• International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 28 (1992)

      International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10

      Zhang, Jian-Guo; Li, Zheng; Università degli Studi di Parma Viale delle Scienze; Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      In this paper, we investigate high-capacity fiber-optic networks for real-time telemetry applications. The network topologies and related network components are analyzed for telemetry fiber-optic Local Area Network (LAN) and Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) as well as MAN internetworking with LANs. Two types of multiplexing techniques, namely, Wavelength Division Multiplexing and Time Division Multiplexing, are proposed to support real-time high-capacity telemetry applications, and the perspective of such networks is also considered. Finally, the optical modulation technique and the choice of optical devices are discussed, which are based on improving the reliability of fiber-optic LANs and MANs.

      Johnson, Gary G.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      Flight testing has dramatically changed from the freewheeling “right-stuff” aviation days of the 40s and 50s. The computer age was just beginning. There was essentially no access to data other than voice and radar tracking information on the ground to monitor the flights. The advent of reliable and effective ground systems for real-time safety monitoring was still in the future. Unfortunately, the lack of these systems played a contributing role in the large number of accidents which killed or injured a significant number of our nation’s pioneer test pilots. As technology evolved, more real-time access to critical safety and performance parameters became available to our flight test engineers on the ground. This technology included sophisticated aircraft instrumentation of key measurements, improved telemetry transmission and reception, and finally, enhanced real-time processing and display of the test data to the engineers. One advantage achieved through these technological advances in testing was a tremendous improvement in flight safety. Although accidents can still happen, today they are very rare thanks, in part, to the ability to accurately monitor and control a test program on the ground. The Advanced Data Acquisition and Processing Systems (ADAPS) program is specifically tailored to meet the needs of test engineers on the ground at the Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC) Edwards AFB, California, to monitor a flight through the use of state-of-the-art data acquisition, processing, and display technologies. This paper provides an overall perspective of the requirements for data processing which ADAPS addresses. In addition, the ADAPS design concept, architecture, and development plan are discussed. The purpose is to describe how the ADAPS development effort meets the flight test end user needs of the 1990s. The paper concludes with a section on how we can apply the ADAPS concepts and technology to help equip the multiple Department of Defense (DoD) test centers with a common test data processing capability.

      Bain, R. S.; Veda Systems Incorporated (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      Modern telemetry systems collect large quantities of data at high rates of speed. To support near real-time analysis of this data, a sophisticated data archival system is required. If the data is to be analyzed during the test, it must be available via computer-accessible peripheral devices. The use of computer-compatible media permits powerful “instant- replay-type” functions to be implemented, allowing the user to search for events, blow-up time segments, or alter playback rates. Using computer-compatible media also implies inexpensive COTS devices with an “industry standard” interface and direct media compatibility with host processing systems. This paper discusses the design and implementation of a board-level archive subsystem developed by Veda Systems, Incorporated.

      Can, Ouyang; Chang-jie, Shi; Beijing Research Institute of Telemetry; Science and Technology Committee (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      Multiple processor architecture has been used in telemetry processing systems for many years. But how to evaluate the performance of such a system on telemetry data processing has not yet been adequately addressed. Utilizing a deterministic model, this paper tries to study the performance of multiple-processor telemetry data processing system. It demonstrates that the bus arbitration scheme, the ratio of processing time to communication time and the processing decomposition are the three important factors influencing the performance of such kind of systems. All the three factors are discussed. The results obtained have been applied to the design of the MSDDTS (Multi-Stream Data-Driven Telemetry System), a new generation multi-stream telemetry system in china, in order to gain the best cost-effectiveness.
    • Applications of Type-I Hybrid-ARQ Error Control

      Rice, Michael; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      Hybrid-ARQ schemes employ the simultaneous application of error-detection and error-correction to combat transmission errors in a data communications system. In this way automatic repeat request (ARQ) and forward error correction (FEC) schemes are combined to offer effective error control. The key to implementation is the identification of reliability information in the FEC decoding process which is used to alter the FEC decoding algorithm. Under certain channel conditions, the realized efficiency is superior to that of either FEC or ARQ.

      Ricker, William; Kolb, John Jr; Aydin Vector Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      Due to the vast amount of data required to be collected for design/performance analysis of operational and development systems, there has evolved a real requirement for a high-speed, large capacity, data collection/record system in a small Flight/Ruggedized package. This need is realized by several user communities and factors which include the evolution of small operational vehicles (airborne, land and UAV’s), the desire of weapons manufacturers/integrators to be independent from the vehicle during vehicle integration, and a general need for a field/airborne, reliable portable data collection system for intelligence gathering, operational performance verification and on-board data processing. In the Air Defence community, the need for a ruggedized record system was highlighted after Desert Storm, in which the operational performance of the Patriot Missile was questioned and data collection was not performed to support the performance. The Aydin Vector Division in conjunction with the prime contractor, has come up with a solution to this problem which utilizes a commercially available helical scan 8mm data storage unit. This solution provides a highly reliable record system, ruggedized for airborne and field environments and a low price in comparison with the more traditional approaches currently offered. This paper will describe the design implementation of this small ruggedized, flight worthy Data collection system deemed the ATD-800. It will also discuss the performance and limitations of implementing such a system, as well as provide several applications and solutions to different operational environments to be encountered. Additionally, the paper will conclude with several product enhancements which may benefit the flight test, operational and intelligence communities in the future.

