• 1553 Data BUS/PCM Multiplexer System

      Breedlove, Phil; Malone, Earl; Loral/Conic; Boeing Aerospace (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      A Telemetry system which integrates 1553 Bus data, DualSimplex bus data, vehicle performance data, and environmental sensor data multiplexing encompasses many interfacing constraints. The Engineering design considerations and hardware constraints required to implement this system are presented in this paper.
    • Adaptation of a Loral ADS 100 as a Remote Ocean Buoy Maintenance System

      Sharp, Kirk; Thompson, Lorraine Masi; Naval Ocean Research & Development Activity; LMT Concepts (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      The Naval Ocean Research and Development Activity (NORDA) has adapted the Loral Instrumentation Advanced Decommutation system (ADS 100) as a portable maintenance system for one of its remotely deployable buoy systems. This particular buoy system sends up to 128 channels of amplified sensor data to a centralized A/D for formatting and storage on a high density digital recorder. The resulting tapes contain serial PCM data in a format consistent with IRIG Standard 106-87. Predictable and correctable perturbations exist within the data due to the quadrature multiplexed telemetry system. The ADS 100 corrects for the perturbations of the telemetry system and provides the user with diagnostic tools to examine the stored data stream and determine the operational status of the buoy system prior to deployment.
    • ADAPTATION OF A LORAL ADS 100 AS A REMOTE OCEAN BUOY MAINTENANCE SYSTEM

      Sharp, Kirk; Thompson, Lorraine Masi; Naval Ocean Research & Development Activity; LMT Concepts (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      The Naval Ocean Research and Development Activity (NORDA) has adapted the Loral Instrumentation Advanced Decommutation system (ADS 100) as a portable maintenance system for one of its remotely deployable buoy systems. This particular buoy system sends up to 128 channels of amplified sensor data to a centralized A/D for formatting and storage on a high density digital recorder. The resulting tapes contain serial PCM data in a format consistent with IRIG Standard 106-87. Predictable and correctable perturbations exist within the data due to the quadrature multiplexed telemetry system. The ADS 100 corrects for the perturbations of the telemetry system and provides the user with diagnostic tools to examine the stored data stream and determine the operational status of the buoy system prior to deployment.
    • Advanced Acquisition and Analysis Through the Year 2000

      Harley, S. F.; Murter, J. S.; Aberdeen Proving Ground (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      For nearly a decade U.S. Army Combat Systems Test Activity (USACSTA) has been using computer based telemetry systems to acquire data in a variety of ground vehicles and weapons systems. Three years ago the Advanced Acquisition and Analysis Through Year 2000 (A³-2000) project was initiated with the goals of: providing instrumentation systems able to meet the demands of ever more complex weapon systems, increasing workload capacity with no increase in the number or quality of personnel, and reducing the total test cycle time for the customer. The methods selected to implement these goals were: increased reliance on state-of-the-art computer technology, the use of standards for operating systems, programming languages, networking, and interfaces, the use of expert/knowledge based systems, and integration of all organizational computer resources. This paper will describe the progress which has been made in all of these areas.
    • ADVANCED ACQUISITION AND ANALYSIS THROUGH THE YEAR 2000

      Harley, S. F.; Murter, J. S.; U.S. Army Combat Systems Test Activity (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      For nearly a decade U.S. Army Combat Systems Test Activity (USACSTA) has been using computer based telemetry systems to acquire data in a variety of ground vehicles and weapons systems. Three years ago the Advanced Acquisition and Analysis Through Year 2000 (A -2000) project was initiated with the goals of: providing instrumentation systems 3 able to meet the demands of ever more complex weapon systems, increasing workload capacity with no increase in the number or quality of personnel, and reducing the total test cycle time for the customer. The methods selected to implement these goals were: increased reliance on state-of-the-art computer technology, the use of standards for operating systems, programming languages, networking, and interfaces, the use of expert/knowledge based systems, and integration of all organizational computer resources. This paper will describe the progress which has been made in all of these areas.
    • Advanced Concepts for Telemetry Data Systems

