• Acquisition and Near Real-Time Display of Multispectral Test Data from Widely Separated Test Sites

      Donlan, Brian; Sabo, Frank; Science Applications International Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      As modern weapons grow more sophisticated and capable of operating autonomously, the challenge of testing these weapons has also grown more complex. Seekers may be multispectral and must be able to overcome threat countermeasures. To effectively analyze the performance of these weapons, time-correlated test data must be efficiently, simultaneously acquired from both the weapons' internal busses and from the threat countermeasures' internal communication busses, often in a "live fire" environment. The test data must be transmitted to a central processing station where test personnel may immediately analyze the performance of the weapon with the assistance of scientific visualization techniques. In addition, the data must be captured on permanent media for future playback and more detailed analysis. One solution is to link the test article, threat countermeasures and other test support resources through an Integrated Telemetry System (ITS). Instrumentation to acquire high-speed test data is installed in data collection vans that are remotely located in the vicinity of the article under test or in the vicinity of the threat countermeasures systems or test support resources. The remote vans will be interconnected and linked to a control van which provides a centralized test control and monitoring point. Remote Data Formatter (RDF) instrumentation units, located in the remote vans, can acquire data from and control seekers, sensors, emission sources or other equipment located in or near the remote vans. The RDF units can also format the data for transmission to the control van via either fiber optic or microwave radio links. The data transmitted from multiple remote vans is received by Real-time Data Processing System (RTPS) units located in the control van for merging, processing and recording. Some of the processed data can be transferred to a Host Processing System (HPS) where it can be displayed on color graphic workstations. The control van's HPS workstations provide user-friendly displays and menus for test setup and control. Both the remote and control vans are equipped with secure digital communication systems capable of supporting compressed digital video, audio, high-speed instrumentation data and an Ethernet computer network.

      Chavez, Tom; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      Testing into the 21st Century will entail significantly different techniques than those presently used. Processing of data sources such as telemetry, radar, optics, and others will change from a merging of data for post flight reduction, to a real time fusion of data for mission support. Change in the philosophy of what is telemetry data will drive the entire processing and display systems used for real time support. Telemetry will move further from being used primarily for airframe performance reporting, to being a source of precision TSPI, video, and endgame performance. This paper will touch on these aspects and explore the processes such as techniques, displays, and standards that will evolve to meet these requirements.

      Hines, Dennis O.; Rhea, Donald C.; Williams, Guy W.; Edwards Air Force Base; SPARTA Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      The rapid technology growth in the aerospace industry continues to manifest itself in increasingly complex computer systems and weapons systems platforms. To meet the data processing challenges associated with these new weapons systems, the Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC) is developing the next generation of data acquisition and processing systems under the Advanced Data Acquisition and Processing Systems (ADAPS) Program. The ADAPS program has evolved into an approach that utilizes Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components as the foundation for Air Force enhancements to meet specific customer requirements. The ADAPS program has transitioned from concept exploration to engineering and manufacturing development (EMD). This includes the completion of a detailed requirements analysis and a overall system design. This paper will discuss the current status of the ADAPS program including the requirements analysis process, details of the system design, and the result of current COTS acquisitions.
    • An Advanced Digital Ranging and Telecontrol Apparatus

      Hua, Zhong-Han; Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      An earth station apparatus and its technical specificities and components are described in this article. Which is used for locating and telecontrol of flying objects. The pseudo-random spread spectrum system compatible with GPS is used in measuring the distance and velocity of moving-targets. The ranging and range-rate measuring signals and telecontrol signal are included in up link. The CDMADS, GLOD code are used for ranging and range-rate measuring. The GLOD code rate varies from 1 Kbps to 2.048 Mbps in step 1 bit. The subcarrier modulation systems of telecontrol are PSK, FSK, MFSK and High alphabet modulation. The frequency of subcarrier varies from 1 KHz to 1 MHZ in step 1 Hz. The rate of instruction code varies from 50 bps to 38.4Kbps in step 1 bit. The modulation indexes varies from 0.7 to 2 in 16 steps. The polarization diversity technique of digital symmetical common mode and differential mode loops are applied in down link receiver. It is used for demodulation of back signal, ranging and range-rate measuring signal and A, E error signal used by track system. The digital technique and modularization bus technique are used throughout the apparetus. All modules in apparatus and their principle are discussed in thes article.

