Malatesta, William A.; Veda Incorporated (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      The number and types of processes carried out on telemetered data in real time have increased in direct proportion to the available processing speeds. Operations following decommutation in the data pipeline are often referred to generically as Engineering Units Processing (EUP). Examples of the types of functions typically performed by an EUP are data compression, polynomial conversion, and with the advent of message data, desyllabification. Real-time telemetry processing, such as EUP, has traditionally been done on bitslice processors, primarily because they possessed the speed required to maintain pace with the relatively high data rates. As data rates continue to increase, the need for bitslice processors with even higher processing speeds would seem to be even more pressing. However, in recent years RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) based microprocessors have been developed that approach bit-slice processing rates and possess certain advantages. The advantages of a RISC based approach to real-time telemetry processing include ease of programming, shorter design and implementation cycles, and a direct path to speed increases as silicon processing technology advances. In addition, the streaming nature of the data to be operated on, and the EUP requirements generate a multi-branched program structure creating the potential for a high degree of optimization within a pipelined processor architecture. While most RISC applications are currently programmed in assembly language to take full advantage of the hardware, it is expected that improvements in optimizing compilers in the future will further enhance the position of RISC with respect to bit-slice processing.

      White, Allan P.; Dean, Richard K.; Veda Incorporated (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      The U.S. Army Aviation Development Test Activity at Fort Rucker, Alabama needed a real-time test data collection and processing capability for helicopter flight testing. The system had to be capable of collecting and processing both FM and PCM data streams from analog tape and/or a telemetry receiver. The hardware and software was to be off the shelf whenever possible. The integration was to result in a stand alone telemetry collection and processing system. The Test Data Processing System (TDPS) provides real-time preprocessing and display of Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) and Frequency Modulation (FM) aircraft test data. The FM front end equipment consists of FM demodulators, tunable filters, strip chart recorders, an array processor and a PCM encoder. PCM equipment includes a wide band demodulator, four tunable bit synchronizers and a preprocessor. The Integrated Telemetry Analysis System (ITAS), preprocessor which is Veda proprietary equipment offers functional redundancy with the HP 1000 real-time computer. This allows TDPS personnel to monitor selected real-time parameters in the event of HP 1000 system failure. All pertinent signals are routed through the system distribution panel to facilitate rapid changes in the system configuration. The HP 1000 real-time computer system provides computer control for the front end equipment, storage capability for incoming test data, data reduction algorithms for real-time data analysis, and also provides control of peripheral devices. The HP 1000 interfaces with the host computer for post test transfer of data. The host computer is the HP 3000 which will be used for post test analysis of the data. The TDPS is a collection of various vendors’ hardware and software which have been functionally integrated by Veda, Inc. of Fort Walton Beach, Florida into a real-time telemetry processing system. The system was designed and constructed for the U.S. Army Aviation Development Test Activity at Fort Rucker, Alambama. The distribution panel was custom fabricated. It was recessed into the 19 inch equipment rack and enclosed behind a plexiglas door. This approach eliminates accidental damage from bumping into the connectors, and also allows the operator to verify system connections at a glance. All associated connectors, shunts, adapters, and patch cords were provided with the panel.

      Dahan, Michael; Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      This paper describes a data acquisition, processing and display system which is suitable for various telemetry applications. The system can be connected either to a PCM encoder or to a telemetry decommutator through a built-in interface and can directly address any channel from the PCM stream for processing. Its compact size and simplicity allow it to be used in the flight line as a test console, in mobile stations as the main data processing system, or on-board test civil aircrafts for in-flight monitoring and data processing.

      Burgess, George; Bridges, Lloyd; Stanford Telecommunications, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      ASIC developments have made it possible to include the essential signal processing functions for data detection, clock recovery, and NCO in a single custom-designed chip. Using this chip and PLDs enabled the implementation of a fully-featured bit synchronizer on a single VME board in a rack-mountable 1.75" high, 19" wide chassis. This represents a space savings of 2/3 over existing units. The data rates supported are 250 bps to 5Mbps (2.5 Mbps biphase).

