• Single Point User-Interface Software Design for Telemetry Stations

      Corbin, Brian A.; NASA (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      As the repetitive processes in the manufacturing community are being automated to reduce operating cost, the satellite tracking station (being for the most part a repetitive operation) can also reduce operating cost by automation. A conventional satellite tracking station requires personnel to setup, monitor, and adjust a variety of equipment, coordinate data collection, and archive collected data. By automating, the above duties in addition to managing the station can be done through a single-point user interface. This paper presents the methods used to design the user-interface software including graphical user interface (GUI) types of hardware I/O for data acquisition and control, and remote control.
    • Managing Telemetry Information in the New Era of Test and Evaluation

      Gardner, Lee S.; Hoaglund, Catharine M.; Painter, Darcy S.; Air Force Flight Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      Terms like efficiency, quick response, and interoperability are becoming the bywords of the test and evaluation (T&E) community as the Defense Department tightens its corporate belt [1]. These changes mark the end of an era of manual processes and duplication of effort and the beginning of an era of cooperation, standards, and Total Quality Management (TQM). Managing the huge volume of telemetry information required to support flight test at the Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC) has required new paradigms and system development strategies. These new ideas have resulted in the Aircraft Information Management System (AIMS), a system designed to meet the challenges of a new era in T&E. This paper discusses the AIMS design and function as background for the deeper issue of effective, efficient management of telemetry setup information. The information history model used in AIMS is presented and discussed. In the process of developing standards for the AIMS a methodology was discovered and successfully implemented for resolving information management issues in the framework of system development.
    • A Data Analysis Software Architecture for Parallel and Distributed Computation

      Brockett, D. M.; BBN Systems & Technologies (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      Real-time high-volume telemetry data analysts have needs which require access to ever-increasing amounts of data, which must be processed in a seamless and coherent manner. BBN has developed a data analysis software architecture for use in distributed- and parallel-processing environments which is particularly well-suited for telemetry streams. BBN is currently using this software at two Navy sites to do realtime data analysis. The architecture provides data-source management, data-stream fusion, and data extraction all in a modular, scalable framework. Because of the scalable nature of the software, it can easily accommodate high data rates.
    • A Single Channel Monopulse Antenna with Low Effective Sidelobes

      Dunn, Daniel S.; Augustin, Eugene P.; Technical Systems Associates, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      This paper describes a CSC² single axis tracking antenna using a single channel monopulse antenna which has improved sidelobe performance over conventional single channel monopulse antennas. Effective sidelobes of the composite pattern, measured at the receiver input, greater than 22 dB have been achieved. This is due to a unique feed design. The composite patterns are the true measure of performance for a single channel monopulse system since this is the input to the tracking receiver. The low effective sidelobes result in a significant reduction of multi-path problems.
    • The Shipboard Antenna Tracking System of Telemetry

      Quan-Hui, Gao; Beijing Research Institute of Telemetry (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      This paper describes a C-band auto-tracking receiving system on shipboard which is used in satellite telemetry. The system consists of receiving antenna, wideband feed, antenna pedestal, telemetry/tracking receiver antenna controller and computer console. Its characteristics are as follow: Single Channel Single Pulse Tracking Feed, 2. 5m Antenna Diameter, 500MHz BW, LHCP and RHCP Dual - Channel Polarization Diversity Receiving. The servo system uses rate - gyros as stabilized element being based on the micro - processor to realize the digital servo control. Computer console performs the status monitoring and management to the whole system. The system design, the main system specification and important test results are given.
    • A High Dynamic Range Microwave Fiberoptic Link for Telemetry/Tracking Systems

      Grimes, W. Gary; Curran, Randy; Ortel Corporation; Datron Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      This paper presents a simple, cost-effective solution that permits the antenna in a telemetry/tracking system to be placed at distances even greater than 20 km with virtually no signal degradation. By using a wideband, microwave fiberoptic link to pass the RF telemetry and tracking signals directly, the telemetry receivers can all be installed at the operator's location. In essence, the only RF equipment that needs to be installed at the antenna site is the low maintenance fiberoptic transmitter which can be placed in a ruggedized housing at the pedestal. The actual system described herein uses a hybrid approach with some telemetry receivers at the antenna site and some remoted over the fiberoptic link. It is shown that the fiberoptic link used met and exceeded the system requirements. In addition, the design of the fiberoptic link is discussed and it is shown that the dynamic range acheivable with this fiberoptic link is considerably higher than the system requirements in this case.
    • ESA Tracking Systems

