• How The User Relates to a Large Range Telemetry System

      Chavez, Tomas; Strock, O. Jud; White Sands Missile Range; Loral Data Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      The Telemetry Data Handling System (TDHS) at the Telemetry Data Center in White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexico, has been in operation since January 1990. It is one of the world's largest integrated range telemetry systems, and certainly the most versatile in weapons support capability. The system supports one of the world's busiest test ranges, serving all U.S. Military Services as well as NASA and others. This paper looks at the White Sands system from the user's view, examining the ways in which it is configured for several weapons tests in a typical day, and the way in which it can run foreground launch support and background pre-launch activities simultaneously. This system has grown in functional capability since its installation, both in hardware and in software. This paper analyzes that growth to see the reasons and methods. Also, near-term additional growth is addressed.
    • An Integrated Approach to Real Time Flight Test as Seen from Down Under

      Slezak, Ken; Crouch, Viv; Loral Data Systems; Aircraft Research and Development Unit (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      The Aircraft Research and Development Unit (ARDU) is the flight test authority for the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). ARDU was born out of a requirement to handle the testing of developmental aircraft and weapons during Word War II. Its nucleus was established in 1941 and one of its first tasks was to evaluate the flying qualities and performance of captured Japanese aircraft. Today, ARDU provides "one-stop shopping" for flight testing all aircraft, weapons and systems in the RAAF and Australian Army Inventory. As directed by the RAAF, ARDU also performed flight testing on Royal Australian Navy aircraft, as well as novel and unique aircraft such as lighter-than-air and museum restored aircraft that are of historical importance.
    • The Architecture and Design of Parallel Processing for Real-Time Multiplexing Telemetry Data

      Jun, Zhang; Qishan, Zhang; Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      The parallel processing technology has been widely applied to many science and engineering technical fields, also to telemetry. In particular, telemetry develops towards the trend of large capacity, high rate, several data streams and programmable formats. This sets a still higher demand on processing for real-time multilexing telemetry data. On the basis of analyzing of the characteristics of telemetry data processing (TDP), the parallel processing conception and methods are adopted, countering multiiple-channel data streams of different objects, several architectures of parallel processing for real-time multiplexing telemetry data are presented. It makes better use of the concurrency during the process of TDP and handles the telemetry information effectively in every processing level of the whole telemetering information processing system. The paper shows the property comparison of these parallel processing architectures and main features too. Experiments have indicated that it is an economical and effective method to improve the performance of telemetry information processing system by using paralle processing architecture which is based on concurrency of telemetry data processing.
    • ASW-II: Advanced Satellite Workstation for the UHF Follow-On Satellite Program

      Hamilton, M. J.; Abbott, R.; Eggan, P.; Golber, D.; Hsieh, S.; Jordan, L.; Le, T.; Newcomb, R.; Sutton, S.; Ton, T.; Yu, C.; Zechiel, S.; The Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      ASW-II (Advanced Satellite Workstation, Version II) has been developed and delivered as an operational prototype in support of the Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Follow-On satellite. It provides unified and coordinated real time reception and storage of satellite telemetry, display of both real time and stored telemetry, expert-system analysis of spacecraft status, and an information navigator system that stores and presents information about the spacecraft. The architecture is modular and reconfigurable, and it provides support for multiple analyst workstations. There are several unusual aspects of the design. The entire telemetry history of the satellite is regarded as a continuum by the user, with ASW-II automatically tracking and displaying contact periods. A "streams" mechanism organizes the telemetry in such a way that the user can interactively define new derived parameters and have them presented graphically. Both real time and archived data can be displayed simultaneously. The user has very flexible controls for all display interfaces using mouse and window technologies.
    • How to Build a High Accuracy, 100 Channel, PCM Encoder for $29.95

      Powell, David G.; Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Encoders are extensively used in instrumentation and telemetry systems. Commercially available encoders are available from several sources and vary in complexity depending on the application. Encoders often include analog signal conditioning, a system clock, and one or more digital input ports. Many of these systems also cost several thousand dollars and the cost goes up when high data accuracy of one or two percent is required. This paper describes a low cost approach which has been used in production telemetry applications with great success and which yields a PCM encoder with data accuracies of better than 2%.
    • Software Considerations in the Control of Digital Communications Switching Systems