      Woodham, Milt; Kelley, A.L.; Martin Marietta Corporation; Fairchild Weston Data Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      Development of the Small Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (SICBM) requires a versatile Telemetry Processing System to support the various tests throughout the development. These test requirements created a need for high-speed data processing and display for real time decisions. These requirements were driven by the need to reduce development time and cost of the small ICBM. Martin Marietta was also interested in an off-the-shelf system (hardware and software). The system had to be menu-driven and user-friendly. Martin Marietta entered into a contract with Fairchild Weston Systems Inc. to supply five (5) of these systems, known as Telemetry Processing Systems (TPS). This paper defines the TPS System hardware and software capabilities and how it is being used to support the small ICBM testing.

      LaPlante, John R.; Barge, Steve G.; Loral Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      The difficulty of incorporating custom real-time processing into a conventional telemetry system frustrates many design engineers. Custom algorithms such as data compression/conversion, software decommutation, signal processing or sensitive defense related algorithms, are often executed on expensive and timeconsuming mainframe computers during post-processing. The cost to implement such algorithms on real-time hardware is greater, because programming for such hardware is usually done in assembly language or microcode, resulting in: The need for specially trained software specialists Long and often unpredictable development time Poor maintainability Non-portability to new applications or hardware This paper presents an alternative to host-based, post-processing telemetry systems. The Loral System 500 offers an easy to use, high-level language programming environment that couples real-time performance with fast development time, portability and easy maintenance. Targeted to Weltek’s XL-Serles 32 and 64 bit floating point processors, delivering 20 MFLOPS peak performance, the environment transparently integrates the C programming environment with a parallel date-flow telemetry processing architecture. Supporting automatic human interface generation, symbolic high-level debugging and a complete floating point math library the System 500 programming environment extends to parallel execution transparently. It handles process scheduling, memory management and data conversion automatically. Configured to run under UNIX, the system’s development environment is powerful and portable. The platform can be migrated to PC’s and other hosts, facilitating eventual integration with an array of standard off-the-shelf tools.

      Taylor, Larry M; Loral Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      Recent developments in telemetry have resulted in an increased variety of data sources. As a result, data streams are incorporating such complexities as embedded asynchronous data streams, packets, and multiple formats. These data streams must be acquired and processed in real-time by telemetry ground stations. Most modern telemetry systems use a distributed architecture to accomplish these complex decommutation and preprocessing tasks. It is usually desirable to verify the data base setup and functional operation of the system before critical tests, as well as during test development. Most of the telemetry simulator products available today can do only a very limited simulation of the incoming data stream. This often fails to exercise many key components of the system. A new product will be described which can simulate a data stream with multiple formats, embedded asynchronous data streams, unlimited special words, and other useful functions. This product will enable the user to perform a more complete test of all of the components of the telemetry system.

      Stallings, William H.; Goddard Space Flight Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      The Information Processing Division (IPD) at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has the primary responsibility for the data capture, short-term storage, quality assurance and accounting, pre-processing, and distribution of telemetry data from numerous National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) spacecraft missions. This functional service is referred to as level 0 processing. Level 0 processing is differentiated from higher level processing in that the functions performed do not change the raw sensor or supporting data received and extracted from the telemetry streams (1). Error correction processing and the filling of data gaps to maintain continuity are included functions where applicable. Currently there are two basic forms of telemetry utilized by spacecraft missions supported by level 0 processing systems in the IPD; time division multiplexed and packetized. The basic processing services provided by these systems which are very similar have evolved over many years through experience with numerous spacecraft missions and differing user requirements. The goal of reducing the end-to-end information data system complexity and developmental and operational costs has led to the current extensive effort to standardize data formats utilized by spacecraft missions as well as the user services provided. It has been shown that the use of packetized telemetry will significantly reduce costs while enhancing service for future missions. Packet telemetry standards consistent with the international Consultative Committee for Space Data Standards (CCSDS) are being developed which will provide the basis for future mission data system implementations (2). The IPD has developed two facilities which provide level 0 processing for missions utilizing packetization; the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Data Capture Facility (DCF) and the Packet Processor (Pacor). The HST DCF, a dedicated system, was the first to be developed and provided the basis for the development of the multimission Pacor DCF. The Pacor is currently capable of providing the processing for the Gamma Ray Observatory and other missions using non-standard packet formats and future missions using standard packet formats compatible with the CCSDS recommendations. Through the development of the packet processing systems, which included extensive working with users, standard level 0 processing functions and services evolved. It is felt that these functions and services form the basis for future implementations including those for the Space Station Freedom. This paper will detail these functions and services.