      Pritchard, James A.; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      Current telemetry data processing systems capabilities will have to be improved by as much as three orders of magnitude in order to handle the expected data rates of the Space Station era. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) processing systems can currently process telemetry data at an average input rate of about 100K bits per second while Space Station era data rates will average about 100M bits per second and could have peak rates of up to 1200 M bits per second. In order to meet the challenge of developing telemetry systems for processing high rate data at a reasonable cost, data processing and distribution systems must be data driven as opposed to being resource scheduled. If a system is to be data driven, data structures must contain a mechanism for routing of the data to its intended destination. Packet telemetry systems have been developed for the purpose of processing and routing telemetry data at higher rates than conventional time division multiplexed systems. Packet telemetry data standards are being developed by the international Consultative Committee for Space Data Standards (CCSDS) in order to facilitate development of packet telemetry systems both within NASA and international space agencies as well as for inter-agency cross support situations. These CCSDS Advanced Orbiting Systems (AOS) standards specify the overall architectural framework of future packet telemetry systems. The CCSDS AOS standard defines a CCSDS Principal Network (CPN) which covers the on-board, space link and ground systems and provides for asynchronous (e.g., Telemetry and Internetworking) and isochronous (e.g., Audio and Video) data transport services utilizing CCSDS Packets and Virtual Channels. In order to achieve efficient use of the limited resources of the space link, CCSDS Packets are multiplexed on to CCSDS Virtual Channels for transmission through the space link. This paper will mainly discuss changes to ground telemetry processing systems currently in use (such as the Packet Processor (PACOR) System), future systems under development (such as the Space Station Information System(SSIS) and the Customer Data Operations System (CDOS)), and how the CCSDS standards relate to these systems.
    • Advanced Orbiting Systems Test-Bedding and Protocol Verification

      Noles, James; De Gree, Melvin; The MITRE Corporation; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is developing a set of communications protocols for Advanced Orbiting Systems (AOS). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA) are cooperating in an effort to extensively validate these AOS protocols. This paper describes the techniques and facilities being used to perform this validation. Validation of the AOS protocols consists of (1) developing a formal specification of the protocols using a standard formal definition technique (FDT), (2) developing implementations of the protocols, and (3) remote testing of the implementations. From the FDT specifications, each agency is developing independent implementations which are consistent with the FDT specifications of the AOS protocols. Errors, omissions, or discrepancies detected during the development of the FDT specification and the implementation will be reported to the CCSDS and changes to the main specification will be suggested. The independent implementations will be extensively tested locally by the developing agency and then remotely tested through a cooperative test setup between the agencies. The implementations will interact to communicate between the agencies thus providing proof that the FDT specifications are sufficiently specific to be interpreted by everyone in the same way. Significant variations in the interpretations will result in feedback to the CCSDS and any needed changes to the main specification will be suggested. The AOS protocols are divided into four categories: Path, Space Link ARQ Protocol (SLAP), Space Link (SL), and Management. Each agency has agreed to be either the leader or support agency for each of the categories. NASA has agreed to be leader for the validation of the SLAP and SLS categories while ESA has agreed to lead in the validation of the Path and Management categories. Testbeds at the European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) in Noordwijk, Holland and at the MITRE Corporation in McLean, Virginia have been constructed for the development of FDT specifications and AOS protocol implementations. Communications facilities are being obtained which will connect these testbeds. This paper describes these testbeds, the AOS FDT specifications, the protocol implementations being developed, and the results expected from the tests performed.
    • Advanced Orbiting Systems: A Standard Architecture for Space Data Communications

      Hooke, Adrian J.; California Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      The first thirty years of civilian space exploration were characterized by a series of individual missions, focussed towards specific goals and servicing small and close-knit user communities. Spacecraft (constrained by power, weight and volume considerations) were customized towards mission objectives. Their data handling and communications systems were primarily built for simplicity and robustness, and displayed little commonality from mission to mission. All of the easy space missions have now been flown. As we move into the 1990s, requirements exist for complex missions involving Earth observation, exploration and a more permanent human presence in space. Internationalization of these missions is inevitable as a means to distribute and share costs, and to increase their political stability. Automation of their data handling systems is essential to support reliable, low cost operations. Responding to this environment, the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) was formed in 1982 to develop and promote a full suite of internationally standardized space data communications protocols. The first set of recommended standards, covering the data handling requirements of conventional free-flying scientific spacecraft, was finalized in 1986. Using the international space station "Freedom" program (a cooperative venture between the US, Europe, Canada and Japan) as a requirements model, the CCSDS has now extended its suite of recommended standards to cover "advanced orbiting systems" such as unmanned and man-tended Earth observation platforms, new space transportation systems, and manned laboratories. These systems, which operate as longterm orbiting facilities and therefore have changing user communities, produce prodigious rates and volumes of data including digitized video and audio. For the first time, the orbiting systems will use local area networks for internal data transfer. On the ground, they will interface with networks designed for worldwide Open Systems Interconnection (OSI). This paper reviews the standard data handling service architecture which has been developed by CCSDS. It describes the communications protocols that are recommended for the networked transfer of space mission data, and focuses on the unique requirements of transmitting many different data types through weak signal, noisy space channels at rates which routinely may reach many hundreds of megabits per second.
    • Advanced Telemetry Front End

