• Tunable Unabalanced Asynchronous Quadrature Phase Shift Keyed Demodulators

      Carlson, John; Aydin Computer and Monitor Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      UAQPSK provides the system designer with increased data rate and data source flexibility while conserving bandwidth and power. The definition of UAQPSK is reviewed and typical applications are presented. A universal UAQPSK demodulator is described which provides tunable data rates and automatic carrier acquisition for UAQPSK, AQPSK, QPSK and BPSK waveforms.
    • An Integrated Telemetry Decommutation and Display System

      Loeser, Jean-Marc; Schlumberger Industries (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      This paper describes an integrated architecture providing in a single box the complete functions of a telemetry system. The 3700 Decommutator can perform data synchronization, tagging and merging, as well as processing and output in various forms, on different input streams simultaneously. Most functions of larger telemetry systems are implemented here at the card level. Being based on a VME bus architecture, the unit is very modular and can be configured differently according to the specific requirements of particular test programs. The 3700 Decommutator can be used as a stand-alone station, providing Aquick-look@ monitoring of real time data to different independent users, or as a computer front-end in a larger system. It is a compact unit, easily transportable. Front-end functions and product features are presented, illustrating the large number of applications of the unit. The variety of display formats that can be created and rapidly modified by users is described. Flexibility in set-up and operation is then discussed, in order to demonstrate how a simple database structure matches a modular hardware architecture, resulting in a userfriendly unit allowing rapid and easy changes in mission set-up.
    • Simulator for Checkout of Telemetry Receiving Systems

      DeWaters, Ronald W.; Naval Surface Warfare Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      Reception of missile telemetry data on board Navy ships is accomplished by using portable telemetry receiving systems which must be assembled/ disassembled for every missile firing exercise. In some cases, system setup problems have resulted in the loss of telemetry data when the missile is fired. The telemetry test simulator was developed by the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC) to generate a telemetry stream identical to that of the missile telemeter. This simulated stream allows for an end to end checkout of the receiving system prior to missile launch which greatly reduces the chance of lost telemetry data upon actual missile firing.
    • VECTOR CARDIOGRAPH EXPERIMENT IN SPACE SHUTTLE

      NAGARAJ, S.R.; RAJANGAM, R.K.; ISRO SATELLITE CENTRE (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      The Vector cardiography is the 3 dimensional study of Electrocardiographic responses of the human heart. A Vector cardiograph (VCG) instrument was designed and developed to monitor the Cardiographic responses of the Indian payload specialist under zero G conditions in the US Space Shuttle during the scheduled INSAT-lC launch. Accordingly the proposal made by Department of Space for using the vector cardiograph measurement in the Space Shuttle was accepted. A VCG unit was developed under the joint collaboration of HAL, Hyderabad and ISAC-ISRO. This paper brifly describes the design aspects of the VCG instrument, the qulification tests conducted on the same for space application and the final test results obtained during the process. Basically the instrument was built around a Hybrid Instrumentation amplifier and other interfaces for recording the signal into an audio taperecorder.
    • TELEMETRY SYSTEMS OF THE FUTURE

      Rauch, William D.; Realtime Data Systems Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      The next 25 years will bring about a revolution in telemetry acquisition and processing. Airborne systems will become smaller and faster, providing additional monitoring and processing capabilities to test vehicles. In addition, ultra-high speed on-board data networks will provide communications between data collection and processing units. The telemetry platforms of tomorrow will be required to collect the entire contents of the data network, in a manner similar to today’s MIL-STD 1553 technology. The ground station of tomorrow will be required to process this bus information and provide it to the users for analysis. Ground station components, including intelligent front-ends and host processors could easily be replaced by a combination of on-board communication network processors (similar to the current 1553 processors) linked to a ground system data network. Processing could be shifted to the vehicle while ground functions remain dedicated to recording and analysis. Specialized workstations will provide for user analysis, history recording, and display. Ground networks will use shared (reflected) memory concepts to provide for addition of unlimited workstations separated by much greater distances than are associated with today’s shared memory systems.
    • TELEMETRY DATA PROCESSING AT WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE

      Ogaz, Juan A.; Data Sciences Division, National Range Operations (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      Prior to 1985 the National Range had, for a number of years, serious and recurring mission support problems with the IBM 360 Telemetry Data Processing System due to equipment reliability and obsolescence of the system which was installed in 1968. These problems became particularly acute when higher data rate requirements and the need for reliable telemetry data processing dictated that prompt and unusual action was necessary if WSMR was to continue to provide telemetry data processing support. Realizing that the above cited problems of reliability and obsolescence would continue in detriment to the mission of WSMR, Department of Defense (DOD) and the nation, coupled with the loss of thousands of dollars in reimbursables due to WSMR’s inability to support missile test requirements, the Systems Engineering Branch was tasked by the Director of National Range to lead a study, and propose and implement solutions to meet current and future requirements in telemetry data processing support. With the explosion in PCM data rates, it had become obvious that WSMR could not continue to upgrade existing systems and meet the demands of the future. More data parameters at higher data rates were being processed in PCM, FM, and PAM. Telemetry formats were becoming more complicated, such as embedded asynchronous subcomms and dynamic format changes. More real-time decisions had to be made for mission safety, verification of location, and mission success. WSMR needed a more versatile system that would synchronize, process and display higher data rates with more accuracy than it had at this time. This paper describes a historical perspective of steps WSMR has taken to satisfy present and future test vehicle telemetry data processing requirements.
    • RTDAP: Real-Time Data Acquisition, Processing and Display System

      Dahan, Michael; Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      This paper describes a data acquisition, processing and display system which is suitable for various telemetry applications. The system can be connected either to a PCM encoder or to a telemetry decommutator through a built-in interface and can directly address any channel from the PCM stream for processing. Its compact size and simplicity allow it to be used in the flight line as a test console, in mobile stations as the main data processing system, or on-board test civil aircrafts for in-flight monitoring and data processing.
    • A RE-ENTRY METERING DATA PROCESSING SYSTEM

      NONG, CHEN; FU-TANG, ZHANG; Xinan Electronic Engineering Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      This article introduces a system for processing data from re-entry flying object’s internal telemetry and its flying trace. That system receives data from various demodulators in re-entry synthetic metering systems, stores those data into disk in realtime and processes part of the data and displays the results in realtime(such as strip picture, parameter curve, value table, internal time-base, alarm and so on). Further processing may be completed afterwards using stored data. Multi-layer intelligent buffer and shared storage techniques are adopted in the system to get a high speed and large capacity data link between demodulators and super-microcomputer. The system’s hardware and software design and its operation are described in the article.
    • MIL-STD-1553 Data Acquisition System

      Landry, Michael; Loral Conic (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      The Range Commanders Council recently added a chapter to IRIG 106-86 which describes a standard for acquisition of MIL-STD-1553 traffic flow. A system has been developed which monitors bus traffic using the format described in the standard for encoding. In addition to bus data, PCM analog channels can be inserted into the telemetry steam. Due to the high bandwidth of the telemetry stream, real-time ground processing of the 1553 data is difficult. Therefore, a limited number of selective measurements taken from the bus traffic are available at fixed positions in the telemetry format for real-time monitoring of critical parameters. A discussion of hardware, software, encoding, and testing will be presented.
    • Third-generation Advances in Thermal Printhead-based Chart Recorders

      Gaskill, Dave; Astro-Med, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      A brief recap of the effect thermal printhead technology has had on the common 8-channel strip chart recorder, followed by a summary of second and third generation products and their envolving capabilities. How these new instruments are being accepted and used by telemetrists and ground station managers who are faced with bigger tasks and shrinking budgets. A study of how today’s telemetry professionals are shaping the 8-channel recorders of tomorrow, and the new capabilities they will bring.
    • Unix and the Real-Time Telemetry System

      Waggener, William N.; Fairchild Weston Data Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      Since the first computer-based telemetry systems were designed in the mid-1960's, the operating system has been the nemesis of the system software designer. The requirement to acquire telemetry data at high rates, in real time, without loss, is in direct conflict with the direction computer operating systems have taken over the last two decades. The "lean and mean", single user operating systems of the 1960's have been replaced by multi-tasking, multiuser systems which emphasize multiple applications at the expense of real-time performance. Recently, there has been enormous interest in hosting real-time telemetry systems under the UNIX operating system. From an applications standpoint UNIX has much to offer the user but it certainly complicates the life of the real-time system software designer. In this paper, a critical look is taken at the role of the operating system in a real-time telemetry system with particular emphasis on the use of UNIX POSIX and realtime extensions.
    • Systems Engineering and Integration of Control Centers in Support of Multiple Programs