      Smith, Strether; Olson, Eric; Miller, David; Hollowell, William; Hornak, Michelle; Computer Aided Testing Systems (CATS) Group (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      During the past several years Lockheed’s CATS group has built four large-scale data acquisition machines that are based on the APTEC I/O computer. Features of these systems include: * Speed: Up to 5,000,000 samples per second acquired to mass storage. * Duration: Several minutes per test (billions of samples). * Accuracy: .05% of full scale. * Real Time Display: Multi-channel, multi display. * Real time and post-processing calculation: 40 megaFlops. * Data access: Immediate, random access at test completion. The machines are appropriate for acoustic and structural-dynamic testing, windtunnel research, and scram jet engine performance analysis. Traditionally, these applications have been done with “Multiplexed FM” or “PCM” magnetic tape systems. Where they are applicable, I/O computer based systems are more accurate, versatile, and convenient than their predecessors. This paper describes the I/O computer based systems that are in use and explores the near-term extensions to the technology. Topics discussed include: * Real time displays of structural deflection. * Closed loop control systems (for structural-dynamic and acoustic testing and control-structure-interaction research. * Extensions to an aggregate rate of 20,000,000 samples/second at high accuracy.

      Robinson, David C.; Division of Datum Inc (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      Computer based data acquisition and signal processing systems have evolved from computers developed for more generic applications. As a result of less technical origins, current computer systems have Real Time Clocks (RTC’s) that are relatively inaccurate and which can not be automatically synchronized to external time standards. The imbedded bus level time code processor modules described in this article in conjunction with Universal Time Coordinate (UTC) standard time receivers and standard InterRange Instrumentation Group time code signals provide a substitute source of time data, a source that overcomes the limitations of conventional Real Time Clock devices. To illustrate system synchronization with the use of bus level time code processors, a hypothetical multi-location, multi-processor data acquisition system is described which uses: 1> Global Positioning Satellite receivers to acquire UTC time, 2> InterRange Instrumentation Group (IRIG) time code as the local time distribution technique, and 3> bus level time code modules to extract time data from the IRIG time code. Each of these three elements (receivers, time code signal, bus level module) has various selection possibilities with an associated impact on system time accuracy. It is shown that, with selection care, 1 microsecond absolute time accuracy for each processor can be obtained and 1 millisecond accuracy is routinely available.
    • Specifying and Evaluating PCM Bit Synchronizers

      Carlson, John R.; Aydin Computer and Monitor Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      As we enter the 1990’s PCM Bit Synchronizers continue to be of major importance to data recovery systems. This paper explains the specification of PCM Bit Synchronizers and provides insight into real world performance requirements and verification methods. Topics include: Theoretical bit error ratio for wideband versus prefiltered data, probability of cycle slip, jitter, transitition density and transition gaps. The merits of multiple and/or adaptive, loop bandwidth, input signal dynamic range, and embedded Viterbi decoders are also discussed. Emphasis is on the new high data rate applications, but the concepts apply to the specification of bit synchronizers in general.
    • The Modular Flighttest Instrumentation / MFI 90 A Helicopter Measuring System

      Meyer, Horst; DLR Institut für Flugmechanik, Braunschweig, West Germany (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      For investigations in the field of stability and control or handling qualities of helicopters, a Flighttest Instrumentation System is presented which combines some aspects of modern engineering. The aim was to create a system which is easy to understand and easy to handle, furthermore, allows the integration of future techniques and works with a maximum of performance under the given conditions. The system is modular. Good flexibility is guaranteed by the use of microprocessors combined with transducers in the front end modules. To avoid active or passive interference with the systems of the helicopter, the transportation of digital data is done by means of optical waveguides. The technique of processor control and data transmission is designed for future requirements like rising numbers of signals or bitrates. An “intelligent” transducer is shown together with its communication with the main onboard computer. On the other hand an overview is given of the onboard recording systems like Floppy Disc and Winchester, which have the advantage of readable computer data storage. For a quicklook telemetry a computer standardized protocol is also used as a method of online monitoring of digital data in the ground station.
    • The Rotor-Signal-Module of MFI90