      Weiss, Gerald; International Business Machines (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      In order to support the higher telemetry rates and novel telemtry data structures anticipated in the 90's, high performance, readily adapted telemetry processing systems will be required. In this paper, an advanced multiprocessor front end utilizing an open architecture based on Multibus II is described. The system employs primarily COTS hardware and software products, in addition to custom microprocessor-based frame synchronizer and block multiplexer channel interface boards. The system is designed to facilitate a modular, parallel approach to processing of incoming telemetry streams, and suppports connectivity options, including standard network interfaces to workstations, as well as the channel interface to host systems.
    • AN ADVANCED TELEMETRY SIMULATOR

      Taylor, Larry M; Loral Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      Recent developments in telemetry have resulted in an increased variety of data sources. As a result, data streams are incorporating such complexities as embedded asynchronous data streams, packets, and multiple formats. These data streams must be acquired and processed in real-time by telemetry ground stations. Most modern telemetry systems use a distributed architecture to accomplish these complex decommutation and preprocessing tasks. It is usually desirable to verify the data base setup and functional operation of the system before critical tests, as well as during test development. Most of the telemetry simulator products available today can do only a very limited simulation of the incoming data stream. This often fails to exercise many key components of the system. A new product will be described which can simulate a data stream with multiple formats, embedded asynchronous data streams, unlimited special words, and other useful functions. This product will enable the user to perform a more complete test of all of the components of the telemetry system.
    • An Advanced Telemetry Simulator

      Taylor, Larry M.; Loral Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      Recent developments in telemetry have resulted in an increased variety of data sources. As a result, data streams are incorporating such complexities as embedded asynchronous data streams, packets, and multiple formats. These data streams must be acquired and processed in real-time by telemetry ground stations. Most modern telemetry systems use a distributed architecture to accomplish these complex decommutation and preprocessing tasks. It is usually desirable to verify the data base setup and functional operation of the system before critical tests, as well as during test development. Most of the telemetry simulator products available today can do only a very limited simulation of the incoming data stream. This often fails to exercise many key components of the system. A new product will be described which can simulate a data stream with multiple formats, embedded asynchronous data streams, unlimited special words, and other useful functions. This product will enable the user to perform a more complete test of all of the components of the telemetry system.
    • Advances in Real Time Architecture for Telemetry Processing

      Curtin, Michael J.; ENCORE Computer Corp. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      Telemetry processing is a classic example of a Real Time system and, as such, shares certain attributes with other types of Real Time applications. The most demanding attribute of all Real Time systems is the need to provide a predictable, time critical response to an external stimulus or event. In a telemetry processing system, that critical response time is determined by the input data stream being processed. The system design must determine the response time quantum as a worst case assessment and then adjust it downward based on the presence of other criteria. The ability to utilize the remaining time is further restricted by the limitations that still exist in conventional Von Neumann computer architectures. Because of these limitations, most Real Time applications realize 25% of the processing power indicated by the Whetstone rating of the selected processor and this is the area where the greatest improvement is possible. Specific Real Time architectures can provide as much as 95% of the advertised Whetstone rating for Real Time applications.
    • Airborne Telemetry Trends for the 1990's

      Van Doren, Richard E.; Aydin Vector Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      Telemetry hardware technology and application requirements have undergone significant changes in the last 25 years. The trends have produced flight hardware which has had increasingly higher performance, flexibility, reliability and power efficiency while achieving smaller size and weight. This paper will review the evolution and attempt to forecast the direction and trends for future requirements and solutions through the 1990's.
    • AIRBORNE TELEMETRY TRENDS FOR THE 1990’s

      Van Doren, Richard E.; Aydin Vector Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      Telemetry hardware technology and application requirements have undergone significant changes in the last 25 years. The trends have produced flight hardware which has had increasingly higher performance, flexibility, reliability and power efficiency while achieving smaller size and weight. This paper will review the evolution and attempt to forecast the direction and trends for future requirements and solutions through the 1990’s.
    • Amarrm Warhead Compatible Telemetry

      Powell, David G.; Pacific Missile Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      During the final stages of the AMRAAM Full Scale Development effort a requirement for a miniature warhead compatible instrumentation system was established. Internal missile volume was not available to house the system but volume was identified within the external wiring harness cover. The system was required to have significant data handling capability and encryption, and had to withstand a severe environment on a small power budget. Several technologies were developed at the Pacific Missile Test Center to meet this challenge including Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC), surface mount technology, and thick and thin film hybrid microcircuits. In addition the state-of-the art in transmitters and power converters was stretched. The result was an encrypted PCM telemeter with 2 watt transmitter and antenna all in the missile wiring harness cover (along with the wires!)
    • Application of a Linear Array in a Telemetry System

      Stevens, George; Raytheon Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      Advances in integrated circuits have provided "single mask programmable" linear arrays that can be used to greatly reduce the volume requirements of the analog front end circuitry used in airborne telemetry applications. This volume reduction has led to telemetry systems with high levels of computational power and data acquisition in constrained spaces of irregular shape. In this paper we describe a specific application of a linear array to telemetry and discuss more general applications.
    • The Application of RISC Architectures to Real-Time Telemetry Processing