      Finegan, Brian H.; Singer, Gary; Harris Computer Systems Corporation; Harris Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      The Advanced Telemetry Processing System (ATPS) is the result of a joint development project between Harris Corporation and Veda Systems, Incorporated. The mission of the development team was to produce a high-performance, cost-effective, supportable telemetry system; one that would utilize commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware and software, thereby eliminating costly customization typically required for range and telemetry applications. A critical element in the 'cost-effective, supportable' equation was the ability to easily incorporate system performance upgrades as well as future hardware and software technology advancements. The ATPS combines advanced hardware and software technology that includes a high-speed, top-down data management environment; a mature man-machine interface; a B1-level Trusted operating system and network; and stringent real-time multiprocessing capabilities into a single, fully integrated, 'open' platform. In addition, the system incorporates a unique direct memory transfer feature that allows incoming data to pass directly into local memory space where it can be displayed and analyzed, thereby reducing I/O bottleneck and freeing processors for other specialized tasks.
    • Advancements in Subminiature Telemetry Technology

      Keller, G. Edward, Jr.; Murphey, Robert A.; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      This paper describes the progress made by the Wright Laboratory Armament Directorate Instrumentation Technology Branch in developing Subminiature Instrumentation Technologies. These advancements will be explained relative to the overall scope of the Subminiature Instrumentation efforts. The goal of these efforts is a DOD depot capability to provide low cost, non-intrusive telemetry instrumentation for any weapon system. The concept of developing a "chip-set" of monolithic modules to allow quick design and fabrication of a specific telemetry package, has been implemented with the development of subminiature telemetry. Today, the telemetry package with 128 digital and 64 analog channels, 200kbs up to 10Mbs data rates, with programmable functions, is approximately 2 inches X 2 inches X .25 inches and weighs about 50 grams. Encryption is available and provisions are being made to transmit video in the same module. This technology is being pursued as the standard for all air-to-air and air-to-ground telemetry systems.

      Hart, Dennis L.; Smith, Marvin A.; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      This paper describes the application software used to convert AIM-120A, Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM), telemetry data to a series of color images and time-correlated engineering unit results. X Window System-based graphics facilitate visualization of the doppler radar data. These software programs were developed for the VAX/VMS and DEC Alpha environments.
    • Aircraft Distance Measurement System

      Filho, Nelson Whitaker (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      The Aircraft Distance Measurement System (ADMS) could be used in Flight Test application to determine the aircraft position and speed during takeoff, landing and acceleration-stop performance test within runway limits using a microwave link.
    • An Algorithm for Efficient Computation of the Fast Fourier Transform Over Arbitrary Frequency Intervals

      DaBell, Steve; Motorola GSTG (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      In many signal processing and telemetry applications only a portion of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) of a data sequence is of interest. This paper develops an algorithm which enables computation of the FFT only over the frequency values of interest, reducing the computational complexity. As will be shown, the algorithm is also very modular which lends to efficient parallel processing implementation. This paper will begin by developing the frequency selective FFT algorithm, and conclude with a comparative analysis of the computational complexity of the algorithm with respect to the traditional FFT.
    • Application of Dither to Low Resolution Quantization Systems

      Borgen, Gary S.; NAWCWPNS (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      A significant problem in the processing chain of a low resolution quantization system is the Analog to Digital converter quantization error. The classical model of quantization treats the error generated as a random additive process that is independent of the input and uniformly distributed. This model is valid for complex or random input signals that are large relative to a least significant bit. But the model fails catastrophically for small, simple signals applied to high resolution quantization systems, and in addition, the model fails for simple signals applied to low resolution quantization systems, i.e. one to 6 bits resolution. This paper will discuss a means of correcting this problem by the application of dither. Two methods of dither will be discussed as well as a real-life implementation of the techniques.
    • Binary PCM/FM Tradeoffs Between Spectral Occupancy and Bit Error Probability

