Wu, Doris I.; Rieger, James (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      Planar microstrip antennas are desirable in many telemetry applications because they are small in size, light in weight, and conformal to most surfaces. The design and optimization of circularly-polarized omnidirectional microstrip arrays using a new software simulation tool are discussed in this paper. Critical design issues such as the optimization of each array element for circular polarization and the minimization of mutual couplings as well as feed network mismatch are examined. The software tool, which consists of a novel graphical user interface and a full-wave numerical simulator for a flat mounting surface, provides a testbed environment for the user to explore new designs as well as optimizing existing designs. Using this tool, the design of several wraparound arrays with different mounting cylinder radii are presented. Comparisons between measured and simulated data for two S-band 8-element wraparound arrays are also presented.
    • The Use of Digital Signal Processors in Front-End Weather Satellite Telemetry Processing

      Lide, David A.; Talabac, Stephen (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      This paper discusses the use of DSP technology in the embedded real time ingest and pre-processing of weather satellite data. Specifically, case studies are presented in the use of Texas Instrument TMS 320 processors as front-end handlers of GOES MODE AAA and GOES GVAR data formats.
    • The Use of Open Architecture Systems in Cost Reduced Satellite Telemetry & Control Stations

      Spielman, David R.; AP Labs, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      A comprehensive examination of the market demands for cost reduced satellite telemetry & control stations will be presented. These systems are implemented using flexible, open architecture-based high performance real-time systems. The trend for combining telemetry monitoring of satellite data with closed-loop satellite command and control functions will be presented. This combined functionality opens up the possibilities for completely integrated, reduced cost satellite control systems. The market forces driving the demand for this integrated functionality include the broadening of non-military satellite applications, the widening international deployment of commercial satellites and the accompanying drive toward decentralized satellite control. The major requirements for the telemetry processing and command & control functionality of the integrated, reduced cost satellite control system will be presented. These requirements include: full real-time performance for processing telemetry data; flexible architecture for the incorporation of a wide range of I/O devices; capability of performing real-time, closed-loop control based on conditions in the telemetry data; user friendly development environments for application-specific customization of the system; and low system costs with the capability of indigenous support. The divergent requirements of performance, flexibility and price of these integrated, reduced cost satellite control systems is made possible via the use of open architecture building blocks that include standard VME boards combined with specialized real-time software drivers and user oriented, flexible Graphical User Interface (GUI) software.
    • INTA Mobile Telemetry Acquisition System

      Armengod, Rafael G.; Coll, Vicente Millet; Leon, Rosendo J.; Instituto Nacional de Technica Aeroespacial; Microdyne Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      INTA is the Institute for Aerospace Technologies in Spain. Test programs at INTA require extensive flight test capabilities and for this reason in mid 1990, INTA created the Flight Test Center, designated CEA. The CEA is responsible for providing flight test support for all current and future programs including RPV Test, Rocket Launches, Balloons and Missile Test. With the increasing requirement for flight test at several locations throughout Spain, a program was launched to acquire a mobile capability which could support these test ranges in current flight test requirements as well as anticipated future requirements.
    • Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS): An Overview Of The System And Its Potential Uses

      Boyd, Edward L.; Novits, Charles S.; Boisvert, Robert A.; Encore Computers (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      The Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) concept, since its inception, has been defined into three separate but distinct areas of service. • Viewing of data in the real-time environment. • Multiple range viewing and usage of"real-time data." • Problems with the sharing of information through DIS. This paper will discuss the DIS concept and some of the various methods available to display this data to users of the system.

