Johnson, Gary G.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      Flight testing has dramatically changed from the freewheeling “right-stuff” aviation days of the 40s and 50s. The computer age was just beginning. There was essentially no access to data other than voice and radar tracking information on the ground to monitor the flights. The advent of reliable and effective ground systems for real-time safety monitoring was still in the future. Unfortunately, the lack of these systems played a contributing role in the large number of accidents which killed or injured a significant number of our nation’s pioneer test pilots. As technology evolved, more real-time access to critical safety and performance parameters became available to our flight test engineers on the ground. This technology included sophisticated aircraft instrumentation of key measurements, improved telemetry transmission and reception, and finally, enhanced real-time processing and display of the test data to the engineers. One advantage achieved through these technological advances in testing was a tremendous improvement in flight safety. Although accidents can still happen, today they are very rare thanks, in part, to the ability to accurately monitor and control a test program on the ground. The Advanced Data Acquisition and Processing Systems (ADAPS) program is specifically tailored to meet the needs of test engineers on the ground at the Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC) Edwards AFB, California, to monitor a flight through the use of state-of-the-art data acquisition, processing, and display technologies. This paper provides an overall perspective of the requirements for data processing which ADAPS addresses. In addition, the ADAPS design concept, architecture, and development plan are discussed. The purpose is to describe how the ADAPS development effort meets the flight test end user needs of the 1990s. The paper concludes with a section on how we can apply the ADAPS concepts and technology to help equip the multiple Department of Defense (DoD) test centers with a common test data processing capability.
    • An Advanced, Programmable Data Acquisition System

      Wargo, William D.; Eckstein, Howard; Microcom Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      The MicroDAS-1000 is an airborne Data Acquisition System (DAS) designed to meet the growing needs of airframe manufacturers for extensive test data accumulation, processing and evaluation. As such, the system has been designed with emphasis on modularity, miniaturization and ease of operator usage and expansion. The MicroDAS product line includes a series of components used as building blocks to configure systems of virtually any size. The modular design of these components allows considerable latitude to the instrumentation engineer in configuring systems for simple or complex applications. The modular concept has been extended to the design of plug-in modules for different functional requirements and system applications. All units are under software control to allow rapid reconfiguration and setup as requirements for instrumentation and data gathering change.

      Mason, Terry; Avalon Electronics Ltd (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      In recent years, many designers have turned to digital techniques as a means of improving the fidelity of instrumentation data recorders. However, single and multi-channel recorders based on professional VHS transports are now available which use innovative methods for achieving near-perfect timebase accuracy, inter-channel timing and group delay specifications for long-duration wideband analog recording applications. This paper discusses some of the interesting technical problems involved and demonstrates that VHS cassette recorders are now a convenient and low cost proposition for high precision multi-channel wideband data recording.

      Stephenson, Henry B.; Newton, Henry L.; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      The U. S. Army is developing an aerial cable range for testing missile weapon system components and other DOD material. The main component of the aerial cable range will be a three-mile-long Kevlar cable, fully suspended between two mountains, with an elevation difference of 2450 feet. Test vehicles (targets, test platforms, and retrieval trolleys) will travel along the cable at different speeds and different altitudes that conform to different test requirements. The main electronic support system for the aerial cable range will be the Ground Command and Control System (GCCS). The GCCS is being designed to control targets, retrieval trolleys, test fixtures, and test platforms on the aerial cable range. The GCCS will control up to four vehicles on the aerial cable at the same time. In the long term, the goal is to control test vehicles of 20,000 pounds in weight and 550 knots/hour in speed. The initial capability will control targets and test platforms of 10,000 pounds, at speeds of up to 250 knots/hour. The GCCS will consist of: • Telemetry links to communicate to and from various vehicles • A position measuring system to determine the position of the vehicle on the aerial cable • A control system to generate all commands necessary to activate events in the airborne vehicles • An operator console The control room will have the capability to display the vehicle parameters, meteorological data, lightning prediction data, video and real-time simulation.

      Salley, Thomas; Thorssell, Steven E.; Metraplex Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      IRIG 106-86 Chapter 8 describes the standard for acquisition of MIL-STD-1553 traffic flow. All incoming words (command, status, or data) are transmitted and fill words are used to maintain continuous data output. If all incoming words are not needed, or if other data such as sampled analog data from transducers are also to be transmitted, then a different approach is warranted. Selected data from the avionics bus can be placed into predefined PCM words, eliminating the transmission of useless data, and optimizing the bandwidth available to a Class I telemetry system. The engineering considerations and constraints for avionics bus data acquisition and analysis will be explored in this paper.