      Girardey, Catherine C.; California Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      This paper presents the tracking systems currently used at ESA. Two systems are described: Meteosat Ranging System (MRS), and Multi-Purpose Tracking System (MPTS). The MRS is presently in operational use on Meteosat. It has been designed to meet the need for a simultaneous multi-point ranging in a channel shared with other services. As a result, a new code ranging technique, based on split-phase-level data formats, has been designed and developed. The MPTS (previously Deep Space Tracking System - DSTS) was first developed and deployed for the Giotto mission. At a later stage, a near-earth capability has been added to the system, thereby creating a truly multi-purpose tracking system. The ranging signal employed in the MPTS makes use of the good properties of both the PN code type of ranging system and the tone ranging system. The concept, architectural design, capabilities and performance of these systems are presented in this paper. Finally, insight into the European Data Relay Satellite and Data Relay User Satellite ranging systems is given.
    • Fully Remote Controlled Telemetry Tracking Antenna System

      Payne, E.; Haider, Franz; Scientific-Atlanta, Inc.; MBB Deutsche Aerospace (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      This paper describes a high performance telemetry receiving antenna tracking system which utilizes unique software to allow full remote control of the tracking antenna, two telemetry receivers, and a diversity combiner. Features include a modular pedestal design, electronically scanned tracking feed (ESCAN), mouse-driven software which uses full screen representation of selected components, and a joystick linked through serial interface to the control computer to allow slewing of the antenna axes. This state-of-the-art system allows operation from the front panel of the controlled devices and over extended distance via fiber-optic buss extenders.
    • Edwards Digital Switch System Overview

      Switzer, Earl R.; Straehley, Erwin H.; Edwards Air Force Base; Straehley Associates (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      The Edwards Digital Switch (EDS) is a digital communication system that provides advanced voice networking capabilities to the Edwards Test Range. The EDS is a member of a new family of all-digital switching systems that internally handle data in digital form. To accommodate analog voice and data circuits, conversions between analog and digital formats occur at the system interfaces. The EDS consists of six groups of configuration items: System-level control and monitoring is centralized in the Control and Display Subsystem. Workstations provide subsystem-level control and monitoring. The Central Switching Subsystem, as the primary interface with the range environment, provides system connectivity to radios, telephone circuits, and communications links to other facilities. It integrates the EDS with links to the Control Room Switching Subsystems. Each Control Room Switching Subsystem connects individual user stations within a Mission Control Room or other localized area. The user equipment element consists of a Subscriber Terminal Unit, Channel Expander, and interface panels for headsets, foot switches, and speakers. The Remote Radio Control Unit optimizes usage of available frequencies, allowing control of tunable radios from the Control and Display Subsystem. *The original name, Edwards Communication Switching System (ECSS) was changed to Edwards Digital Switch (EDS) in 1990. The Site Selection Unit facilitates the handover of voice communications between receiver sites when a long-range test is monitored. The system architecture is based on a central system-level control element, a central switch, multiple subsystem-level control elements, multiple subsystem switches, and end-equipment items that are interconnected through the switch network. The EDS combines multiple voice communications applications in a single system. The system is being expanded to integrate voice and data switching. Its major function is support of multiparty networked voice communications within Mission Control Rooms and between other test participants. Other voice functions are an intercom capability including both Direct Access (hot line) and Indirect Access (dial-up), subscriber loop connections to the base-level telephone exchange, and the Public Switched Network System. Digital interfaces allow integration of ciphertext data and Time Space Position Information data switching functions. A system based on the EDS design has also been installed by the Air Force at Eglin AFB. Engineering studies for systems that make use of the EDS design are currently underway by the Navy at China Lake and the Army at White Sands Missile Range. The EDS project office has actively pursued promising program management concepts such as: specifying nondevelopmental items, requiring industry standard interconnectivity and interoperability, and using a multiyear fixed-price requirements-type contract to encourage multiservice participation.
    • Synchronization of the Edwards Digital Switch

