• A Software Architecture for Client-Server Telemetry Data Analysis

      Brockett, Douglas M.; Aramaki, Nancy J.; BBN Systems & Technologies (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      An increasing need among telemetry data analysts for new mechanisms for efficient access to high-speed data in distributed environments has led BBN to develop a new architecture for data analysis. The data sets of concern can be from either real-time or post-test sources. This architecture consists of an expandable suite of tools based upon a data distribution software "backbone" which allows the interchange of high volume data streams among server processes and client workstations. One benefit of this architecture is that it allows one to assemble software systems from a set of off-the-shelf, interoperable software modules. This modularity and interoperability allows these systems to be configurable and customizable, while requiring little applications programming by the system integrator.
    • Space Tracking Systems/ Options Study

      Grelck, John; Ehrsam, Eldon; Means, James A. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      This paper presents the findings of the Space Tracking Systems/Options Study (STS/OS) and indicates its impact on the telemetering community. The STS/OS was commissioned by Air Force Test & Evaluation (AF/TE) to develop a long range plan (vision and roadmap) for the AF Test & Evaluation (T&E) community to ensure affordable capabilities (telemetry, tracking and commanding) for the future (2003-2008). The study was conducted by the Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC), Space & Missile Systems Center (SMC), Detachment 9, at Vandenberg AFB (VAFB), with support from the primary AFMC T&E centers, the Air Force Operational Test & Evaluation Command (AFOTEC), and the Air Force Space Command (AFSPC). Both "open air" aeronautical and astronautical test needs were considered. The study solicited requirements for existing and future programs, extrapolated existing and planned test capabilities out into the future, then compared the two to identify future shortfalls in capabilities and specific actions that are necessary to insure that the future program needs can be met. Three critical types of testing were identified that cannot be satisfied with existing or planned instrumentation. These are: large area testing (LAT), over the horizon testing (OTH), and space weapons testing (SWT). A major deficiency was also uncovered in end game scoring for air and space intercepts, where inadequate capability exists to perform the required vector miss-distance measurement. This paper is important to the telemetering community because it identifies the Global Positioning System (GPS) as the primary time space position information (TSPI) system for all future open air testing. GPS provides a passive capability that permits each vehicle to determine its own precise TSPI. Means must be provided, however, for the vehicle to relay its position to the appropriate range control center. The paper shows that the problems with down linking telemetry, aircraft buss data, digital audio, digital video, and TSPI collectively represent the need for a very capable datalink. Likewise, the need to uplink commands, synthetic targets, synthetic backgrounds, and target control information also represents the need for a very capable datalink. With its extensive expertise in RF linkages, the telemetering community is ideally suited to address this need for a robust datalink for the future of T&E.
    • Sub-Optimum Receiver Filters

      Osborne, William P.; Gutierrez, Alberto; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      This paper presents a method for analyzing the performance of a digital receiver when using standard analog filters in place of the ideal matched filter. Expressions are developed for the probability of error and performance loss of the sub-optimum receiver as functions of the minimum eye value and noise bandwidth of the suboptimum receiver filter. A method is developed for choosing the best sub-optimum filter in the sense of minimizing the probability of error. The best sub-optimum Bessel filter of order less than or equal to 6 is specified in terms of 3-dB bandwidth and filter order for a system with a rectangular transmit pulse. This method is applicable to other transmit pulse shapes and can be applied to channels with limited bandwidth. The optimum 3-dB bandwidth obtained here can be scaled relative to the symbol rate to correspond to any practical system.

      Cardinal, Robert; Loral Test & Information Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      The success of the client/server paradigm for modern networked telemetry systems continues to stress the LAN that carries data generated from the acquisition front ends to the display workstations and the file servers on the LAN. As the number of LAN-attached devices such as Loral's System 500 Model 550 (Loral 550) telemetry front end, workstations, and file servers grows beyond two, the Ethernet LAN collision rates increase and the throughput slows down. At what point the network performance declines is a function of the specific application bandwidth demands required. This paper describes a new method for boosting LAN performance by providing Ethernet switching and protocol filtering. The performance of the LAN is critical to the performance of the complete telemetry enterprise architecture.