      Holland, Rainer; DLR Institut für Flugmechanik, Braunschweig, West Germany (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      This paper presents special measuring equipment designed for acquiring rotor data from a BO105 helicopter. Some aspects of hardware design, especially in the field of digital data acquisition and processing will be discussed. On this occasion the limited space available on the rotor hub must be taken into consideration. The rotor-signal-module also has to function in the future measurement system MF190. The paper concludes with the presentation of a method of calibrating the measurement values from the rotor blades. In this connection measured rotor data will be compared with results obtained by a nonlinear helicopter computer simulation. This represents one possibility to check the data quality.

      Sharp, Kirk; Thompson, Lorraine Masi; Naval Ocean Research & Development Activity; LMT Concepts (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      The Naval Ocean Research and Development Activity (NORDA) has adapted the Loral Instrumentation Advanced Decommutation system (ADS 100) as a portable maintenance system for one of its remotely deployable buoy systems. This particular buoy system sends up to 128 channels of amplified sensor data to a centralized A/D for formatting and storage on a high density digital recorder. The resulting tapes contain serial PCM data in a format consistent with IRIG Standard 106-87. Predictable and correctable perturbations exist within the data due to the quadrature multiplexed telemetry system. The ADS 100 corrects for the perturbations of the telemetry system and provides the user with diagnostic tools to examine the stored data stream and determine the operational status of the buoy system prior to deployment.

      Ng, Wai-Hung; The Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      Two new approaches, a time-variant key and a random transmission rate, are introduced to strengthen the security of encrypted digital communications in which a “black-box” type of crypto-device is employed. These approaches not only further upgrade present crypto-methodology, but may also secure the system against the possibility of the cryptographic key’s falling into the hands of an unauthorized listener after initial communication has begun. Therefore, communication privacy could be maintained even under the most scrutinizing post-recorded ciphertext attack.
    • Subminiature Telemetry Systems For Submunitions

      Renken, G.; Ferguson, D.; Havey, G.; Kriz, J.; Olson, R.; Honeywell Sysytems and Research Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      The increased sophistication and reduced size of the emerging generation of ‘smart’ submunitions has generated a requirement for subminiature telemetry systems for use in test and evaluation. The Army’s SADARM and the Air Force’s Sensor Fuzed Weapon (SFW) are typical of smart submunitions with multiple sensors, VHSIC signal processing, large warheads, and complex deployment sequences. Reported here is the SADARM Telemetry Module, designed and developed by Honeywell to support the SADARM Program. The SADARM Telemetry Module applies MMIC and VLSI technology to provide sophisticated telemetry operation with a physically small, (2 in ) package, in a harsh operating environment. The 3 SADARM Telemetry Module senses 17 channels of digital and analog data, digitizes the analog data, multiplexes and PCM formats the data stream and transmits it via an IRIG compatible MMIC transmitter. This SADARM Telemetry Module was used to collect in-flight performance data at the SADARM Congressional Tests in February, 1989. Submunitions have evolved into very complex systems. Submunition development support testing has also become increasingly complicated. Onboard flight recorders are not feasible for live submunition tests because destruction of the submunition after the test precludes recovery of the recorded data. Telemetry provides the necessary test and measurement support required for efficient, cost effective, submunition development. The application of conventional telemetry for this type of submunition instrumentation has also become more difficult as the submunitions have become smaller in size and have more complex deployment sequences to evaluate. In addition, subminiature telemetry provides a practical, cost effective means to support field testing and development efforts in multiple munition weapon systems. In fact, subminiature telemetry offers the most practical instrumentation approach to evaluate the in-flight performance of several munitions dropped simultaneously. The SADARM Telemetry Module, discussed in this paper, incorporated these subminiature telemetry performance requirements into a practical, cost effective instrumentation package for SADARM development support.