      Law, Eugene L.; NAWCWPNS (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      The bit rates of telemetry systems are increasing rapidly. Higher bit rates occupy more spectra and result in decreased link margin. The major signal parameters that affect the spectral occupancy and bit error probability (BEP) of binary pulse code modulation (PCM)/frequency modulation (FM) signals are the bit rate, code, premodulation filter, and peak deviation. The measured spectral occupancy is also affected by the spectrum analyzer (or other measurement equipment) settings. Additional parameters that affect the BEP include the receiver intermediate frequency (IF) filter, the FM demodulator, and the bit detector. This paper will present the effects of these parameters on the measured 99% and -60 dBc bandwidths and the BEP of binary PCM/FM telemetry signals. Normalized BEP and bandwidth curves will be presented.

      Porter, Jim; Meyers, Tom; SEMCO (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      Embedded "Card-Based" receivers are one of the latest innovations in telemetry reception. These products provide substantial power and flexibility in a small form factor (one slot, PC or VME). In many applications they are a cost effective alternative to conventional telemetry receivers. This paper analyzes currently available products with regard to their features, capabilities, and performance, as well as highlighting typical applications.
    • CCSDS Data Link Service Allocation for MIL-STD-1553B Bus Architecture on Small Payloads

      Minnix, Timothy Otto; Lujan, Manuel, Jr.; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      There has been much interest recently in the possibility of using the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) instead of proprietary ground stations in supporting small space payload communications. These payloads operate on fairly low power and do not use the sophisticated tracking equipment standard on more complex user spacecraft. This paper is part of a feasibility study for such use of TDRSS, and focuses on the effect of the method of providing the Grade-2 data link layer services specified in Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Advanced Orbiting Systems (AOS) recommendations upon a hypothetical spacecraft using a MIL-STD-1553B polled data bus as the backbone of its onboard LAN. In particular, one case in which the 1553B bus controller, assumed to be some Intel 80X86 microprocessor, provides all CCSDS services will be contrasted with another where these services are split between the bus controller and a device which interfaces between the spacecraft LAN and the TDRSS Return Service spacelink. The comparison will be made for a 15 orbit/day scenario using a small helical antenna with a comparatively wide beamwidth. The main performance criteria considered here are end-to-end data throughput and expected delays, along with required buffer sizes for the LAN. Also, it may be noted that the data rate of the TDRSS return link and the size of the sliding window used for flow and error control will have a large impact on the required values for the chosen criteria, and so choices for these parameters significantly affect the outcome of any system service comparison. The two LAN types will be modeled and analyzed using NETWORK II.5. This simulator allows tracking of the number of packets read into LAN memories and sent down from the payload to ground via TDRSS, as well as accurately modeling the delays involved with data processing and transmission over the link.
    • Chinese New Telemetry Onboard System

      Jie, Shi Chang; China Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      This paper at first gives a brief historical review of Chinese development of telemetering onboard system and then make a brief introduction of new onboard system from several respects.
    • The Common Airborne Instrumentation System Program Management Overview

      Brown, Thomas R., Jr.; Naval Air Warfare Center, Aircraft Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      The Department of Defense, through a Tri-Service Program Office, is developing the Common Airborne Instrumentation System (CAIS) to promote standardization, commonality, and interoperability among aircraft test instrumentation systems. The advent of CAIS will change how the DoD test community conducts business. The CAIS program will allow aircraft test and evaluation facilities to utilize common airborne systems, ground support equipment, and technical knowledge for airborne instrumentation systems. The CAIS Program Office will conduct requirements analyses, manage system upgrades, and provide full life cycle support for this system. It is initiating several requirements contracts to provide direct ordering opportunities for DoD users to easily procure defined test instrumentation hardware. The program office will provide configuration management, inventory control, maintenance support, system integration, engineering support, and software management. In addition, it will continue to enhance the current system and develop new items to meet future requirements. Where existing equipment provides added benefit, this equipment may be added to the official CAIS family.