      Mills, George T.; Naval Air Warfare Center - Weapons Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      A simple technique to convert 675 and 875 line video to the more common 525 line rate is presented. The higher density 875 and 675 videos are stored and rescanned at the 525 line rate to produce a video signal that is essentially the same video signal that would have originally been generated by a 525 line video sensor (camera).

      McMahon, Michael M.; Loral Conic Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      Analog video telemetry links are generally realized with an FM video transmitter and an FM video receiver. Various standards specify characteristics of both the baseband video signal and the transmitted modulation characteristics. This paper summarizes and clarifies these standards so that the video/transmitter interface may be specified and correctly set up. Monochrome and color video signal levels are described. Required deviation and pre-emphasis characteristics of the transmitter are also clarified.
    • ASW-II: Advanced Satellite Workstation for the UHF Follow-On Satellite Program

      Hamilton, M. J.; Abbott, R.; Eggan, P.; Golber, D.; Hsieh, S.; Jordan, L.; Le, T.; Newcomb, R.; Sutton, S.; Ton, T.; et al. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      ASW-II (Advanced Satellite Workstation, Version II) has been developed and delivered as an operational prototype in support of the Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Follow-On satellite. It provides unified and coordinated real time reception and storage of satellite telemetry, display of both real time and stored telemetry, expert-system analysis of spacecraft status, and an information navigator system that stores and presents information about the spacecraft. The architecture is modular and reconfigurable, and it provides support for multiple analyst workstations. There are several unusual aspects of the design. The entire telemetry history of the satellite is regarded as a continuum by the user, with ASW-II automatically tracking and displaying contact periods. A "streams" mechanism organizes the telemetry in such a way that the user can interactively define new derived parameters and have them presented graphically. Both real time and archived data can be displayed simultaneously. The user has very flexible controls for all display interfaces using mouse and window technologies.
    • A Flexible Voice Communication System for a Real-Time Mission Control Facility

      Pappas, Johnny J.; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      Due to the complexity of real-time missions, an increasing number of participants, and the critical nature of test missions, providing a reliable, versatile voice communication network for mission support entities has become essential. A voice communication system has a direct impact on the effectiveness of every mission and the safety of mission personnel. Each participant must satisfy unique functional and operational communication requirements. This paper addresses the functional, operational, and ergonomic aspects associated with a voice communication system for the Central Control Facility (CCF) at the Air Force Development Test Center (AFDTC), Eglin AFB, Florida. The communication system was purchased from an Edwards AFB Digital Switch requirements contract.

      Bisson, Kenneth J.; Aptec Computer Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      There are many applications that require multiple processors performing real-time tasks and communicating with each other over a common bus or memory. Aptec has developed a real-time multiprocessing system which reduces the integration effort needed in a custom designed system. The system uses commercially available Motorola 68000 series processors each running a real-time kernel. Software has been developed to extend the capabilities of the real-time kernel. This software is called Multiprocessor Services. The software allows tasks running on different processors to communicate with each other and a global shared memory. This paper describes the features of real-time multiprocessor hardware systems, and how the multiprocessor software coordinates the processors to operate as an integrated system.

      Faulstich, Raymond J.; Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      The Common Airborne Instrumentation System (CAIS) is being developed through the Department of Defense Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) to support the flight test requirements of the military services into the next decade. CAIS consists of an airborne data acquisition segment and a ground based support segment. The system is designed to accommodate both the small user and the larger, more complex full scale development programs. This paper presents a program overview of CAIS from a users view.

      Griffin, Alan R.; Wooten, R. Stephen; Hanscom Air Force Base; CALCULEX, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      The vast amount of data telemetered from space probe experiments requires careful management and tracking from initial receipt through acquisition, archiving, and distribution. This paper presents the automated system used at the Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate, for tracking telemetry data from its receipt at the facility to its distribution on various media to the research community. Features of the system include computerized databases, automated generation of media labels, automated generation of reports, and automated archiving.
    • Instrumentation Tape Recorders Using DAT Technology

      Heim, J.; JOSEF HEIM KG. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      Instrumentation tape recorders have been known since the fifties. However, their requirements have undergone complete changes. More and more, the large “dinosaur type recorders” are superseded by new technologies, but when it comes to recording large data volumes over a long time the magnetic tape cannot be replaced by alternative recording methods. The following presentation will introduce magnetic tape units based on the 4 mm digital audio tape. This family of units has achieved large importance during recent years, since the DAT tape units have very small dimensions and can be used for all purposes. Depending on the application, analog and digital magnetic tapes are used. Thanks to the use of digital signal processors the system specifications could be improved to a considerable extent. Multi-channel analog recorders operate with digital signal processing. The transmission characteristics concerning amplitude and phase errors were improved such that the residual error can be neglected during daily metrology work. Furthermore, automatic calibration improves system accuracy and simplifies the units’ maintenance.