      Perschy, James A.; Johns Hopkins University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      The digital processing within the radar altimeter on board the TOPEX satellite to obtain science and engineering telemetry is described. The application of the Fourier transform, a second order tracking loop, waveform compression, and telemetry formatting is required.

      Johnson, Carl E.; NASA (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      The ethernet technology has vastly improved the capability to make real-time decisions during the flight of a vehicle. This asset combined with a PC telemetry data processor and the power of a high resolution graphics workstation, allows the decision makers to have a highly reliable graphical display of information on which to make vehicle related safety decisions in real-time.
    • Applications of Type-I Hybrid-ARQ Error Control

      Rice, Michael; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      Hybrid-ARQ schemes employ the simultaneous application of error-detection and error-correction to combat transmission errors in a data communications system. In this way automatic repeat request (ARQ) and forward error correction (FEC) schemes are combined to offer effective error control. The key to implementation is the identification of reliability information in the FEC decoding process which is used to alter the FEC decoding algorithm. Under certain channel conditions, the realized efficiency is superior to that of either FEC or ARQ.
    • The Architecture and Design of Parallel Processing for Real-Time Multiplexing Telemetry Data

      Jun, Zhang; Qishan, Zhang; Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      The parallel processing technology has been widely applied to many science and engineering technical fields, also to telemetry. In particular, telemetry develops towards the trend of large capacity, high rate, several data streams and programmable formats. This sets a still higher demand on processing for real-time multilexing telemetry data. On the basis of analyzing of the characteristics of telemetry data processing (TDP), the parallel processing conception and methods are adopted, countering multiiple-channel data streams of different objects, several architectures of parallel processing for real-time multiplexing telemetry data are presented. It makes better use of the concurrency during the process of TDP and handles the telemetry information effectively in every processing level of the whole telemetering information processing system. The paper shows the property comparison of these parallel processing architectures and main features too. Experiments have indicated that it is an economical and effective method to improve the performance of telemetry information processing system by using paralle processing architecture which is based on concurrency of telemetry data processing.
    • ASW-II: Advanced Satellite Workstation for the UHF Follow-On Satellite Program

      Hamilton, M. J.; Abbott, R.; Eggan, P.; Golber, D.; Hsieh, S.; Jordan, L.; Le, T.; Newcomb, R.; Sutton, S.; Ton, T.; Yu, C.; Zechiel, S.; The Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      ASW-II (Advanced Satellite Workstation, Version II) has been developed and delivered as an operational prototype in support of the Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Follow-On satellite. It provides unified and coordinated real time reception and storage of satellite telemetry, display of both real time and stored telemetry, expert-system analysis of spacecraft status, and an information navigator system that stores and presents information about the spacecraft. The architecture is modular and reconfigurable, and it provides support for multiple analyst workstations. There are several unusual aspects of the design. The entire telemetry history of the satellite is regarded as a continuum by the user, with ASW-II automatically tracking and displaying contact periods. A "streams" mechanism organizes the telemetry in such a way that the user can interactively define new derived parameters and have them presented graphically. Both real time and archived data can be displayed simultaneously. The user has very flexible controls for all display interfaces using mouse and window technologies.

      Griffin, Alan R.; Wooten, R. Stephen; Hanscom Air Force Base; CALCULEX, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      The vast amount of data telemetered from space probe experiments requires careful management and tracking from initial receipt through acquisition, archiving, and distribution. This paper presents the automated system used at the Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Directorate, for tracking telemetry data from its receipt at the facility to its distribution on various media to the research community. Features of the system include computerized databases, automated generation of media labels, automated generation of reports, and automated archiving.
    • A Biotelemetry Unit for Monitoring Nocturnal Bruxism

      Hirsh, S. S. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      This paper describes a biotelemetric application whereby information of tooth contact pressure from within the mouth of a human subject is transmitted to a bedside receiver where it is processed and used in the biofeedback treatment of nocturnal bruxism (grinding of the teeth). Bruxing information is encoded on a pulse width modulated 313 MHZ carrier. Issues that are addressed include miniaturization of the transmitter, minimization of power requirements, stabilization of carrier frequency, receiver selection, and the various problems associated with getting a radio frequency signal out of the mouth.
    • Boeing Flight Test Planning and Procedures