      Toole, Michael T. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      Since the Gulf War, there has been significant interest in Theater Missile Defense (TMD) resulting in funding growth from tens of millions of dollars at the time of the Gulf War to $1.7 Billion in 1994. The Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) has developed a Theater Missile Defense test and evaluation program that will assess technological feasibility and the degree to which system functionality and performance meet technical and operational requirements. The complexity of the TMD program necessitates a comprehensive test program which includes flight testing, ground testing, and modeling and simulation. This article will provide and overview the requirements and capabilities needed to satisfy these requirements. The data processing, and telemetry communities will play a major role in providing the expertise to support the development of the nation’s future Theater Missile Defense capabilities.

      O'Cull, Douglas C.; Microdyne Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      With the increased concerns for reducing cost and improving reliability in today's telemetry systems, many users are employing simulation and automation to guarantee reliable telemetry systems operation. Pre-Mission simulation of the telemetry system will reduce the cost associated with a loss of mission data. In order to guarantee the integrity of the receive system, the user must be able to simulate several conditions of the transmitted signal. These include Doppler shift and dynamic fade simulation. Additionally, the simulator should be capable of transmitting industry standard PCM data streams to allow pre-mission bit error rate testing of the receive system. Furthermore, the simulator should provide sufficient output power to allow use as a boresite transmitter to check all aspects of the receive link. Finally, the simulator must be able to operate at several frequency bands and modulation modes to keep cost to a minimum.
    • A Telemetry System with Fibre Transmission

      Qishan, Zhang; Xianliang, LI; Jun, Zhang; Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      It is known that a PCM telemetry system features with good accuracy, great dynamic range, and low noise. And when more than fourteen data channels are required, the PCM is generally the best choice. The paper describes the general ideas involved in developing a PCM telemetry system with fibre transmission.
    • TWARSES The Two Wire Automatic Remote Sensing and Evaluation System

      Dahl, Ernest A.; Naval Surface Warfare Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      The Two Wire Automatic Remote Sensing and Evaluation System (TWARSES) automatically transmits and evaluates information (data) from remote sensors on a common two wire buss. In addition the system presents automatic evaluation and alarms, which provide both location data and sensor readout data of the monitored area. This system is a stand-alone modular system in which a common two wire line installed bow-to-stern and top-to-bottom, connects, integrates, evaluates, and powers a multiplicity of sensors. The United States Navy uses this system to provide safety and survivability by monitoring environmental gases, liquid levels, and power, temperature, and humidity levels on ships and in office buildings. The automatic monitoring system operates in a manner similar to an automatic, multiscriber, party-line telephone system. The system is controlled by the Scanner/Display unit which interrogates each of the 150 possible sensors according to the program stored in a microprocessor. This patented system provides a separate address for each sensor transponder, permitting all of the transponders to be simply connected in parallel across a common, twisted pair transmission line. The interrogating signal is also used to provide power (6V - 2mA) for the sensor transponders and their associated sensors. This further simplifies the system by eliminating the need for a separate source of power at each sensor location. Each sensor is interrogated with a 15-bit sequence which specifies: (1) the address of the sensor which is to reply, (2) the parameter to be reported (e.g. voltage, temperature, humidity, etc.) And (3) the desired precision (which sets the length of the reply). The interrogation is transmitted as frequency shift-keyed signal. Among the various types of interrogation signals which could be used (AM, FM, etc.) frequency shift-keying (FSK) was selected because:

      Turner, W. C.; Potter, R. A.; Electro-Magnetic Processes, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      A remotely-operated ground telemetry tracking and receiving station is described. The station, operating in a space-diversity mode, is capable of reception and tracking both at VHF and at UHF. The station can be configured and operated from a distance of 240 km using a wide-band land data link. Uplink command at VHF is included as part of the station.

      Goulet, Dennis A.; Coleman, Harriet; Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      The U.S. Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) has established a secure network linking training and Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT&E) ranges with sponsor sites. These links allow the remote monitoring and archiving of range data and audio, access to Center modeling, simulation and analysis facilities, the ability to remotely upgrade development and operating system software, and the ability to perform remote diagnostics and trouble-shooting of range resources from the Exercise Communications Center (ECC) located in Newport, RI, which serves as the hub of the network. The Training, Test and Evaluation Analysis Laboratory (TEAL) was developed to coordinate access to shipboard and land-based trainers and modeling and simulation facilities, as well as undersea ranges. By this process, TEAL integrates undersea ranges, laboratory simulation, and training systems into a seamless communications network. The Australian Underwater Range Activity (AURA) being installed in Western Australia has the capacity to become a participant in TEAL. The test and training flexibilities available with TEAL can enhance and expand the capabilities of AURA to the benefit of the Royal Australian Navy.