      Eslinger, Brian; Science Applications International Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC) at Edwards, California has installed the Edwards Digital Switch (EDS). The EDS is a DS-1 switch capable of switching voice, encrypted voice, and Time Space Position Information (TSPI) data. Communicating encrypted voice and TSPI data reliably from the EDS to any other communication system requires the two systems operate using the same frequency reference. The need to communicate with other test ranges and over commercially leased lines using the EDS requires synchronization to a standard frequency source. The current synchronization method used at the AFFTC is unacceptable for the EDS. A hierarchal system of synchronization networking will be implemented to provide a common reference to each of the systems interfacing the EDS. The Master Timing Station (MTS), which provides synchronization reference to most of the AFFTC resources, is aging and must be upgraded. The upgrade of the MTS and the restructuring of the synchronization signal distribution will be completed simultaneously. Traceability to the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) and the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) is required to provide the necessary synchronization to allow the EDS to interface reliably with other systems. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is being considered as the primary source for frequency calibration traceable to the USNO and NBS.
    • Software Considerations in the Control of Digital Communications Switching Systems

      Ward, Ronald P.; Communications Systems Technology, Incorporated (CSTI) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      Today's complex implementations of integrated packet and circuit switched digital communications networks demand that the software used for controlling these systems be robust, fault tolerant, and capable of runtime recovery from all but the most severe of operational errors. The typical modern switched communications system includes the use of multiple circuit switches, each with potentially thousands of end-user interfaces. Further, these switches are often inter-connected to each other via high-capacity trunks. A single connection between two end-user interfaces often traverses a number of intermediate circuit switches in order to effect the end-to-end communications desired. In this complex, distributed environment, the establishment and dissolution of end-to-end user connections involve far more than simple binary connection states indicating the existence, or non-existence, of a link. More commonly, a single end-to-end connection requires multiple node links across multiple, heterogeneous interfaces. The command and control software used to establish, monitor, and dissolve these connections must be capable of dealing with errors which arise at any node along the way in a consistent and reliable manner. Most critically, the system software must be capable of maintaining an accurate, multi-level mapping of distributed resources' availability, allocation, and status. Further, the software must have the capability of "healing itself" during operational run-time when it can, and of accurately reporting the nature of inconsistencies caused by anomalous events that cannot be fixed on the fly. The Edwards Digital Switch (EDS), developed by CSTI, provides a case study of possible solutions, and potential pitfalls, that can arise in the design, development, and implementation of the controlling software in today's dynamic, distributed communications' system architectures.
    • A Flexible Voice Communication System for a Real-Time Mission Control Facility

      Pappas, Johnny J.; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      Due to the complexity of real-time missions, an increasing number of participants, and the critical nature of test missions, providing a reliable, versatile voice communication network for mission support entities has become essential. A voice communication system has a direct impact on the effectiveness of every mission and the safety of mission personnel. Each participant must satisfy unique functional and operational communication requirements. This paper addresses the functional, operational, and ergonomic aspects associated with a voice communication system for the Central Control Facility (CCF) at the Air Force Development Test Center (AFDTC), Eglin AFB, Florida. The communication system was purchased from an Edwards AFB Digital Switch requirements contract.
    • A Brief Look at Delta Modulation

      Ugarte, Alberto (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      The principle behind delta modulation systems is introduced. Having developed the principles of delta modulation systems, a system that performs delta modulation is developed and tested to see how well the system performs by using sinusoids and speech as the input to the system. This is then followed by a comparison of delta modulation and pulse code modulation to show that, overall, delta modulation is better than pulse code modulation.
    • Universal Interface Between Telemetry Processors and Chart Recorders