      Ward, Ronald P.; Communications Systems Technology, Incorporated (CSTI) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      Today's complex implementations of integrated packet and circuit switched digital communications networks demand that the software used for controlling these systems be robust, fault tolerant, and capable of runtime recovery from all but the most severe of operational errors. The typical modern switched communications system includes the use of multiple circuit switches, each with potentially thousands of end-user interfaces. Further, these switches are often inter-connected to each other via high-capacity trunks. A single connection between two end-user interfaces often traverses a number of intermediate circuit switches in order to effect the end-to-end communications desired. In this complex, distributed environment, the establishment and dissolution of end-to-end user connections involve far more than simple binary connection states indicating the existence, or non-existence, of a link. More commonly, a single end-to-end connection requires multiple node links across multiple, heterogeneous interfaces. The command and control software used to establish, monitor, and dissolve these connections must be capable of dealing with errors which arise at any node along the way in a consistent and reliable manner. Most critically, the system software must be capable of maintaining an accurate, multi-level mapping of distributed resources' availability, allocation, and status. Further, the software must have the capability of "healing itself" during operational run-time when it can, and of accurately reporting the nature of inconsistencies caused by anomalous events that cannot be fixed on the fly. The Edwards Digital Switch (EDS), developed by CSTI, provides a case study of possible solutions, and potential pitfalls, that can arise in the design, development, and implementation of the controlling software in today's dynamic, distributed communications' system architectures.
    • Neural Network Application to Telemetry Frame Synchronization

      Massey, David E.; Goddard Space Flight Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      This paper looks into the use of neural network software as applied to the classical signal to noise concern when dealing with space to ground data communications. Use of a digital neural network to extend the correlation range of Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) down into noise is investigated. Conventional synchronization pattern correlation is done with digital logic comparisons on a sliding window with a set number of bit mismatch errors allowed. Correlation with a neural network does pattern recognition with a weighted network of artificial neurons that have been trained to recognize the sync pattern within noise. The output of such a neural network will produce a best guess of the correct pattern.
    • Simulation of Binary Continuous Phase Modulation Combined with (1,2)-Convolutional Encoder

      Carden, Frank; Osborne, William; Alhussiny, Karim; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      In this paper the performance of a (1,2)-convolutional encoder combined with continuous phase modulation is simulated. A binary sequence is used inconjunction with the above encoder and a modulation index of (h=1/4). A full response 1REC frequency shaping function is used to maintain phase continuity. A binary (uncoded)CPM with the above modulation index is also simulated. The performance in terms of the probability of bit error event is plotted against signal to noise ratio for both coded and the uncoded CPM schemes. The asymptotic performance of both schemes is plotted along with MSK for comparison purposes. The simulation algorithm used in this paper utilizes the Block Oriented System Simulator known as BOSS. The major components of this simulation are the encoder and the decoder. The encoder consists of binary random data generator and a (1,2)-convolutional encoder combined with a channel vector encoder and a random white gaussian noise generator. The decoder consists of the following modules: sequential vector bank, inner product unit, metric calculator unit, multi stage trellis, symbol decoder and error counter module.
    • An Open Software Architecture for UNIX Based Data Acquisition/Telemetry Systems

      Dawson, Daniel; Veda Systems Incorporated (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      Veda Systems Incorporated has recently completed the development of a completely open architecture, UNIX-based software environment for standard telemetry and more generic data acquisition applications. The new software environment operates on many state-of-the-art high-end workstations and provides a workstation independent, multiuse platform for front-end system configuration, database management, real-time graphic data display and data, logging.
    • PCM/FM+FM/FM Design Parameters for Telemetering Systems

