• Aircraft Distance Measurement System

      Filho, Nelson Whitaker (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      The Aircraft Distance Measurement System (ADMS) could be used in Flight Test application to determine the aircraft position and speed during takeoff, landing and acceleration-stop performance test within runway limits using a microwave link.
    • Processing Real-Time Telemetry with Multiple Embedded Processors

      BenDor, Jonathan; Baker, J. D.; Dovetail Systems Corporation; SEMCO (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      This paper describes a system in which multiple embedded processors are used for real-time processing of telemetry streams from satellites and radars. Embedded EPC-5 modules are plugged into VME slots in a Loral System 550. Telemetry streams are acquired and decommutated by the System 550, and selected parameters are packetized and appended to a mailbox which resides in VME memory. A Windows-based program continuously fetches packets from the mailbox, processes the data, writes to log files, displays processing results on screen, and sends messages via a modem connected to a serial port.
    • Use of a Commercial Visual Programming Language to Simulate, Decommutate, Test and Display a Telemetry Stream

      Wells, George; Baroth, Ed; California Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      The advantages of using visual programming to create, modify, test and display a telemetry stream are presented. The failure to fully deploy the high-gain antenna of the Galileo spacecraft has resulted in a software redesign of the computer systems onboard the spacecraft to support the low-gain antenna mission. Visual programming software is being used to test new algorithms as part of the ground support for the spacecraft Test Bed. It is very important that any new software algorithms be thoroughly tested on the ground before any modifications are made to the spacecraft. The advantage of using a visual programming language (LabVIEW, National Instruments) is that it provides easy visibility into the decommutation process that is being modified by the Galileo programming support team. In addition, utilities were written using visual programming to allow real-time data display and error detection. A data acquisition board is used to clock in the actual synchronous telemetry signal from the Test Bed at rates below 10 kHz. The time to write and modify the code using visual programming is significantly less (by a factor of 4 to 10) than using text-based code. The gains in productivity are attributed to the communication among the customer, developer, and computer that are facilitated by the visual syntax of the language.
    • The Development of Application Software for Telemetry Groundstation Remote Control and Analysis

      Peterson, Dwight M.; Naval Warfare Assessment Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      Fleet telemetry stations were established in the 1965-1972 time frame to satisfy U.S. Navy requirements for weapons system training support. These stations are currently located at the Atlantic Fleet Weapons Training Facility (AFWTF), Puerto Rico; Naval Air Station (NAS) Oceana, Virginia; the NATO Allied Missile Firing Installation (NAMFI), Crete, Greece; and White Beach, Okinawa, Japan. The mission of these telemetry stations is to collect, record, and process telemetered missile data during exercises involving ships and aircraft. The Naval Warfare Assessment Division uses the data to analyze weapons system performance during missile firing exercises conducted on fleet training ranges associated with these telemetry stations. Since these stations were originally installed, missile weaponry has advanced in sophistication, complexity, and usage. New weapons and tactics have been developed and introduced into the fleet which have not been matched by corresponding technology enhancements in the existing fleet telemetry stations. As a result, the Program Manager for Tactical Training Ranges (PMA-248) tasked the Naval Warfare Assessment Division to develop a computer-controlled telemetry ground station design capable of meeting current and future fleet training range requirements. This program involved the design, procurement, integration, and testing of telemetry ground station hardware and software required to meet fleet telemetry data collection requirements. Full Operational Capability of the first system, which was installed at AFWTF in Puerto Rico, was achieved in March of 1994. To date, the new telemetry ground station hardware and software has been used to support complex fleet training exercises, Combat System Ship Qualification Trials, Development Tests, and Operational Tests of U.S. and foreign navies. This paper will present the hardware and software design principles used to develop a computer-controlled telemetry ground station and the demonstrated performance benefits which have been realized.
    • Chinese New Telemetry Onboard System

      Jie, Shi Chang; China Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      This paper at first gives a brief historical review of Chinese development of telemetering onboard system and then make a brief introduction of new onboard system from several respects.
    • The Use of Open Architecture Systems in Cost Reduced Satellite Telemetry & Control Stations

