communications Center (ECC) located in Newport, RI, which serves as the hub of the network. The Training, Test and Evaluation Analysis Laboratory (TEAL) was developed to coordinate access to shipboard and land-based trainers and modeling and simulation facilities, as well as undersea ranges. By this process, TEAL integrates undersea ranges, laboratory simulation, and training systems into a seamless communications network. The Australian Underwater Range Activity (AURA) being installed in Western Australia has the capacity to become a participant in TEAL. The test and training flexibilities available with TEAL can enhance and expand the capabilities of AURA to the benefit of the Royal Australian Navy.

      Wu, Wei-Ren; Li, Hua; Beijing Research Institute of Telemetry (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      A real time distributed computer telemetry system based on network is described. It is a new generation of open telemetry system in China, which can parallel acquire and process up to 8 data streams of 100bps~3.5Mbps and optimize automatically distribution of processing tasks by using load-balance technique. PCM PSK QPSK PACM may be suitable to the system and the format switched within less than 1 second. The system has been successfully used in the field of aerospace. There are models of automobile, shipboard, airborne as well as ground station for the system. This paper discusses mainly system architecture, performance, principle, and system features.

      Lam, Daniel-Hung; Moyes, Robert; SEMCO; BME (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      This paper discusses the design and performance of the FM/PM/BPSK "personal computer card-based" receiver. In PSK, a carrier recovery technique must be used for signal demodulation. Costas loop is a well known method and is the basis in the design of the BPSK demodulation. A new design approach employing digital Box Car arm filters is used to improve receiver performance and flexibility. Detail design and performance of the digital Costas loop will be explored in a later section. A classical technique is employed for Phase demodulation with the use of tracking Phase Lock Loop. Frequency demodulation is designed around a simple, single FM discriminator IC.

      Porter, Jim; Meyers, Tom; SEMCO (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      Embedded "Card-Based" receivers are one of the latest innovations in telemetry reception. These products provide substantial power and flexibility in a small form factor (one slot, PC or VME). In many applications they are a cost effective alternative to conventional telemetry receivers. This paper analyzes currently available products with regard to their features, capabilities, and performance, as well as highlighting typical applications.

      O'Brien, R. Michael; Loral Test & Information Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      With today's telemetry systems, an hour-long analog test tape can be digitized in one hour or less. However, the digitized data produced by today's telemetry systems is usually not in a format that can be directly analyzed by the test engineer's analysis tools. The digitized data must be formatted before analysis can begin. The data formatting process can take from one to eight hours depending on the amount of data, the power of the system's host computer, and the complexity of the analysis software's data format. If more than one analysis package is used by the test engineer, the data has to be formatted separately for each package. Using today's high-speed RISC processors and large memory technology, a real-time Flexible Data Formatter can be added to the Telemetry Front End to perform this formatting function. The Flexible Data Formatter (FDF) allows the telemetry user to program the front-end hardware to output the telemetry test data in a format compatible with the user's analysis software. The FDF can also output multiple data files, each in a different format for supporting multiple analysis packages. This eliminates the file formatting step, thus reducing the time to process the data from each test by a factor of two to nine.
    • Dual Function Transponder: A Data Link for the Next Generation

      DeViso, Hans; Troth, Bill (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      Future U.S. Navy at-sea and littoral battle group training range instrumentation requires a new, secure, high data rate link This link must be capable of providing the ranges with the capacity to increase the number of players, increase the amount of threat simulation, and allow an improved Global Positioning System (GPS) based position tracking system to be implemented This paper describes a Dual Function Transponder (DFT) capable of operating on any R-CUBED (Relay, Reporter, Responder) based range as well as any TACTS/ACMI range without modification of either range type. In addition, the DFT provides a new increased data rate capability for use by planned future ranges, enabling a dramatic increase in the number of participants as well as significantly increasing the quantity of data that can be communicated by each player. Miniaturization and programmability are the keys to this development and many of the methods used are described.
    • Advancements in Subminiature Telemetry Technology