      Miller, David N.; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      The Multiprogram Control Center (MPCC) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) was envisioned as a means of satisfying the ground control requirements for complex Space Transportation System (STS) payloads and unmanned vehicles. This paper will describe the role and characteristics of the MPCC and its relationship to the STS Mission Control Center (MCC). It will also reveal significant problems encountered and useful solutions to some fairly generic problems. It will discuss the current direction of control center technology and vendor opportunities from the MPCC's perspective. It will conclude with specific lessons learned thus far in the MPCC project.
    • FRAME RATE REDUCTION IN VIDEO TELEMETRY SYSTEMS

      SCHAPHORST, RICHARD A.; DEUTERMANN, ALAN R.; DELTA INFORMATION SYSTEMS, INC. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      In video telemetry systems the transmitted picture rate, or temporal resolution, is a critical parameter in determining system performance as well as the transmitted bit rate. In many applications it is important to transmit every TV frame because the maximum temporal resolution must be maintained to analyze critical events such as an encounter between a missile and a target. Typical transmission bit rates for operation at these picture rates are 5.0 to 10.0 mbps. In other cases the frame rate can be reduced slightly to 15 or 7.5 frames/sec. without significantly reducing the value of the output video. At these frame rates it is still possible to sense the continuity of motion although some jerkiness may appear on rapidly moving objects. At these reduced frame rates the transmitted bit rate can go as low as 1.0 mbps. There is a third class of video telemetry applications where the scene is changing very slowly, and it is permissible to transmit a series of still pictures at very reduced rates. For example one picture can be transmitted every second at a transmission bit rate of 100 Kbps. The purpose of this paper is to examine operation of the standard video coding system (Range Commander Council Standard RCC 209) at conventional frame rates as well as a wide range of reduced frame rates. The following section describes the basic digital TV system which employs the standard codec. Two particular modes of operation are discussed: (1) those which reduce the frame rate by a fixed amount and vary the spatial resolution according to the complexity of the TV image; (2) those which maintain the spatial resolution at a fixed level and automatically vary the temporal resolution according to the complexity of the image. A tradeoff analysis is presented illustrating the interaction of spatial resolution, temporal resolution, and transmission bit rate. A video tape is described and presented illustrating system operation at a wide range of frame rates. Finally, conclusions are drawn.
    • MULTIPROCESSOR-BASED DATA ACQUISITION AND ANALYSIS

      Lynch, Thomas J., III; Fortmann, Thomas E.; Briscoe, Howard; Fidell, Sanford; BBN Systems and Technologies Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      Multiprocessing computer systems offer several attractive advantages for telemetry-related data acquisition and processing applications. These include: (1) high-bandwidth, fail-soft operation with convenient, low-cost, growth paths, (2) cost-effective integration and clustering of data acquisition, decommutation, monitoring, archiving, analysis, and display processing, and (3) support for modern telemetry system architectures that allow concurrent network access to test data (for both real-time and post-test analyses) by multiple analysts. This paper asserts that today’s general-purpose hardware and software offer viable platforms for these applications. One such system, currently under development, closely couples VME data buses and other off-the-shelf components, parallel processing computers, and commercial data analysis packages to acquire, process, display, and analyze telemetry and other data from a major weapon system. This approach blurs the formerly clear architectural distinction in telemetry data processing systems between special-purpose, front-end, preprocessing hardware and generalpurpose, back-end, host computers used for further processing and display.
    • UNIX AND THE REAL-TIME TELEMETRY SYSTEM

      Waggener, William N.; Fairchild Weston Data Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      Since the first computer-based telemetry systems were designed in the mid-1960’s, the operating system has been the nemesis of the system software designer. The requirement to acquire telemetry data at high rates, in real time, without loss, is in direct conflict with the direction computer operating systems have taken over the last two decades. The Alean and mean@, single user operating systems of the 1960’s have been replaced by multi-tasking, multiuser systems which emphasize multiple applications at the expense of real-time performance. Recently, there has been enormous interest in hosting real-time telemetry systems under the UNIX operating system. From an applications standpoint UNIX has much to offer the user but it certainly complicates the life of the real-time system software designer. In this paper, a critical look is taken at the role of the operating system in a real-time telemetry system with particular emphasis on the use of UNIX POSIX and realtime extensions.
    • DATA DISTRIBUTION In The TELEMETRY GROUND STATION OF THE 1990’s