      Spielman, David R.; AP Labs, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      A comprehensive examination of the market demands for cost reduced satellite telemetry & control stations will be presented. These systems are implemented using flexible, open architecture-based high performance real-time systems. The trend for combining telemetry monitoring of satellite data with closed-loop satellite command and control functions will be presented. This combined functionality opens up the possibilities for completely integrated, reduced cost satellite control systems. The market forces driving the demand for this integrated functionality include the broadening of non-military satellite applications, the widening international deployment of commercial satellites and the accompanying drive toward decentralized satellite control. The major requirements for the telemetry processing and command & control functionality of the integrated, reduced cost satellite control system will be presented. These requirements include: full real-time performance for processing telemetry data; flexible architecture for the incorporation of a wide range of I/O devices; capability of performing real-time, closed-loop control based on conditions in the telemetry data; user friendly development environments for application-specific customization of the system; and low system costs with the capability of indigenous support. The divergent requirements of performance, flexibility and price of these integrated, reduced cost satellite control systems is made possible via the use of open architecture building blocks that include standard VME boards combined with specialized real-time software drivers and user oriented, flexible Graphical User Interface (GUI) software.
    • The Evolution of a Telemetry Groundstation Utilizing Today's Open Standards

      Friedman, Paul; Loral Test & Information Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      Computer industry and government standards have had a profound effect on modern telemetry ground stations. Installations are no longer one-of-a-kind inflexible systems built to the specifications of a single user - meeting their needs without regard to the rest of the community. This paper will examine the effect that the evolution of significant graphics, network, operating system, and architecture standards has had on commercial telemetry ground station system products. It will also explore the issue of "open" versus proprietary architectures. The paper closes with a description of a system designed from its very inception to meet and grow with standards.
    • Binary PCM/FM Tradeoffs Between Spectral Occupancy and Bit Error Probability

      Law, Eugene L.; NAWCWPNS (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      The bit rates of telemetry systems are increasing rapidly. Higher bit rates occupy more spectra and result in decreased link margin. The major signal parameters that affect the spectral occupancy and bit error probability (BEP) of binary pulse code modulation (PCM)/frequency modulation (FM) signals are the bit rate, code, premodulation filter, and peak deviation. The measured spectral occupancy is also affected by the spectrum analyzer (or other measurement equipment) settings. Additional parameters that affect the BEP include the receiver intermediate frequency (IF) filter, the FM demodulator, and the bit detector. This paper will present the effects of these parameters on the measured 99% and -60 dBc bandwidths and the BEP of binary PCM/FM telemetry signals. Normalized BEP and bandwidth curves will be presented.
    • Variable Polarization Ferrite Antenna

      Dunn, Daniel S.; Telep, Matthew S.; Augustin, Eugene P.; Technical Systems Associates, Inc (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      This paper describes a ferrite antenna that can produce any polarization on the Poincaré sphere over the frequency range of 9.0 to 11.4 GHz by utilizing Faraday rotation and a quarter-wavelength phase shifter. All possible polarizations of the electromagnetic wave are achievable with this antenna which includes linear, circular and elliptical polarizations. Any tilt angle of elliptical polarization and any orientation of the linear polarization can be achieved as well. The polarization of the ferrite antenna can be electronically switched to a different polarization instantly without the use of moving parts. An automatic data acquisition system was designed and built to fully analyze the antenna' s characteristics.
    • A New Error Control Scheme for Remote Control System

      Zhou, Tingxian; Yin, Xiaohua; Zhao, Xianming; Harbin Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      How to rise the reliability of the data transmission is one of the main problem faced by modern digital communication designers. This paper studies the error-correcting codes being suitable for the channel existing both the random and burst error. A new error control scheme is given. The scheme is a concatenated coding system using an interleaved Reed-Solomon code with symbols over GF (24) as the outer code and a Viterbi-decoded convolutional code as the inner code. As a result of the computer simulation, it is proved that the concatenated coding system has a output at a very low bit error rate (BER)and can correct a lot of compound error patterns. It is suitable for the serious disturb channel existing both the random and burst error. This scheme will be adopted for a remote control system.
    • XL-L: A Novel Two Axis Pedestal System Which Eliminates Keyholes and Has Complete Continuous Hemispherical Coverage Without the Use of Rotary Joints or Sliprings