      Keller, G. Edward, Jr.; Murphey, Robert A.; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      This paper describes the progress made by the Wright Laboratory Armament Directorate Instrumentation Technology Branch in developing Subminiature Instrumentation Technologies. These advancements will be explained relative to the overall scope of the Subminiature Instrumentation efforts. The goal of these efforts is a DOD depot capability to provide low cost, non-intrusive telemetry instrumentation for any weapon system. The concept of developing a "chip-set" of monolithic modules to allow quick design and fabrication of a specific telemetry package, has been implemented with the development of subminiature telemetry. Today, the telemetry package with 128 digital and 64 analog channels, 200kbs up to 10Mbs data rates, with programmable functions, is approximately 2 inches X 2 inches X .25 inches and weighs about 50 grams. Encryption is available and provisions are being made to transmit video in the same module. This technology is being pursued as the standard for all air-to-air and air-to-ground telemetry systems.

      Bougan, Timothy B.; Science Applications International Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      In order to meet the high-speed and high-density recording requirements for today's development and testing environments, we are seeking to merge the cutting edge technologies of tiny, high-performance disk drives and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) to build a high-speed compact disk recorder (CHSDR). Specifically, we designed, built, and tested a multi-drive controller that handles the interleaving of data to eight inexpensive IDE drives. These drives and controller comprise a "cell" capable of transferring data at 2.45 MB/sec (4 to 5 times the rate of a single drive). Furthermore, these "cells" can be run in parallel (with a single controller interleaving data between the cells). This "tree" effect multiplies the data rate by the number of cells employed. For example, 8 cells (of 8 drives each) can reach nearly 20 MB/second (sustained) and can be built for less than $30,000. The drives we used are the size of match boxes (the Hewlett Packard KittyHawk). These tiny drives hold 42 megabytes each and can withstand 150 Gs while operating. The cell controller is a Xilinx 4005 FPGA. Furthermore, we've designed a 120 MB/sec RAM FIFO to buffer data entering the system (to account for unavoidable drive seek latencies). In short, the compact high-speed disk array is a small, relatively low cost recording solution for anyone requiring high data speed but modest data volume. Missile shots, nuclear tests, and other short-term experiments are good examples of such requirements.
    • Sub-Optimum Receiver Filters

      Osborne, William P.; Gutierrez, Alberto; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      This paper presents a method for analyzing the performance of a digital receiver when using standard analog filters in place of the ideal matched filter. Expressions are developed for the probability of error and performance loss of the sub-optimum receiver as functions of the minimum eye value and noise bandwidth of the suboptimum receiver filter. A method is developed for choosing the best sub-optimum filter in the sense of minimizing the probability of error. The best sub-optimum Bessel filter of order less than or equal to 6 is specified in terms of 3-dB bandwidth and filter order for a system with a rectangular transmit pulse. This method is applicable to other transmit pulse shapes and can be applied to channels with limited bandwidth. The optimum 3-dB bandwidth obtained here can be scaled relative to the symbol rate to correspond to any practical system.
    • Divide and Conquer: Improving Post-Flight Data Processing

      Scardillo, Mike; Nisel, Mike; Perimeter Computer Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      This paper describes Dryden Flight Research Center's (DFRC's) transition from a mainframe-oriented post-flight data processing system, heavily dependent upon manual operation and scheduling, to a modern, distributed, highly automated system. After developing requirements and a concept development plan, DFRC replaced one multiple-CPU mainframe with five specialized servers, distributing the processing workload and separating functions. Access to flight data was improved by buying and building client server automated retrieval software that takes advantage of the local area network, and by providing over 500 gigabytes of on-line archival storage space. Engineering customers see improved access times and continuous availability (7-days per week, 24-hours per day) of flight research data. A significant reduction in computer operator workload was achieved, and minimal computer operator intervention is now required for flight data retrieval operations. This new post-flight system architecture was designed and built to provide flexibility, extensibility and cost-effective upgradeability. Almost two years of successful operation have proven the viability of the system. Future improvements will focus on decreasing the elapsed time between raw data capture and engineering unit data archival, increasing the on-line archival storage capacity, and decreasing the automated data retrieval response time.
    • Acquisition and Near Real-Time Display of Multispectral Test Data from Widely Separated Test Sites