      Lam, Daniel-Hung; Moyes, Robert; SEMCO; BME (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      This paper discusses the design and performance of the FM/PM/BPSK "personal computer card-based" receiver. In PSK, a carrier recovery technique must be used for signal demodulation. Costas loop is a well known method and is the basis in the design of the BPSK demodulation. A new design approach employing digital Box Car arm filters is used to improve receiver performance and flexibility. Detail design and performance of the digital Costas loop will be explored in a later section. A classical technique is employed for Phase demodulation with the use of tracking Phase Lock Loop. Frequency demodulation is designed around a simple, single FM discriminator IC.
    • The Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier

      Medelius, Pedro J.; Hallberg, Carl; Larson, William E.; Becker, Dean; I-NET, Inc.; NASA; Loral Test & Information Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      A state-of-the-art instrumentation amplifier capable of being used with most types of transducers has recently been developed at the Kennedy Space Center. This Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier (USCA) can eliminate costly measurement setup time and troubleshooting, improve system reliability, and provide more accurate data than conventional amplifiers. The USCA can configure itself for maximum resolution and accuracy based on information read from a RAM chip attached to each transducer. Excitation voltages or currents are also automatically configured. The amplifier uses both analog and digital state-of-the-art technology with analog-to-digital conversion performed in the early stages to minimize errors introduced by offset and gain drifts in the analog components. A dynamic temperature compensation scheme has been designed to achieve and maintain 12-bit accuracy of the amplifier from 0 to 70E C. The digital signal processing section allows the implementation of digital filters up to 511th order. The amplifier can also perform real-time linearizations up to fourth order while processing data at a rate of 23,438 samples per second (23.438 kS/s). Both digital and analog outputs are available from the amplifier.

      Lucero, Frank N.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      In the early 1990's, the United States Air Force (USAF)/Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) Test and Evaluation (T&E) Mission Element Board approved the Single-Face-to-the-Customer (SFTC) concept to become more customer oriented and to provide more up-front planning by establishing single points of contact organized by mission areas rather than by test centers. The areas evolved to airframe-propulsion-avionics (A-P-A), armament/munitions, command-control-communications-computers-intelligence (C4I), electronic warfare (EW), and space. Use of the SFTC concept is required in formal USAF directives and details of the specific coverage for each mission area will be contained in mission area manuals. The primary mission of the SFTC Offices is to provide consulting services during initial T&E planning for new programs and major modification/product improvement programs and during T&E investment planning. Also, support is provided for T&E process advocacy, information repository services, and training on the SFTC concept. This paper discusses the USAF SFTC concept of operations and its status.
    • Use of a Commercial Visual Programming Language to Simulate, Decommutate, Test and Display a Telemetry Stream

      Wells, George; Baroth, Ed; California Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      The advantages of using visual programming to create, modify, test and display a telemetry stream are presented. The failure to fully deploy the high-gain antenna of the Galileo spacecraft has resulted in a software redesign of the computer systems onboard the spacecraft to support the low-gain antenna mission. Visual programming software is being used to test new algorithms as part of the ground support for the spacecraft Test Bed. It is very important that any new software algorithms be thoroughly tested on the ground before any modifications are made to the spacecraft. The advantage of using a visual programming language (LabVIEW, National Instruments) is that it provides easy visibility into the decommutation process that is being modified by the Galileo programming support team. In addition, utilities were written using visual programming to allow real-time data display and error detection. A data acquisition board is used to clock in the actual synchronous telemetry signal from the Test Bed at rates below 10 kHz. The time to write and modify the code using visual programming is significantly less (by a factor of 4 to 10) than using text-based code. The gains in productivity are attributed to the communication among the customer, developer, and computer that are facilitated by the visual syntax of the language.
    • The Use of Digital Signal Processors in Front-End Weather Satellite Telemetry Processing