      Carden, Frank; Moser, Juliette; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      In a PCM/FM+FM/FM system, the PCM data is added to the subcarriers at baseband and the composite signal is modulated onto the carrier. When the subcarrier messages are demodulated, part of the PCM signal's spectrum falls within the bandwidth of the subcarrier bandpass filters. This causes interference with the subcarrier messages, particularly those of the lower subcarrier frequencies. When designing a PCM/FM+FM/FM system, one is concerned with the placement of the subcarrier frequencies and the interference suffered by the subcarriers due to the PCM signal. This paper develops a relationship between the lowest frequency subcarrier, PCM bit rate and the resulting interference. The design procedure allows a bit rate or lowest frequency subcarrier to be selected for a specified interference ratio. The expression of the ratio is a complex integral which is reduced to a simple equation involving the system parameters.
    • GPS Imbedded Telemetry

      Ciasulli, Lou; Aydin Vector Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      The Global Positioning System has achieved a maturity whereby a large marketplace of users have developed. This marketplace has been flooded with many types of receivers from a large number of manufacturers. The broad acceptance of the system among military as well as commercial users has created this market, and receiver availability due to planned mass production has precipitated substantial price reduction for GPS receivers. OEM receivers are presently available on the market at such a low cost that their incorporation into flight test systems should be seriously considered. The data produced by the system has a reasonable and usable accuracy for platform position, flight vectors and time. These are suitable in most range applications and can either augment or replace present tracking methods such as multilateration or triangulation for vehicle position. The advantages of eliminating the need for tracking functions in ground control stations are obvious especially in multi-vehicle operations such as in air-to-air weaponry testing and range training missions. The simplification of operation in position determination becomes especially desirable for over-the-horizon platforms. In this case, ground or airborne relays must be employed which complicates the location task by orders of magnitude.
    • Multiplexer-Demultiplexer for High Speed Digital Recorders

      Pouille, Etienne; Schlumberger Industries (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      This paper describes a multiplexer-demultiplexer for high speed digital recorders. The multiplexer-demultiplexer enables a single-channel recorder (for example, MIL-STD-2179 recorders) to be used with up to eight asynchronous data channels, each channel being analog or digital. Time correlation between the different channels is preserved. The multiplexer and the demultiplexer are modular products and can be used under different environments (ships, aircraft, laboratory, ...).
    • A Data Analysis Software Architecture for Parallel and Distributed Computation

      Brockett, D. M.; BBN Systems & Technologies (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      Real-time high-volume telemetry data analysts have needs which require access to ever-increasing amounts of data, which must be processed in a seamless and coherent manner. BBN has developed a data analysis software architecture for use in distributed- and parallel-processing environments which is particularly well-suited for telemetry streams. BBN is currently using this software at two Navy sites to do realtime data analysis. The architecture provides data-source management, data-stream fusion, and data extraction all in a modular, scalable framework. Because of the scalable nature of the software, it can easily accommodate high data rates.
    • Managing Telemetry Information in the New Era of Test and Evaluation

      Gardner, Lee S.; Hoaglund, Catharine M.; Painter, Darcy S.; Air Force Flight Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      Terms like efficiency, quick response, and interoperability are becoming the bywords of the test and evaluation (T&E) community as the Defense Department tightens its corporate belt [1]. These changes mark the end of an era of manual processes and duplication of effort and the beginning of an era of cooperation, standards, and Total Quality Management (TQM). Managing the huge volume of telemetry information required to support flight test at the Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC) has required new paradigms and system development strategies. These new ideas have resulted in the Aircraft Information Management System (AIMS), a system designed to meet the challenges of a new era in T&E. This paper discusses the AIMS design and function as background for the deeper issue of effective, efficient management of telemetry setup information. The information history model used in AIMS is presented and discussed. In the process of developing standards for the AIMS a methodology was discovered and successfully implemented for resolving information management issues in the framework of system development.
    • Estimation of Tec and Range of EMP Source Using an Improved Ionospheric Correction Model

      Kim, Y. S.; Eng, R.; The Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      An improved ionospheric delay correction model for a transionospheric electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is used for estimating the total-electron-content (TEC) profile of the path and accurate ranging of the EMP source. For a known pair of time of arrival (TOA) measurements at two frequency channels, the ionospheric TEC information is estimated using a simple numerical technique. This TEC information is then used for computing ionospheric group delay and pulse broadening effect correction to determine the free space range. The model prediction is compared with the experimental test results. The study results show that the model predictions are in good agreement with the test results.
    • A MIL-STD-1553 Multiplex Data Bus Record-All Small Data Acquisition System