      Donlan, Brian; Sabo, Frank; Science Applications International Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      As modern weapons grow more sophisticated and capable of operating autonomously, the challenge of testing these weapons has also grown more complex. Seekers may be multispectral and must be able to overcome threat countermeasures. To effectively analyze the performance of these weapons, time-correlated test data must be efficiently, simultaneously acquired from both the weapons' internal busses and from the threat countermeasures' internal communication busses, often in a "live fire" environment. The test data must be transmitted to a central processing station where test personnel may immediately analyze the performance of the weapon with the assistance of scientific visualization techniques. In addition, the data must be captured on permanent media for future playback and more detailed analysis. One solution is to link the test article, threat countermeasures and other test support resources through an Integrated Telemetry System (ITS). Instrumentation to acquire high-speed test data is installed in data collection vans that are remotely located in the vicinity of the article under test or in the vicinity of the threat countermeasures systems or test support resources. The remote vans will be interconnected and linked to a control van which provides a centralized test control and monitoring point. Remote Data Formatter (RDF) instrumentation units, located in the remote vans, can acquire data from and control seekers, sensors, emission sources or other equipment located in or near the remote vans. The RDF units can also format the data for transmission to the control van via either fiber optic or microwave radio links. The data transmitted from multiple remote vans is received by Real-time Data Processing System (RTPS) units located in the control van for merging, processing and recording. Some of the processed data can be transferred to a Host Processing System (HPS) where it can be displayed on color graphic workstations. The control van's HPS workstations provide user-friendly displays and menus for test setup and control. Both the remote and control vans are equipped with secure digital communication systems capable of supporting compressed digital video, audio, high-speed instrumentation data and an Ethernet computer network.
    • A Software Architecture for Client-Server Telemetry Data Analysis

      Brockett, Douglas M.; Aramaki, Nancy J.; BBN Systems & Technologies (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      An increasing need among telemetry data analysts for new mechanisms for efficient access to high-speed data in distributed environments has led BBN to develop a new architecture for data analysis. The data sets of concern can be from either real-time or post-test sources. This architecture consists of an expandable suite of tools based upon a data distribution software "backbone" which allows the interchange of high volume data streams among server processes and client workstations. One benefit of this architecture is that it allows one to assemble software systems from a set of off-the-shelf, interoperable software modules. This modularity and interoperability allows these systems to be configurable and customizable, while requiring little applications programming by the system integrator.

      Morimoto, Todd A.; Nowitzky, Thomas E.; Grippando, Steven A.; Space & Missile Systems Center; Loral Space & Range Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      An increasing number of satellite users and manufacturers are looking to lightweight, inexpensive satellites as substitutes to traditional large, expensive satellites with multiple payloads. Neither the Department of Defense nor the commercial sector can bear the financial or reputational consequences associated with massive program failures. With the low cost and weight of these new satellites, users can achieve mission success without great risk. One example of this new class of inexpensive spacecraft is the RADCAL (RADar CALibration) satellite. Detachment 2, Space & Missile Systems Center at Sunnyvale, CA operates the satellite. RADCAL is a 200-pound polar orbiting satellite with an average altitude of 450 miles. It is primarily used by 77 worldwide radars to calibrate their systems to within five meter accuracy. Also flying on board RADCAL is a communication payload for remote field users with small radios. The RADCAL program has satisfied all mission requirements. However, with the limited size and cost come certain challenges, both in the satellite and on the ground. Pre-launch testing was not as comprehensive as with more expensive programs; anomalies have arisen that require extensive workarounds. Data management is not a straightforward task, and it is sometimes difficult and inexact to track satellite performance. These challenges are presented with their solutions in the following discussion; this paper addresses the functional, operational, and testing aspects associated with the RADCAL satellite.