      Lide, David A.; Talabac, Stephen (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      This paper discusses the use of DSP technology in the embedded real time ingest and pre-processing of weather satellite data. Specifically, case studies are presented in the use of Texas Instrument TMS 320 processors as front-end handlers of GOES MODE AAA and GOES GVAR data formats.
    • The Use of Open Architecture Systems in Cost Reduced Satellite Telemetry & Control Stations

      Spielman, David R.; AP Labs, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      A comprehensive examination of the market demands for cost reduced satellite telemetry & control stations will be presented. These systems are implemented using flexible, open architecture-based high performance real-time systems. The trend for combining telemetry monitoring of satellite data with closed-loop satellite command and control functions will be presented. This combined functionality opens up the possibilities for completely integrated, reduced cost satellite control systems. The market forces driving the demand for this integrated functionality include the broadening of non-military satellite applications, the widening international deployment of commercial satellites and the accompanying drive toward decentralized satellite control. The major requirements for the telemetry processing and command & control functionality of the integrated, reduced cost satellite control system will be presented. These requirements include: full real-time performance for processing telemetry data; flexible architecture for the incorporation of a wide range of I/O devices; capability of performing real-time, closed-loop control based on conditions in the telemetry data; user friendly development environments for application-specific customization of the system; and low system costs with the capability of indigenous support. The divergent requirements of performance, flexibility and price of these integrated, reduced cost satellite control systems is made possible via the use of open architecture building blocks that include standard VME boards combined with specialized real-time software drivers and user oriented, flexible Graphical User Interface (GUI) software.
    • Variable Polarization Ferrite Antenna

      Dunn, Daniel S.; Telep, Matthew S.; Augustin, Eugene P.; Technical Systems Associates, Inc (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      This paper describes a ferrite antenna that can produce any polarization on the Poincaré sphere over the frequency range of 9.0 to 11.4 GHz by utilizing Faraday rotation and a quarter-wavelength phase shifter. All possible polarizations of the electromagnetic wave are achievable with this antenna which includes linear, circular and elliptical polarizations. Any tilt angle of elliptical polarization and any orientation of the linear polarization can be achieved as well. The polarization of the ferrite antenna can be electronically switched to a different polarization instantly without the use of moving parts. An automatic data acquisition system was designed and built to fully analyze the antenna' s characteristics.

      Policella, Joseph; Kleen, Mitchell; White, Joey; CAE-Link Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      In space applications, telemetry systems are traditionally used to provide a front end for processing Control Center data. Control Center operations dictate the content and processing requirements of the telemetry data to enable the control center personnel to make proper decisions concerning the operation of their space vehicle. Unfortunately many anomalous operational scenarios do not arise during control center checkout procedures which are designed to test the functionality of the Control Center equipment. However, an interactive telemetry simulation, which involves producing telemetry data using real-world formats and data rates, can create many of the situations control center personnel may encounter. A host computer is used to drive a telemetry system which in turn produces simulated vehicle data. As a result, a telemetry simulation can not only verify the functionality of the Control Center hardware and software, but also validate Control Center procedures and train Control Center personnel in the process.
    • Voice Encode/Decode System for PCM Insertion and Extraction

      Laird, Daniel T.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      In the field of aircraft testing the need to efficiently record the cockpit voice communication without consuming a significant amount of the acquisition frame bandwidth has been an issue for years. There are methods, based on commercially available products, that allow for voice placement into PCM streams that will satisfy the requirement of relatively low bandwidth consumption. In this paper I will discuss a design that makes minimal demand on bandwidth, with the freedom to vary the placement of the voice within the minor acquisition frame.
    • Wideband FM Telemetry Application

      Neuens, Jim; Veda Incorporated (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1994-10)
      A Wideband FM Telemetry System was developed by Veda Incorporated and Boeing Commercial Airplane. This system supports Boeing 777 flight testing and will support future Boeing test efforts. This is an upgrade to the system previously used by Boeing for testing other planes. The design interfaces to the new Boeing Data Acquisition and Analysis systems and provides 15 Megabits per second Telemetry at ranges up to 180 miles. This paper provides details regarding the following design and integration issues: o) RF Transmitter Design o) RF Receivers o) Airborne Antenna o) Ground Based Antenna o) Data Interfaces o) System Performance o) Problems / Solutions