      Eccles, Lee H.; Boeing Commercial Airplane Group (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      The Boeing Commercial Airplane Group uses a highly computerized Flight Test system. Everything from test planning to equipment control is handled through a large mainframe computer. This paper is an introduction to the structures which are necessary to efficiently run tests on many different airplanes at the same time, with a wide range of test requirements. This paper discusses the data bases required, the test planning and the procedures used to run a flight test program. Some data bases are common to all test programs while others are specific to a particular test program. The test planning begins with the Instrumentation Requirements estimating process. Then comes selecting parameters from the common data bases and marking them as required for a particular test program. New parameters are added to the common data bases as required. Once the process of identifying parameters to be recorded is started, the computer automatically generates airplane specific data bases and loads the information from the common data bases into them so that the other groups can select the specific instrumentation to be used to measure each parameter. As this planning is accomplished, information is added to the data bases so that they become more complete as the actual testing approaches, When the airplane enters it's testing phase, the data from these data bases is retrieved and provided to both the on-board data monitor system and the ground station to allow data to be acquired from the data acquisition system or from tape for data processing. As the testing is accomplished the computer data is updated to indicate the progress of the testing.
    • A Brief Look at Delta Modulation

      Ugarte, Alberto (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      The principle behind delta modulation systems is introduced. Having developed the principles of delta modulation systems, a system that performs delta modulation is developed and tested to see how well the system performs by using sinusoids and speech as the input to the system. This is then followed by a comparison of delta modulation and pulse code modulation to show that, overall, delta modulation is better than pulse code modulation.

      Faulstich, Raymond J.; Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      The Common Airborne Instrumentation System (CAIS) is being developed through the Department of Defense Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) to support the flight test requirements of the military services into the next decade. CAIS consists of an airborne data acquisition segment and a ground based support segment. The system is designed to accommodate both the small user and the larger, more complex full scale development programs. This paper presents a program overview of CAIS from a users view.

      Lamy, M. F.; Ellis, D. H.; SCI Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      The Common Airborne Instrumentation System (CAIS) is designed as a general purpose system for flight test applications into the next century. The system has an open architecture which readily permits the addition of new equipment as the need arises. This paper describes the current complement of airborne hardware as well as the approach to the design of the open architecture. This paper is presented as a companion to the CAIS overview prepared for this conference.

      Toutain, Philippe; SCHLUMBERGER Industries (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      The European Space Agency (ESA) decided in March, 1991 to phase out the existing telecommand standard (PSS-45) and replaces it with the new CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) compatible standard, the packet telecommand standard PSS-04-107. SCHLUMBERGER Industries has developed a telecommand encoder, the TC 3900, which complies with the packet telecommand standards. It belongs to a new family of modular products using new technologies and incorporates in only one single housing of 7 units high and 19" wide, the telecommand encoder, a PSKFSK sub-carrier modem, and WAN (Wide Area Network) and LAN (Local) interfaces. The CCSDS recommendations oblige to implement new functions, which were not used with previous standards : we propose to describe what are the new services provided by the packet telecommanding and how they have been implemented in the TC 3900 encoder.
    • Closed-Loop Tracking System Provides Reference for Data Collection Exercises

      Wallace, Keith; Weinberg, Patrick; Veda Incorporated; Wright Laboratory (AART) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      A computational system was developed to support data collection for advanced airborne technology research. Basic research is conducted using a variety of sensing devices for collection of flight characteristics data from aircraft. To maximize control over as many variables as possible during research activities, a controlled aircraft tracking environment is needed to provide reference data for real-time operation and post-mission analysis. The solution to this requirement is realized with the ACMI Interface System (ACINTS). The ACINTS extracts real-time tracking data from a closed-loop telemetered tracking array, reprocesses needed parameters, provides reference data (positioning and control commands) to the sensor device, and records aircraft kinematics for later correlation with other collected data.

      Heins, Robert J.; Johns Hopkins University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      An orbiting sensor module, designed by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL), performed a number of significant Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) Delta 181 program experiments. These experiments required on-orbit command and monitor operations involving a worldwide network of ground facilities. A major component was the sensor module command center (SMCC), which was designed and integrated by JHU/APL. The SMCC, located at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), connected to a network of Eastern Test Range, Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN), Kennedy Space Center, and Western Test Range assets. The complex nature of the mission presented numerous challenges to the design, integration, and operation of the SMCC. This paper presents a functional overview of SMCC design as well as unique aspects of supporting ground network telemetry and command operation.

      Kayes, Edwin A.; Penny & Giles Data Systems Ltd (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      The world of instrumentation data recording has traditionally been concerned with recorder performance in terms of bandwidth, data rate, tape speed and recording time, with the apparently unceasing trend to record more and more data. However, while this may remain a valid perspective for data acquisition, the increasing requirement to integrate equipment into computer based environments has resulted in the need for greater emphasis to be applied to such parameters as data control and interfacing when specifying digital data recording systems. This paper addresses these operational issues and describes the practical implementation of a computer friendly digital cassette recorder which provides a common platform for both high rate data acquisition and computer based data analysis.