      Augustin, Eugene P.; Sullivan, Arthur (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      The XL-L Two-axis Pedestal is a novel adaptation of an existing design using a cross elevation over elevation axis configuration. This design affords full hemispherical coverage without gimbal lock (keyholes). In addition, the system provides continuous coverage without the necessity of rotary joints and sliprings. The design is ideally suited for shipboard systems, but is equally advantageous for any tracking mission where the target can approach a zenith gimbal lock or keyhole.
    • A Software Architecture for Client-Server Telemetry Data Analysis

      Brockett, Douglas M.; Aramaki, Nancy J.; BBN Systems & Technologies (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      An increasing need among telemetry data analysts for new mechanisms for efficient access to high-speed data in distributed environments has led BBN to develop a new architecture for data analysis. The data sets of concern can be from either real-time or post-test sources. This architecture consists of an expandable suite of tools based upon a data distribution software "backbone" which allows the interchange of high volume data streams among server processes and client workstations. One benefit of this architecture is that it allows one to assemble software systems from a set of off-the-shelf, interoperable software modules. This modularity and interoperability allows these systems to be configurable and customizable, while requiring little applications programming by the system integrator.
    • Improved Groundstation Consoles Using New Visualization Techniques and Graphics Technology

      McDaid, John P., Jr.; Loral Test & Information Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      The advance from alphanumeric terminals to displays using new graphics technologies like the X Window System and Microsoft Windows has in many cases failed to tap the full potential of these technologies. Many common telemetry tasks continue to use similar user interfaces based on tabular real-time data displays and menus. This paper will demonstrate the application of new techniques which, when used with emerging graphics technologies, will maximize the effectiveness of telemetry ground station consoles. Advances in visualization and animation have greatly enhanced the information content of current displays and significantly improved their ease of use.
    • INTA Mobile Telemetry Acquisition System

      Armengod, Rafael G.; Coll, Vicente Millet; Leon, Rosendo J.; Instituto Nacional de Technica Aeroespacial; Microdyne Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      INTA is the Institute for Aerospace Technologies in Spain. Test programs at INTA require extensive flight test capabilities and for this reason in mid 1990, INTA created the Flight Test Center, designated CEA. The CEA is responsible for providing flight test support for all current and future programs including RPV Test, Rocket Launches, Balloons and Missile Test. With the increasing requirement for flight test at several locations throughout Spain, a program was launched to acquire a mobile capability which could support these test ranges in current flight test requirements as well as anticipated future requirements.
    • A Real-Time Telemetry Data Processing System with Open System Architecture

      Jun, Zhang; MeiPing, Feng; Yanbo, Zhu; Bin, He; Qishan, Zhang; Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      In face of the characteristics of multiple data streams, high bit rate, variable data formats, complicated frame structure and changeable application environment, the programmable PCM telemetry system needs a new data processing system with advanced telemetry system architecture. This paper fully considers the characteristics of real-time telemetry data processing, analyzes the design of open system architecture for real-time telemetry data processing system(TDPS), presents an open system architecture scheme and design of real-time TDPS, gives the structure model of distributed network system, and develops the interface between network database and telemetry database, as well as telemetry processing software with man-machine interface. Finally, a practical and multi-functional real-time TDPS with open system architecture has been built, which based on UNIX operating system, supporting TCP/IP protocol and using Oracle relational database management system. This scheme and design have already proved to be efficient for real-time processing, high speed, mass storage and multi-user operation.
    • Control of a Remote Receiving Station and Data Processing at RA Range Hebrides