      Meier, Robert C.; Cincinnati Electronics Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      Some Telemetry systems today receive a binary phase shift keying modulation format. Typically, to demodulate BPSK requires using a carrier synchronizer followed by a bit synchronizer. Demodulation of BPSK can be accomplished using digital signal processing techniques to implement both synchronizers. This paper describes a digital system that demodulates a 16 KHZ, 2KBPS BPSK signal. In order to evaluate these techniques, the theory of operation was evaluated. Additionally, a computer simulation of the demodulator was developed. The computer simulation was implemented using Pascal. The techniques were optimized to give maximum performance while requiring minimum hardware and power in an actual implementation.

      Daniau, Marc; Millet, Philippe; SCHLUMBERGER Industries (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      DELTA 6000 System is a universal opened system for preprocessing, archival, realtime and offline analysis of telemetry data. The heterogeneous LAN architecture of DELTA 6000 comprises several front end ensuring the telemetry and high level realtime processing functions and several workstations for system control and display. The high communication level of DELTA 6000 enables an easy resource sharing as well as integration in customer environment. Easy operation through an efficient human interface and high versatility through the largest use of the most famous hardware and software industry standards are the major features of DELTA 6000. The more recent evolution of DELTA 6000 is the CE83 format realtime handling for use in European missiles programs.
    • Managing Telemetry Information in the New Era of Test and Evaluation

      Gardner, Lee S.; Hoaglund, Catharine M.; Painter, Darcy S.; Air Force Flight Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      Terms like efficiency, quick response, and interoperability are becoming the bywords of the test and evaluation (T&E) community as the Defense Department tightens its corporate belt [1]. These changes mark the end of an era of manual processes and duplication of effort and the beginning of an era of cooperation, standards, and Total Quality Management (TQM). Managing the huge volume of telemetry information required to support flight test at the Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC) has required new paradigms and system development strategies. These new ideas have resulted in the Aircraft Information Management System (AIMS), a system designed to meet the challenges of a new era in T&E. This paper discusses the AIMS design and function as background for the deeper issue of effective, efficient management of telemetry setup information. The information history model used in AIMS is presented and discussed. In the process of developing standards for the AIMS a methodology was discovered and successfully implemented for resolving information management issues in the framework of system development.
    • A Brief Look at Delta Modulation

      Ugarte, Alberto (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      The principle behind delta modulation systems is introduced. Having developed the principles of delta modulation systems, a system that performs delta modulation is developed and tested to see how well the system performs by using sinusoids and speech as the input to the system. This is then followed by a comparison of delta modulation and pulse code modulation to show that, overall, delta modulation is better than pulse code modulation.
    • An Object-Oriented System for Telemetry Data Management

      Tolat, Viral V.; Stanford University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      In this paper we describe an object-oriented software system for realtime telemetry data management and display. The system has also been designed to be used as the primary means of data management during post-mission activities. The software system consists of three parts: the data interface library, the data format specification and the display applications. The data interface library contains a set of object definitions and procedures to provide uniform access to heterogeneous data streams. The data format specification is used by the data interface library to extract data from the raw data stream. The display applications use the data interface library to access the data and present it to the user. Currently, the interface between the data format specification and the data interface library is implemented procedurally and is modeled after a device driver. Each format is assigned a unique id and then accessed via that id. A data stream may be accessed by any number of different format specifications. A future implementation will separate the data format specification into a separate process with a message or RPC based interface. Therefore the data may be kept on remote systems and accessed in a transparent fashion. In addition, this model will support operation in distributed heterogeneous computing environments. This system handles multiple simultaneous data streams and applications can access data from different streams relatively transparently. This is possible since data variables (objects) to be displayed are specified by a syntax that contains the specification of both the data streams and the format to use. In addition, the concept of a primary stream is introduced to allow the user to scroll through one data stream and have the other streams follow. Synchronization between streams is based on time information in the data streams. Several applications have been written including various stripchart displays a tabular display and some other custom displays. A data analysis application similar to the UNIX program "awk" is currently under development. It will provide the user with the ability to extract data, i.e., report generation, for display or further analysis in an object-oriented manner.