      Brimbal, Michel; Kelly, Fred; GOULD Inc., Test & Measurement (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      Chart recorders currently in use on telemetry ranges are connected to telemetry processors via a series of Digital to Analog Converters (DAC) systems. A new modular interface system receives data directly from the processor broadcast bus and distributes them to up to ten digital chart recorders. This interface is programmed from a computer to assign individual tags to each one of the display channels. This system eliminates DAC's and patch panels. It simplifies display system operation, speeds up transition from test to test and reduces maintenance costs.
    • ASW-II: Advanced Satellite Workstation for the UHF Follow-On Satellite Program

      Hamilton, M. J.; Abbott, R.; Eggan, P.; Golber, D.; Hsieh, S.; Jordan, L.; Le, T.; Newcomb, R.; Sutton, S.; Ton, T.; et al. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      ASW-II (Advanced Satellite Workstation, Version II) has been developed and delivered as an operational prototype in support of the Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Follow-On satellite. It provides unified and coordinated real time reception and storage of satellite telemetry, display of both real time and stored telemetry, expert-system analysis of spacecraft status, and an information navigator system that stores and presents information about the spacecraft. The architecture is modular and reconfigurable, and it provides support for multiple analyst workstations. There are several unusual aspects of the design. The entire telemetry history of the satellite is regarded as a continuum by the user, with ASW-II automatically tracking and displaying contact periods. A "streams" mechanism organizes the telemetry in such a way that the user can interactively define new derived parameters and have them presented graphically. Both real time and archived data can be displayed simultaneously. The user has very flexible controls for all display interfaces using mouse and window technologies.
    • An Object-Oriented System for Telemetry Data Management

      Tolat, Viral V.; Stanford University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      In this paper we describe an object-oriented software system for realtime telemetry data management and display. The system has also been designed to be used as the primary means of data management during post-mission activities. The software system consists of three parts: the data interface library, the data format specification and the display applications. The data interface library contains a set of object definitions and procedures to provide uniform access to heterogeneous data streams. The data format specification is used by the data interface library to extract data from the raw data stream. The display applications use the data interface library to access the data and present it to the user. Currently, the interface between the data format specification and the data interface library is implemented procedurally and is modeled after a device driver. Each format is assigned a unique id and then accessed via that id. A data stream may be accessed by any number of different format specifications. A future implementation will separate the data format specification into a separate process with a message or RPC based interface. Therefore the data may be kept on remote systems and accessed in a transparent fashion. In addition, this model will support operation in distributed heterogeneous computing environments. This system handles multiple simultaneous data streams and applications can access data from different streams relatively transparently. This is possible since data variables (objects) to be displayed are specified by a syntax that contains the specification of both the data streams and the format to use. In addition, the concept of a primary stream is introduced to allow the user to scroll through one data stream and have the other streams follow. Synchronization between streams is based on time information in the data streams. Several applications have been written including various stripchart displays a tabular display and some other custom displays. A data analysis application similar to the UNIX program "awk" is currently under development. It will provide the user with the ability to extract data, i.e., report generation, for display or further analysis in an object-oriented manner.
    • Simulation of Binary Continuous Phase Modulation Combined with (1,2)-Convolutional Encoder

      Carden, Frank; Osborne, William; Alhussiny, Karim; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      In this paper the performance of a (1,2)-convolutional encoder combined with continuous phase modulation is simulated. A binary sequence is used inconjunction with the above encoder and a modulation index of (h=1/4). A full response 1REC frequency shaping function is used to maintain phase continuity. A binary (uncoded)CPM with the above modulation index is also simulated. The performance in terms of the probability of bit error event is plotted against signal to noise ratio for both coded and the uncoded CPM schemes. The asymptotic performance of both schemes is plotted along with MSK for comparison purposes. The simulation algorithm used in this paper utilizes the Block Oriented System Simulator known as BOSS. The major components of this simulation are the encoder and the decoder. The encoder consists of binary random data generator and a (1,2)-convolutional encoder combined with a channel vector encoder and a random white gaussian noise generator. The decoder consists of the following modules: sequential vector bank, inner product unit, metric calculator unit, multi stage trellis, symbol decoder and error counter module.
    • F/A-18 Data Reduction at the Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, California