      Bougan, Timothy B.; Science Applications International Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      In order to meet the high-speed and high-density recording requirements for today's development and testing environments, we are seeking to merge the cutting edge technologies of tiny, high-performance disk drives and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) to build a high-speed compact disk recorder (CHSDR). Specifically, we designed, built, and tested a multi-drive controller that handles the interleaving of data to eight inexpensive IDE drives. These drives and controller comprise a "cell" capable of transferring data at 2.45 MB/sec (4 to 5 times the rate of a single drive). Furthermore, these "cells" can be run in parallel (with a single controller interleaving data between the cells). This "tree" effect multiplies the data rate by the number of cells employed. For example, 8 cells (of 8 drives each) can reach nearly 20 MB/second (sustained) and can be built for less than $30,000. The drives we used are the size of match boxes (the Hewlett Packard KittyHawk). These tiny drives hold 42 megabytes each and can withstand 150 Gs while operating. The cell controller is a Xilinx 4005 FPGA. Furthermore, we've designed a 120 MB/sec RAM FIFO to buffer data entering the system (to account for unavoidable drive seek latencies). In short, the compact high-speed disk array is a small, relatively low cost recording solution for anyone requiring high data speed but modest data volume. Missile shots, nuclear tests, and other short-term experiments are good examples of such requirements.

      O'Cull, Douglas C.; Microdyne Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      With the increased concerns for reducing cost and improving reliability in today's telemetry systems, many users are employing simulation and automation to guarantee reliable telemetry systems operation. This places an increased demand on the remote capabilities of the equipment used in the telemetry system. Furthermore, emphasis has been placed on the ability to decrease the space and power consumption of the telemetry system to facilitate transportability of the a single telemetry system to multiple sites. Finally, today's telemetry systems demand that all equipment provide multiple functions to provide the maximum performance for the lowest system cost.

      Wu, Doris I.; Rieger, James (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      Planar microstrip antennas are desirable in many telemetry applications because they are small in size, light in weight, and conformal to most surfaces. The design and optimization of circularly-polarized omnidirectional microstrip arrays using a new software simulation tool are discussed in this paper. Critical design issues such as the optimization of each array element for circular polarization and the minimization of mutual couplings as well as feed network mismatch are examined. The software tool, which consists of a novel graphical user interface and a full-wave numerical simulator for a flat mounting surface, provides a testbed environment for the user to explore new designs as well as optimizing existing designs. Using this tool, the design of several wraparound arrays with different mounting cylinder radii are presented. Comparisons between measured and simulated data for two S-band 8-element wraparound arrays are also presented.

      Mitchell, B. J.; The Johns Hopkins University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      Current theories concerning the surface of Titan postulate the existence of large, possibly oceanic, bodies of liquid ethane/ammonia plus various other chemicals. ESA's Huygens probe is designed to gather oceanographic data on Titan. If the postulated oceans or lakes do exist, follow up missions of an oceanographic nature will be planned. This paper provides a concept for a modified XBT (eXpendable Bathymetric Thermograph) probe design that will provide more data than just temperature as a function of depth. By judicious use of acoustic telemetering links, data on the sound speed profile and constituents of the ocean can be obtained. The exo-oceanographic data collected will have important ramifications for oceanographic studies on Earth.
    • Control of a Remote Receiving Station and Data Processing at RA Range Hebrides

      Mackenzie, Donald; Fielding, Richard; Serco, RA Range Hebrides; Loral Test & Information Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      The Royal Artillery Range (RA Range) is the British Army's weapons practice range in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. The large sea range is also used by the Royal Air Force and Royal Navy for new weapons system evaluation and in service practice firing. This paper describes the telemetry facility comprising of two prime sites separated by 40 miles of open sea. Tracking antennas and receivers are at the remote island site of St Kilda with data processing and control at the Range Control Base (RCB), Benbecula. To improve operational capabilities and effectiveness, full remote control and monitoring of the multiple receivers and combiners has been installed. Radar tracking outputs are processed in the telemetry computer to produce individual antenna pointing demands.