      Bougan, Timothy B.; Science Applications International Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      In order to meet the high-speed and high-density recording requirements for today's development and testing environments, we are seeking to merge the cutting edge technologies of tiny, high-performance disk drives and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) to build a high-speed compact disk recorder (CHSDR). Specifically, we designed, built, and tested a multi-drive controller that handles the interleaving of data to eight inexpensive IDE drives. These drives and controller comprise a "cell" capable of transferring data at 2.45 MB/sec (4 to 5 times the rate of a single drive). Furthermore, these "cells" can be run in parallel (with a single controller interleaving data between the cells). This "tree" effect multiplies the data rate by the number of cells employed. For example, 8 cells (of 8 drives each) can reach nearly 20 MB/second (sustained) and can be built for less than $30,000. The drives we used are the size of match boxes (the Hewlett Packard KittyHawk). These tiny drives hold 42 megabytes each and can withstand 150 Gs while operating. The cell controller is a Xilinx 4005 FPGA. Furthermore, we've designed a 120 MB/sec RAM FIFO to buffer data entering the system (to account for unavoidable drive seek latencies). In short, the compact high-speed disk array is a small, relatively low cost recording solution for anyone requiring high data speed but modest data volume. Missile shots, nuclear tests, and other short-term experiments are good examples of such requirements.

      Hui, Yang; Shanzhong, Li; Qishan, Zhang; Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      In this paper, a PCM telemetry system based on Personal computer is presented and some important methods that are used to realize the system will be introduced, such as a new kind of all digital PLL bit synchronizer and a way to solve the problem of high-rate data storage. The main idea of ours is to make the basic parts of PCM telemetry system (except receiver) in the form of PC cards compatible with EISA Bus, which forms a telemetry station with resource of PC computer. Finally, a laboratory prototype with rate up to 3.2Mbps is built.

      Horan, Stephen; Minnix, Timothy; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      Small satellites have been perceived as having limited access to NASA's Space Network consisting of the TDR satellites and associated ground terminals. This paper presents the potential for access of the space network using basic small satellite design constraints and a simple helical antenna for the communications links. From the analysis derived through simulation of the orbit of both satellites, small satellites can be shown to have up to 30 minutes per orbit of single-TDRS access. Data rates on the order of 100 kbps are possible in this configuration with total daily data volumes in excess of 100 Mbits being achievable. Design parameters are given for a variety of orbital inclination angles and spacecraft transmission powers to illustrate the expected available contact time for such small satellites to the Space Network. This is compared with typical access time through a fixed ground station.

      O'Cull, Douglas C.; Microdyne Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      With the increased concerns for reducing cost and improving reliability in today's telemetry systems, many users are employing simulation and automation to guarantee reliable telemetry systems operation. This places an increased demand on the remote capabilities of the equipment used in the telemetry system. Furthermore, emphasis has been placed on the ability to decrease the space and power consumption of the telemetry system to facilitate transportability of the a single telemetry system to multiple sites. Finally, today's telemetry systems demand that all equipment provide multiple functions to provide the maximum performance for the lowest system cost.

      Crouch, Viv; Goldstein, Anna; RAAF Base; Loral Test & Information Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      The Aircraft Research and Development Unit (ARDU) of the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) is the only agency in Australia that performs the full spectrum of military flight testing and is the new custodian of the instrumented weapons range at Woomera. Receiving early attention will be the upgrade and integration of ARDU's telemetry systems with the meteorological and tracking data acquisition capabilities at Woomera to minimize overhead and data turnaround time. To achieve these goals, maximum modularity, extensibility, and product interoperability is being sought in the proposed architecture of all the systems that will need to cooperate on the forecast test programmes. These goals are also driven by the need to be responsive to a wide variety of tasks which presently include structural flight testing of fighter and training aircraft, weapons systems performance evaluation on a variety of combatant aircraft, and a host of other tasks associated with all fixed and rotary wing aircraft in the Army and Air Force inventory. Of all these tasks however, ARDU sees that responsiveness to future testing of F-111Cs fitted with unique Digital Flight Control Systems along with USAF standard F-111Gs may place the most significant demands on data handling —particularly in regard to providing an avionics bus diagnostic capability when performing Operational Flight Programme (OFP) changes to the mission computers. With the timely assistance and advice of Loral Test & Information Systems, who has long-term experience in supporting USAF F-111 test programmes, ARDU is confident of making wise design decisions that will provide the desired flexibility and, at the same time, minimize life-cycle costs by ensuring compliance with the appropriate telemetry and open systems standards. As well, via cooperative agreements with the USAF, the potential exists to acquire proven software products without needing to fund the development costs already absorbed by the USAF. This paper presents ARDU's perception of future needs, a view by LTIS of how best to meet those needs, and, based on ARDU data, a view of how LTIS' proposal will satisfy the requirement to provide maximum extensibility with minimum life-cycle costs.