      Malatesta, William A.; Veda Incorporated (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      The number and types of processes carried out on telemetered data in real time have increased in direct proportion to the available processing speeds. Operations following decommutation in the data pipeline are often referred to generically as Engineering Units Processing (EUP). Examples of the types of functions typically performed by an EUP are data compression, polynomial conversion, and with the advent of message data, desyllabification. Real-time telemetry processing, such as EUP, has traditionally been done on bitslice processors, primarily because they possessed the speed required to maintain pace with the relatively high data rates. As data rates continue to increase, the need for bitslice processors with even higher processing speeds would seem to be even more pressing. However, in recent years RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) based microprocessors have been developed that approach bit-slice processing rates and possess certain advantages. The advantages of a RISC based approach to real-time telemetry processing include ease of programming, shorter design and implementation cycles, and a direct path to speed increases as silicon processing technology advances. In addition, the streaming nature of the data to be operated on, and the EUP requirements generate a multi-branched program structure creating the potential for a high degree of optimization within a pipelined processor architecture. While most RISC applications are currently programmed in assembly language to take full advantage of the hardware, it is expected that improvements in optimizing compilers in the future will further enhance the position of RISC with respect to bit-slice processing.
    • THE APPLICATION OF RISC ARCHITECTURES TO REAL-TIME TELEMETRY PROCESSING

      Malatesta, William A.; Veda Incorporated (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      The number and types of processes carried out on telemetered data in real time have increased in direct proportion to the available processing speeds. Operations following decommutation in the data pipeline are often referred to generically as Engineering Units Processing (EUP). Examples of the types of functions typically performed by an EUP are data compression, polynomial conversion, and with the advent of message data, desyllabification. Real-time telemetry processing, such as EUP, has traditionally been done on bitslice processors, primarily because they possessed the speed required to maintain pace with the relatively high data rates. As data rates continue to increase, the need for bitslice processors with even higher processing speeds would seem to be even more pressing. However, in recent years RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) based microprocessors have been developed that approach bit-slice processing rates and possess certain advantages. The advantages of a RISC based approach to real-time telemetry processing include ease of programming, shorter design and implementation cycles, and a direct path to speed increases as silicon processing technology advances. In addition, the streaming nature of the data to be operated on, and the EUP requirements generate a multi-branched program structure creating the potential for a high degree of optimization within a pipelined processor architecture. While most RISC applications are currently programmed in assembly language to take full advantage of the hardware, it is expected that improvements in optimizing compilers in the future will further enhance the position of RISC with respect to bit-slice processing.
    • An Auto-Calibration System for a Longitudinal Magnetic Recorder

      Andersen, R.; Wendel, W.; Datatape Incorporated (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      Multiple channel magnetic tape recording is often used for signal analysis of intelligence and telemetry data. To insure accuracy of the reproduced data, these systems require frequent calibration and alignment. As the number of tracks on these systems has increased, this task has become more time-consuming. Even with a well-trained technician, this task can take several hours at a minimum. To alleviate this problem, we developed a system for performing this calibration automatically. The implementation utilizes a Fast-Fourier-Transform technique to analyze the output of a pre-recorded signal on tape. The desired response, most frequently defined by IRIG Standards, is stored in a look-up table in the machine. The actual response is compared to that desired, and, under micro-processor control, adjustment made in the signal channel until an acceptable response is achieved. A unique photo-resistor technique is used in the signal path to control such parameters as gain and phase. A description of the hardware system will be given, as well as a description of the algorithms utilized for implementation.
    • AN AUTO-CALIBRATION SYSTEM FOR A LONGITUDINAL MAGNETIC RECORDER

      ANDERSEN, R.; WENDEL, W.; DATATAPE INCORPORATED (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      Multiple channel magnetic tape recording is often used for signal analysis of intelligence and telemetry data. To insure accuracy of the reproduced data, these systems require frequent calibration and alignment. As the number of tracks on these systems has increased, this task has become more time-consuming. Even with a well-trained technician, this task can take several hours at a minimum. To alleviate this problem, we developed a system for performing this calibration automatically. The implementation utilizes a Fast-Fourier-Transform technique to analyze the output of a pre-recorded signal on tape. The desired response, most frequently defined by IRIG Standards, is stored in a look-up table in the machine. The actual response is compared to that desired, and, under micro-processor control, adjustment made in the signal channel until an acceptable response is achieved. A unique photo-resistor technique is used in the signal path to control such parameters as gain and phase. A description of the hardware system will be given, as well as a description of the algorithms utilized for implementation.