      Fletcher, T. R.; Canadian Forces Base Cold Lake (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      MIL-STD-1553 multiplex data buses are commonly used to link complex software-controlled systems in modern aircraft. The software in these aircraft is routinely updated; each update requires flight testing. Also, sophisticated weapons and electronic warfare systems which are integrated into operationally-ready aircraft must be routinely evaluated. The simplest way to perform the required evaluation is to record all the data from the multiplex data buses during an operational flight; these data can then be replayed and examined after the flight. Traditionally, some operational systems had to be disabled or removed from an aircraft to allow installation of a data acquisition system. This paper discusses a MILSTD- 1553 multiplex bus Record-All Small Data Acquisition System (RASDAS) installed in a McDonnell Douglas CF-188 fighter aircraft to record all data from two 1553 multiplex data buses without displacing any operational equipment. The specific requirements and constraints associated with evaluating the integrated systems of a CF-188 aircraft are examined; further, RASDAS implementation in this aircraft type is discussed from planning to flight evaluation.
    • Integrated Media Technologies for Satellite Decision Support Systems

      Sutton, S. A.; Yu, C. S.; The Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      Within the Aerospace industry, the operational community is facing staff reductions, reduced skill levels, and greater complexity of space assets and space missions. This combination requires that techniques be developed that more efficiently interface a human operator with a complex computer system. Operational support of complex space systems will be greatly facilitated by better presentation of information. The presentation and distribution of complex data must evolve towards formats that are easily and naturally embraced by our sensory systems. Some of the information technologies/techniques that facilitate the presentation of complex dynamic graphical data fall into a category called integrated media. The cost of implementing integrated media (IM) architectures has decreased substantially within in the past five years. While implementation costs continue to recede, the quality and value of information that can be presented using IM technologies continues to improve. Today's IM architect can select a variety of components including digital interactive video, 3D Navigable Worlds, Multimedia Authoring Systems, standardized compressors for IM data, low cost high volume storage systems, and operating system extensions for temporal data management. Together, these components form a solid foundation for the development of a variety of compelling IM architectures. Existing satellite support and mission data processing architectures typically present tabular data for assessment. Some "advanced" systems include 2D graphical projections of the data. System experts are generally trained to correlate relationships between tabular data items. The training required to "learn" these complex relationships is tedious and time consuming. This complexity impedes productivity and as space systems increase in sophistication, these techniques for data assessment are quickly becoming antiquated. The development of a prototype decision support system explores the utility of an integrated media documentation system as part of a full-featured decision support architecture for satellite operations.
    • Fully Remote Controlled Telemetry Tracking Antenna System

      Payne, E.; Haider, Franz; Scientific-Atlanta, Inc.; MBB Deutsche Aerospace (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      This paper describes a high performance telemetry receiving antenna tracking system which utilizes unique software to allow full remote control of the tracking antenna, two telemetry receivers, and a diversity combiner. Features include a modular pedestal design, electronically scanned tracking feed (ESCAN), mouse-driven software which uses full screen representation of selected components, and a joystick linked through serial interface to the control computer to allow slewing of the antenna axes. This state-of-the-art system allows operation from the front panel of the controlled devices and over extended distance via fiber-optic buss extenders.
    • Real Time Telemetry Data Synthesis with the TMS320C25

      Jun, Yao; Shi-yan, Liu; Xinan Electronic Engineering Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      This paper presents the method of real time telemetry data synthesis for multi-beams and multi-receivers system in theory. For the practical implementation, we introduce a TMS320C25-based data synthesis board. Through a large number of simulating experiments, the satisfactory results are obtained, which obviously improve the performance of telemetry system. Therefore, all those technigues and results have the value of practical applications.
    • F/A-18 Data Reduction at the Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, California

      Smith, Darren C.; Naval Air Warfare Center - Weapons Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      The current F/A-18 data reduction/analysis system is incapable of meeting increased customer demands. A new system has been developed and is based on new technologies. In the process of developing the new system, the design team had to divorce themselves from the current system and consider what the ideal system would consist of. This was accomplished with great success in the areas of timeliness of data turn around, customer satisfaction, and increased efficiency.