      Mitchell, B. J.; The Johns Hopkins University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      Current theories concerning the surface of Titan postulate the existence of large, possibly oceanic, bodies of liquid ethane/ammonia plus various other chemicals. ESA's Huygens probe is designed to gather oceanographic data on Titan. If the postulated oceans or lakes do exist, follow up missions of an oceanographic nature will be planned. This paper provides a concept for a modified XBT (eXpendable Bathymetric Thermograph) probe design that will provide more data than just temperature as a function of depth. By judicious use of acoustic telemetering links, data on the sound speed profile and constituents of the ocean can be obtained. The exo-oceanographic data collected will have important ramifications for oceanographic studies on Earth.
    • The Development of Application Software for Telemetry Groundstation Remote Control and Analysis

      Peterson, Dwight M.; Naval Warfare Assessment Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      Fleet telemetry stations were established in the 1965-1972 time frame to satisfy U.S. Navy requirements for weapons system training support. These stations are currently located at the Atlantic Fleet Weapons Training Facility (AFWTF), Puerto Rico; Naval Air Station (NAS) Oceana, Virginia; the NATO Allied Missile Firing Installation (NAMFI), Crete, Greece; and White Beach, Okinawa, Japan. The mission of these telemetry stations is to collect, record, and process telemetered missile data during exercises involving ships and aircraft. The Naval Warfare Assessment Division uses the data to analyze weapons system performance during missile firing exercises conducted on fleet training ranges associated with these telemetry stations. Since these stations were originally installed, missile weaponry has advanced in sophistication, complexity, and usage. New weapons and tactics have been developed and introduced into the fleet which have not been matched by corresponding technology enhancements in the existing fleet telemetry stations. As a result, the Program Manager for Tactical Training Ranges (PMA-248) tasked the Naval Warfare Assessment Division to develop a computer-controlled telemetry ground station design capable of meeting current and future fleet training range requirements. This program involved the design, procurement, integration, and testing of telemetry ground station hardware and software required to meet fleet telemetry data collection requirements. Full Operational Capability of the first system, which was installed at AFWTF in Puerto Rico, was achieved in March of 1994. To date, the new telemetry ground station hardware and software has been used to support complex fleet training exercises, Combat System Ship Qualification Trials, Development Tests, and Operational Tests of U.S. and foreign navies. This paper will present the hardware and software design principles used to develop a computer-controlled telemetry ground station and the demonstrated performance benefits which have been realized.
    • Dual Function Transponder: A Data Link for the Next Generation

      DeViso, Hans; Troth, Bill (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      Future U.S. Navy at-sea and littoral battle group training range instrumentation requires a new, secure, high data rate link This link must be capable of providing the ranges with the capacity to increase the number of players, increase the amount of threat simulation, and allow an improved Global Positioning System (GPS) based position tracking system to be implemented This paper describes a Dual Function Transponder (DFT) capable of operating on any R-CUBED (Relay, Reporter, Responder) based range as well as any TACTS/ACMI range without modification of either range type. In addition, the DFT provides a new increased data rate capability for use by planned future ranges, enabling a dramatic increase in the number of participants as well as significantly increasing the quantity of data that can be communicated by each player. Miniaturization and programmability are the keys to this development and many of the methods used are described.
    • Application of Dither to Low Resolution Quantization Systems

      Borgen, Gary S.; NAWCWPNS (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      A significant problem in the processing chain of a low resolution quantization system is the Analog to Digital converter quantization error. The classical model of quantization treats the error generated as a random additive process that is independent of the input and uniformly distributed. This model is valid for complex or random input signals that are large relative to a least significant bit. But the model fails catastrophically for small, simple signals applied to high resolution quantization systems, and in addition, the model fails for simple signals applied to low resolution quantization systems, i.e. one to 6 bits resolution. This paper will discuss a means of correcting this problem by the application of dither. Two methods of dither will be discussed as well as a real-life implementation of the techniques.
    • An Algorithm for Efficient Computation of the Fast Fourier Transform Over Arbitrary Frequency Intervals