      Finegan, Brian H.; Singer, Gary; Harris Computer Systems Corporation; Harris Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      The Advanced Telemetry Processing System (ATPS) is the result of a joint development project between Harris Corporation and Veda Systems, Incorporated. The mission of the development team was to produce a high-performance, cost-effective, supportable telemetry system; one that would utilize commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware and software, thereby eliminating costly customization typically required for range and telemetry applications. A critical element in the 'cost-effective, supportable' equation was the ability to easily incorporate system performance upgrades as well as future hardware and software technology advancements. The ATPS combines advanced hardware and software technology that includes a high-speed, top-down data management environment; a mature man-machine interface; a B1-level Trusted operating system and network; and stringent real-time multiprocessing capabilities into a single, fully integrated, 'open' platform. In addition, the system incorporates a unique direct memory transfer feature that allows incoming data to pass directly into local memory space where it can be displayed and analyzed, thereby reducing I/O bottleneck and freeing processors for other specialized tasks.
    • Low Cost Vector Scoring System for Airborne Targets

      Whiteman, Don; Bradley, Joe; Naval Air Warfare Center, Weapons Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      Testing of airborne weapons systems often requires that a scoring system be placed on the target drone to obtain critical miss distance data. Advanced weapons utilizing directional warheads often require a scoring system which yields vector, miss distance and miss direction, information. Scalar scoring systems currently in use are relatively simple and inexpensive. Vector scoring systems are typically complex and the cost of systems which are currently available or are being developed can be prohibitively expensive. Due to the current military budget decline, development of a low cost vector scoring system is desirable This paper introduces a low cost vector scoring system developed for airborne target drones and based on an inexpensive scalar scoring system currently in use. To meet the low cost criteria, vector operation is achieved via minimal modifications to the existing scalar system.
    • Data Acquisition System Central Multiplexer

      Anderson, William; Carro, Eduardo; Loral Test & Information Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      The Central Multiplexer is a versatile data multiplexer designed to address emerging test requirements for recording data from many sources on digital rotary head recorders at high data rates. A modular design allows easy reconfiguration for airborne or laboratory use; simultaneous data input from 63 sources of data in any combination of PCM commutators, ARINC 429 buses, ARINC 629 buses, MIL- STD-1553 buses, and general-purpose high-speed serial data packets; simultaneous, independent programmable outputs to high-speed digital data recorders, quick-look displays, and engineering monitor and analysis systems; and setup and control from a remote panel, a dumb terminal, a laptop personal computer, a standalone test system, or a large control computer.
    • Binary PCM/FM Tradeoffs Between Spectral Occupancy and Bit Error Probability

      Law, Eugene L.; NAWCWPNS (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      The bit rates of telemetry systems are increasing rapidly. Higher bit rates occupy more spectra and result in decreased link margin. The major signal parameters that affect the spectral occupancy and bit error probability (BEP) of binary pulse code modulation (PCM)/frequency modulation (FM) signals are the bit rate, code, premodulation filter, and peak deviation. The measured spectral occupancy is also affected by the spectrum analyzer (or other measurement equipment) settings. Additional parameters that affect the BEP include the receiver intermediate frequency (IF) filter, the FM demodulator, and the bit detector. This paper will present the effects of these parameters on the measured 99% and -60 dBc bandwidths and the BEP of binary PCM/FM telemetry signals. Normalized BEP and bandwidth curves will be presented.

      Baca, Dawnielle C. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      The Data Acquisition, Analysis, and Simulation System (DAAS) is a computer system designed to allow data sources on spacecraft in the Flight System Testbed (FST) to be monitored, analyzed, and simulated. This system will be used primarily by personnel in the Flight System Testbed, flight project designers, and test engineers to investigate new technology that may prove useful across many flight projects. Furthermore, it will be used to test various spacecraft design possibilities during prototyping. The basic capabilities of the DAAS involve unobtrusively monitoring various information sources on a developing spacecraft. This system also provides the capability to generate simulated data in appropriate formats at a given data rate, and to inject this data onto the communication line or bus, using the necessary communication protocol. The DAAS involves Serial RS232/RS422, Ethernet, and MIL-STD-1553 communication protocols, as well as LabVIEW software, VME hardware, and SunOS/UNIX operating systems.