      Bosik, Edward R.; Hutchinson, Michael P.; White Sands Missile Range; Fairchild Weston (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      The TDHS, designed and built for WSMR (White Sands Missile Range), is hosted by a Concurrent 3280 Processor. The TDHS software is a combination of new software designed specifically for this system and conversion of software that Fairchild Weston offers as standard products on other host computers. The system software is based on a menu system and provides a friendly user interface. The software supports the latest EMR products (including an 8715 Preprocessor and an 8470 Digital Discriminator), intercomputer data transfer and very high speed storage of data to disk and tape. TDHS also provides quick-look data display during real-time on strip charts and Concurrent based displays. Data processed by the Concurrent host can be sent back to the 8715 for distribution in the same manner as the incoming telemetry data. Immediately after data acquisition all data can be viewed on the color graphic and alphanumeric terminals.

      Baughman, James E.; Gulton Data Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      Increasing speed and complexity of guidance and target acquisition systems being developed for SDI missile interceptors mandate new performance standards for today’s airborne telemetry systems. High bandwidth video data merged with a myriad of high sample rate analog and digital channels have pushed bit rates to 10 MBPS (Mega Bits Per Second) and beyond. These bit rates which are an order of magnitude beyond most telemetry systems in use today, result in the need for a new architecture which facilitates data transfer at these higher rates.

      Ogaz, Juan A.; Data Sciences Division, National Range Operations (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      Prior to 1985 the National Range had, for a number of years, serious and recurring mission support problems with the IBM 360 Telemetry Data Processing System due to equipment reliability and obsolescence of the system which was installed in 1968. These problems became particularly acute when higher data rate requirements and the need for reliable telemetry data processing dictated that prompt and unusual action was necessary if WSMR was to continue to provide telemetry data processing support. Realizing that the above cited problems of reliability and obsolescence would continue in detriment to the mission of WSMR, Department of Defense (DOD) and the nation, coupled with the loss of thousands of dollars in reimbursables due to WSMR’s inability to support missile test requirements, the Systems Engineering Branch was tasked by the Director of National Range to lead a study, and propose and implement solutions to meet current and future requirements in telemetry data processing support. With the explosion in PCM data rates, it had become obvious that WSMR could not continue to upgrade existing systems and meet the demands of the future. More data parameters at higher data rates were being processed in PCM, FM, and PAM. Telemetry formats were becoming more complicated, such as embedded asynchronous subcomms and dynamic format changes. More real-time decisions had to be made for mission safety, verification of location, and mission success. WSMR needed a more versatile system that would synchronize, process and display higher data rates with more accuracy than it had at this time. This paper describes a historical perspective of steps WSMR has taken to satisfy present and future test vehicle telemetry data processing requirements.
    • IBM PC Voice Mail Cards

      Durbin, Daniel A.; California Polytechnic State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1989-11)
      The Voice Main Card (VMC) functions as an enhanced telephone answering machine and is designed as a plug-in card for the IBM PC and compatibles. In addition to standard answering machine functions, the VMC features programmable outgoing message selection, message routing, response to caller's touch tone signals, and remote programming ability. The VMC will answer incoming telephone calls, deliver outgoing messages which are Programmably selectable from as many as 16 digitized audio messages stored on the PC's hard disk, record incoming messages to the hard disk or optionally to an external tape recorder, route messages to a specified receiver, respond to a caller's touch tone signals, and enter a remote programming mode as a result of a special code sent by the caller. Audio messages are processed digitally via A/D and D/A converters which receive and send 8-bit data to and from the IBM PC through a selectable port address. The A/D conversion is implemented with the ADC0802 which is operated at a clock rate of 512 kHz. The D/A conversion is implemented with the DAC0830. Interface with the telephone line is accomplished with the speech circuit TP5700 coupled through opto-couplers. Messages are recorded using an external 600-ohm dynamic microphone and played back through an external 8-ohm speaker. A full-featured, pull-down menu program is provided with the VMC and implements all programmable functions. Data In/Out (I/O) with the card is interrupt-driven to allow apparent simultaneous disk I/O.