      Mackenzie, Donald; Fielding, Richard; Serco, RA Range Hebrides; Loral Test & Information Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      The Royal Artillery Range (RA Range) is the British Army's weapons practice range in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. The large sea range is also used by the Royal Air Force and Royal Navy for new weapons system evaluation and in service practice firing. This paper describes the telemetry facility comprising of two prime sites separated by 40 miles of open sea. Tracking antennas and receivers are at the remote island site of St Kilda with data processing and control at the Range Control Base (RCB), Benbecula. To improve operational capabilities and effectiveness, full remote control and monitoring of the multiple receivers and combiners has been installed. Radar tracking outputs are processed in the telemetry computer to produce individual antenna pointing demands.
    • CCSDS Data Link Service Allocation for MIL-STD-1553B Bus Architecture on Small Payloads

      Minnix, Timothy Otto; Lujan, Manuel, Jr.; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      There has been much interest recently in the possibility of using the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) instead of proprietary ground stations in supporting small space payload communications. These payloads operate on fairly low power and do not use the sophisticated tracking equipment standard on more complex user spacecraft. This paper is part of a feasibility study for such use of TDRSS, and focuses on the effect of the method of providing the Grade-2 data link layer services specified in Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Advanced Orbiting Systems (AOS) recommendations upon a hypothetical spacecraft using a MIL-STD-1553B polled data bus as the backbone of its onboard LAN. In particular, one case in which the 1553B bus controller, assumed to be some Intel 80X86 microprocessor, provides all CCSDS services will be contrasted with another where these services are split between the bus controller and a device which interfaces between the spacecraft LAN and the TDRSS Return Service spacelink. The comparison will be made for a 15 orbit/day scenario using a small helical antenna with a comparatively wide beamwidth. The main performance criteria considered here are end-to-end data throughput and expected delays, along with required buffer sizes for the LAN. Also, it may be noted that the data rate of the TDRSS return link and the size of the sliding window used for flow and error control will have a large impact on the required values for the chosen criteria, and so choices for these parameters significantly affect the outcome of any system service comparison. The two LAN types will be modeled and analyzed using NETWORK II.5. This simulator allows tracking of the number of packets read into LAN memories and sent down from the payload to ground via TDRSS, as well as accurately modeling the delays involved with data processing and transmission over the link.
    • Design and Use of a CCSDS - Compatible Data Unit Decoder

      O'Donnell, John; Ramirez, Jose; AYDIN; NASA (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) formulates and publishes recommendations for space data system standards. CCSDS Recommendations define a layered data communications network along the lines of the OSI model. In the space link layer (OSI Data Link layer) fixed length blocks of CCSDS Packets are generated and multiplexed into the data field of Virtual Channel Data Units (VCDUs) in the Virtual Channel Access Sublayer. VCDUs with error correction coding become CVCDUs (coded VCDUs). CVCDUs (or VCDUs) with an attached sync marker become Channel Access Data Units (CADUs) which are transmitted on the Physical Space Channel. This paper discusses AYDIN's DEC012 Data Unit Decoder, a VMEbus circuit card which recovers Virtual Channel Data Units (VCDUs) from corrupted Channel Access Data Units (CADUs) received on the Space Link Subnet of a CCSDS-compatible space datacomm link. The module's design and operation is described along with its use in the X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) science satellite programs run by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    • A Telemetry System with Fibre Transmission

      Qishan, Zhang; Xianliang, LI; Jun, Zhang; Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      It is known that a PCM telemetry system features with good accuracy, great dynamic range, and low noise. And when more than fourteen data channels are required, the PCM is generally the best choice. The paper describes the general ideas involved in developing a PCM telemetry system with fibre transmission.
    • Probability of Bit Error on a Standard IRIG Telemetry Channel Using the Aeronautical Fading Channel Model

      Nelson, N. Thomas; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      This paper analyzes the probability of bit error for PCM-FM over a standard IRIG channel subject to multipath interference modeled by the aeronautical fading channel. The aeronautical channel model assumes a mobile transmitter and a stationary receiver and specifies the correlation of the fading component. This model describes fading which is typical of that encountered at military test ranges. An expression for the bit error rate on the fading channel with a delay line demodulator is derived and compared with the error rate for the Gaussian channel. The increase in bit error rate over that of the Gaussian channel is determined along with the power penalty caused by the fading. In addition, the effects of several channel parameters on the probability of bit error are determined.