      Strock, O.J. (Jud); Fairchild Weston Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      For as long as telemetry has been used in scientific research, users have asked for transmission of more data points at higher data frequencies. Now, the increased complexity of vehicles under test and the presence of data from one or several computer systems on a vehicle has further increased the rate and format complexity of a typical telemetry data stream. To accommodate higher data rates and increased complexity, many telemetry ground stations use distributed processing techniques, typically employing a hardware preprocessor, a host computer, and one or more intelligent display stations. While this distribution of power potentially enhances data throughput rates, it imposes new demands on data distribution networks within the processing area, and the full potential of the processors cannot be met until these demands have been met. This paper looks first at system architecture of the typical ground station, and how this architecture and telemetry data rate capability have progressed during the past 20 years. Then it looks at the data distribution requirement in a modern telemetry ground station, explores possible solutions to improve throughput rates, and describes a set of solutions for typical system applications in the next few years.
    • A HIGH SPEED MINIATURE PULSE CODE MODULATION SYSTEM

      Baughman, James E.; Gulton Data Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      Increasing speed and complexity of guidance and target acquisition systems being developed for SDI missile interceptors mandate new performance standards for today’s airborne telemetry systems. High bandwidth video data merged with a myriad of high sample rate analog and digital channels have pushed bit rates to 10 MBPS (Mega Bits Per Second) and beyond. These bit rates which are an order of magnitude beyond most telemetry systems in use today, result in the need for a new architecture which facilitates data transfer at these higher rates.
    • Telemetry Data Processing at White Sands Missile Range

      Ogaz, Juan A.; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      Prior to 1985 the National Range had, for a number of years, serious and recurring mission support problems with the IBM 360 Telemetry Data Processing System due to equipment reliability and obsolescence of the system which was installed in 1968. These problems became particularly acute when higher data rate requirements and the need for reliable telemetry data processing dictated that prompt and unusual action was necessary if WSMR was to continue to provide telemetry data processing support. Realizing that the above cited problems of reliability and obsolescence would continue in detriment to the mission of WSMR, Department of Defense (DOD) and the nation, coupled with the loss of thousands of dollars in reimbursables due to WSMR's inability to support missile test requirements, the Systems Engineering Branch was tasked by the Director of National Range to lead a study, and propose and implement solutions to meet current and future requirements in telemetry data processing support. With the explosion in PCM data rates, it had become obvious that WSMR could not continue to upgrade existing systems and meet the demands of the future. More data parameters at higher data rates were being processed in PCM, FM, and PAM. Telemetry formats were becoming more complicated, such as embedded asynchronous subcomms and dynamic format changes. More real-time decisions had to be made for mission safety, verification of location, and mission success. WSMR needed a more versatile system that would synchronize, process and display higher data rates with more accuracy than it had at this time. This paper describes a historical perspective of steps WSMR has taken to satisfy present and future test vehicle telemetry data processing requirements.
    • MEASURING THE PERFORMANCE OF TELEMETRY VIDEO CODECS

      COMEAU, CHARLES; FISHER, JOSEPH; DELTA INFORMATION SYSTEMS (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      The Range Commanders Council has recently approved standard RCC 209-88 which defines the compression algorithms and communications frame structure for telemetry video coders. The compression algorithm is very flexible permitting the TV image to be encoded using either 2 bit or 3 bit DPCM, sub-sampled or not, coarse of fine quantizations. Any combination of these modes of operation can be selected and changed on a line-to-line basis. Each manufacturer of the video encoder will develop his own algorithms for selecting various modes of operations as the complexity of the picture changes. Clearly the picture quality produced by the encoder/decoder system will depend strongly on the mode control algorithm in the encoder. The purpose of this paper is to describe new test procedures which are required to measure the performance of encoders designed to meet RCC 209-88.
    • Low-cost, short-term development or high-data-rate, multi-stream, mulit-data type telemetry acquisition/processing system using an off-the-shelf integrated Telemetry Front End.

      Carter, Bruce; Scoughton, Troy; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      This paper explores the effects the new breed of off-theshelf integrated telemetry front end (TFE) packages have on the cost and schedule of the development cycle associated with real-time telemetry acquisition/processing systems. A case study of an actual project involving replacement of the Holloman AFB sled track telemetry processing system (TPS) with a system capable of simultaneously supporting up to twenty (20) asynchronous data streams is profiled. Notable among the capabilities of the system are; support for PCM, PAM, FM, IRIG and Local time streams; incoming data rates up to 10 Megabits/sec/stream; data logging rates over 16 MegaBytes/sec and the use of local area networks for distribution of data to real-time displays. To achieve these requirements within a manageable cost/schedule framework, the system was designed around an integrated TFE sub-system. Comparisons are drawn between several aspects of this projects development and that of an earlier developmental system which was completed by PSL within the last 16 months.