      Smith, Darren C.; Naval Air Warfare Center - Weapons Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      The current F/A-18 data reduction/analysis system is incapable of meeting increased customer demands. A new system has been developed and is based on new technologies. In the process of developing the new system, the design team had to divorce themselves from the current system and consider what the ideal system would consist of. This was accomplished with great success in the areas of timeliness of data turn around, customer satisfaction, and increased efficiency.
    • TECNET Research and Development Initiatives

      Hurlburt, George F.; Naval Air Warfare Center, Aircraft Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      BACKGROUND - THE TECNET VISION STATEMENT: The Test and Evaluation Community Network (TECNET) is governed by a Tri-service Steering Committee which reports to the Joint Commander's Group for Test and Evaluation (JCG(T&E)). In keeping with its JCG(T&E) approved TECNET Project Management Plan (PMP), the TECNET Steering Committee adopted the following TECNET Vision Statement in 1991: "To systematically migrate existing TECNET resources to a standards compliant, multi-level secure communications and processing capability which links DoD test and evaluation entities to a shared, but controlled user community information resource". TECNET GENERAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: The life blood of ongoing TECNET operations is the continual improvements and user support provided by a leading University. This Research and Development contract directly contributes to the continued well being of TECNET. This contract sustains TECNET as a state of the art communication tool for its users who are continually increasing their capabilities. They expect their T&E network to keep pace. This is particularly true as more executive users adopt TECNET. PLANNED MULTI-LEVEL SECURE (MLS) EXPERIMENTS: Near term MLS experiments are designed to lay a foundation for longer term objectives. The foremost characteristic of the second generation TECNET is that host computers and all associated user nodes be eventually capable of processing information ranging in classification from UNCLASSIFIED through SECRET, depending upon the nature of the information requirements of the user. Specific components of the TECNET MLS plan include secure network devices and MLS accredited hardware running MLS accredited software. These characteristics will permit TECNET to operate in the requisite secure mode per COMSEC directives, support T&E program officials and T&E practitioners with timely and meaningful value added information concerning T&E, and permit near real time exchange of T&E data. MLS experiments are tri-service in nature. DATA DISTRIBUTION RESEARCH: The TECNET Distributed Data Plan calls for tri-service participation in building a T&E common data dictionary in 1992. The RCC agreement to form a common Range data Dictionary Group sets the stage for such a cooperative effort. One necessary and highly desired product of this process is a detailed catalog of all known and emerging T&E related data bases. TECNET plans to field and populate such a catalog of T&E data bases during 1992. Further, using the generic data extraction and conversion tool offered to TECNET, the demonstration of third party data base data population from the ranges will be accomplished. A significant effort has been undertaken to perform the necessary analysis to establish this tool to work with the RCC defined common data elements and the target data bases. Finally, TECNET proposes to develop specific training materials in print and computer based training media, as well as on site training support, for selected data bases of widespread value to the T&E community.
    • A Fast Realtime Simulation of a Complex Mechanical System on a Parallel Hardware Architecture

      Oertel, C.-H.; Gelhaar, B.; Institute for Flight Research (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1992-10)
      Real-time computation speed is an additional requirement for simulations. It is necessary for 'man-in-the-loop' systems like flight simulators and for 'hardware-in-the-loop' systems where real components like new closed loop controllers are tested under realistic conditions. In the past a lot of companies have designed and built special purpose simulation computers which are very powerful but expensive and not handy enough for 'in-the-field-tests'. The progress in computer science shows a trend to distributed systems where multiple processors are running in parallel to improve the performance dramatically. At the DLR Institute for Flight Mechanics a computer system, based on the transputer, was designed to achieve the real-time simulation capabilities for the ROTEST model rotor. This four-bladed rotor is a 2.5 scale of the BO105 main rotor, equipped with elastic blades, operating at 1050 rpm. After an introduction to the ROTEST rotor, including the demands upon the simulation, a short introduction to transputers and the associated philosophy is given. The next part of the paper presents the characteristics of the simulation model, its mathematical description and the transputer architecture on which it is running. In the last part of the paper the input and output processes to the simulation are described. This includes a real-time representation of the rotor and an oscilloscope like output device, as well as analogue input and output devices to a controller.