      DaBell, Steve; Motorola GSTG (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      In many signal processing and telemetry applications only a portion of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) of a data sequence is of interest. This paper develops an algorithm which enables computation of the FFT only over the frequency values of interest, reducing the computational complexity. As will be shown, the algorithm is also very modular which lends to efficient parallel processing implementation. This paper will begin by developing the frequency selective FFT algorithm, and conclude with a comparative analysis of the computational complexity of the algorithm with respect to the traditional FFT.
    • The Evolution of a Telemetry Groundstation Utilizing Today's Open Standards

      Friedman, Paul; Loral Test & Information Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      Computer industry and government standards have had a profound effect on modern telemetry ground stations. Installations are no longer one-of-a-kind inflexible systems built to the specifications of a single user - meeting their needs without regard to the rest of the community. This paper will examine the effect that the evolution of significant graphics, network, operating system, and architecture standards has had on commercial telemetry ground station system products. It will also explore the issue of "open" versus proprietary architectures. The paper closes with a description of a system designed from its very inception to meet and grow with standards.
    • Design Equations for a Specified Bit Error Rate for PCM/FM+FM/FM and Optimum Bandwidths

      Carden, Frank F.; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      A PCM/FM+FM/FM system combines the bit sequence with the modulated subcarriers at baseband and the resultant modulates the carrier. This paper concerns the design of this composite system. Such a system combines the spectral efficiency of the analog system with the accuracy of a PCM system when needed for specific sensors and allows the direct transmission of binary computer words if necessary. The impact of the subcarriers on the bit error rate of the bit sequence is determined. Equations are given which allow the degradation of the FM/FM channels by the bit sequence to be determined. Further, it is shown in this work that as the IF bandwidth is increased above twice the bit rate, the peak deviation of the carrier by the bit sequence is no longer .35 times the bit rate. An optimum value for IF bandwidths is determined. The developed design equations allow the design of the composite system with a specified bit error rate and a specified signal to noise ratio in the subcarrier channels.
    • Aircraft Distance Measurement System

      Filho, Nelson Whitaker (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      The Aircraft Distance Measurement System (ADMS) could be used in Flight Test application to determine the aircraft position and speed during takeoff, landing and acceleration-stop performance test within runway limits using a microwave link.

      O'Cull, Douglas C.; Microdyne Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      With the increased concerns for reducing cost and improving reliability in today's telemetry systems, many users are employing simulation and automation to guarantee reliable telemetry systems operation. Pre-Mission simulation of the telemetry system will reduce the cost associated with a loss of mission data. In order to guarantee the integrity of the receive system, the user must be able to simulate several conditions of the transmitted signal. These include Doppler shift and dynamic fade simulation. Additionally, the simulator should be capable of transmitting industry standard PCM data streams to allow pre-mission bit error rate testing of the receive system. Furthermore, the simulator should provide sufficient output power to allow use as a boresite transmitter to check all aspects of the receive link. Finally, the simulator must be able to operate at several frequency bands and modulation modes to keep cost to a minimum.

      Lucero, Frank N.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      In the early 1990's, the United States Air Force (USAF)/Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) Test and Evaluation (T&E) Mission Element Board approved the Single-Face-to-the-Customer (SFTC) concept to become more customer oriented and to provide more up-front planning by establishing single points of contact organized by mission areas rather than by test centers. The areas evolved to airframe-propulsion-avionics (A-P-A), armament/munitions, command-control-communications-computers-intelligence (C4I), electronic warfare (EW), and space. Use of the SFTC concept is required in formal USAF directives and details of the specific coverage for each mission area will be contained in mission area manuals. The primary mission of the SFTC Offices is to provide consulting services during initial T&E planning for new programs and major modification/product improvement programs and during T&E investment planning. Also, support is provided for T&E process advocacy, information repository services, and training on the SFTC concept. This paper discusses the USAF SFTC concept of operations and its status.