• Characteristics and Uses of Multipoint Radio in the 950 MHz Telemetry Band

      Ziemienski, Bruce V.; City of Fresno, California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      Data communications is one of the fastest growing industries today. Many see data communications as one key to increasing workforce productivity. Communications circuits are becoming increasingly expensive especially if wireline is used. A simple solution to this problem is utilized radio. With the advent of the new Multi- Point distribution Service on the 950 MHz Microwave band, simple and relatively inexpensive solutions to data communications distribution has been solved. This paper will explore this new service and its uses as related to data communications.
    • Analysis On the Optimum Group Synchronization Code of TIROS Satellite

      Qiu-Cheng, Xie; Jie, Cao; Nanjing Aeronautical Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      In this paper, the group synchronization code (length n = 60 bit) of the TIROS Satellite was analysed. It seems to us the code isn't optimization. A series of optimum group sync codes (n = 60) have been searched out with error tolerance E = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 10, 12. Their error sync probabilities are less than the error sync probability of the TIROS code (from two times to two order of magnitudes about). These optimum or qansi-optimum codes will be presented for application in the second generation of the Meteorological Satellites of China.
    • Data Transport Subsystem: The SFOC Glue

      Parr, Stephen J.; California Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      The Data Transport Subsystem (DTS) is a core subsystem of SFOC which holds together the GIFs, TISes, DMDs, DTVs and other SFOC application subsystems allowing them to operate in a distributed LAN based workstation environment. DTS does this by providing two primary features. The first feature is transparent local and remote interprocess communication. The communications interface is identical between two application subsystem processes whether they're running in the same machine or different machines. The second feature is the Logical Name Server, which makes connections on a name basis without regard to location or network topology. With these two features SFOC becomes a distributed system. Processes within a subsystem can even be distributed to perform load leveling and enhance system performance. Distribution fosters the use of redundancy and hot backups by allowing nodes to serve multiple purposes. Distribution allows isolation of mission telemetry while providing shared use of a common database. It supports the SFOC goal of off-the-shelf hardware expansion and upgrade. DTS provides an open-close-send-receive model of interprocess communication. It offers three types of service: virtual circuit, datagram and broadcast. The virtual circuit service supplies a full duplex path between communication endpoints and guarantees data integrity. The datagram service allows many communications endpoints to send to one endpoint. This is useful for sending status to a central process. The broadcast service allows a process to send to many receiver endpoints. This can be used for continuous monitoring of telemetry streams by multiple processes.
    • International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 24 (1988)

      Unknown author (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
    • Distributed, Real-Time, High-Resolution Color Graphics Display System for Telemetry

      Querido, Robert; Friedman, Paul J.; Loral Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      Dramatic increases in telemetry data rates and sources require test engineers to view and digest real-time data in order to make cogent decisions about whether to continue or modify flight tests. Traditional telemetry systems offer limited insight through a myriad of strip charts and alphanumeric displays. Attempts to improve this human interface employed expensive central superminicomputers and display systems. Although these methods have been successful, development and procurement costs and delays have limited their deployment. Recent advances in low-cost standard display, processing, and network technology have led to the development of the System 500. The System 500 employs a distributed architecture. Independent, relatively low cost, high-resolution color graphics workstations connect to the data acquisition and processing subsystems via Ethernet.* Each station is independent, requesting and then receiving only data for display. The combined ability to physically display and update only a few hundred parameters, each at relatively few samples per second makes Ethernet and standard upper layer protocols ideal for this application. The state-of-the-art human interface lets users select or mix a variety of methods to create and modify display contents, including: choosing from a list using arrow keys or a mouse, moving a scroll bar to pan through parameter files, or entering commands via keyboard where response anticipation reduces keystrokes to those uniquely defining a choice. A repertoire of graphic window displays is available to present real-time and static data concisely in analog and alphanumeric formats. Window size, location, and color have been chosen to focus attention rather than beautify. Standard windows and accent colors direct user attention to specific areas without cluttering and distracting.
    • Static RAM Data Recorder for Flight Tests

      Stoner, D. C.; Eklund, T. F. F.; Sandia National Laboratories (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      A static Random Access Memory (RAM) data recorder has been developed to recover strain and acceleration data during development tests of high-speed earth penetrating vehicles. Bi-level inputs are also available for continuity measurements. An iteration of this system was modified for use on water entry evaluations.
    • Practical Decom List Switching

      Devlin, Steve; Aydin Monitor Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      With more complex vehicle designs, the frequency and number of measurements contained in telemetry data streams has dramatically increased. One way of improving the use of bandwidth is to change the sample rate, quantity, or type of measurements dynamically. A telemetry front end must be programmable to handle different formats. In a front end that decommutates and routes measurements, a decom list is a control program, which defines the location, size, orientation, and identity of the measurements. To deal with dynamic format changes, a telemetry front end must be able to switch between decom lists. A practical approach to decom list switching must address the needs of error avoidance, packet switching, and the location of switching keys in any portion of the format. Switching between formats should not be restricted to a preprogrammed sequence, but should allow multiple destinations from a particular decom list. A practical and flexible implementation of decom list switching is detailed along with an explanation of how this implementation solves a variety of decommutation problems.
    • Decommutation of Mil-Std 1553B Data from EA6B or IRIG Telemetry Formats

      Devlin, Steve; Aydin Monitor Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      With the acceptance of Mil-Std-1553B by vehicle and weapons industries a wealth of new information is available for vehicle testing. In the past, selected data was extracted and included in a standard PCM telemetry stream. But only the selected data was made available. In EA6B and in the proposed IRIG Standard, multiple Mil-Std-1553B data busses are combined with identifying control bits in a single PCM telemetry stream. All of the information traveling each bus is available to the ground station. These formats share a number of features. One is that for each Bus the Mil-Std-1553B word appears in the same order in the telemetry stream. Another is that individual data words do not depend on their position in the telemetry stream for identification, but they do depend on the control information associated with the current message to give meaning to the data words. An efficient approach is outlined for identifying, selecting and routing individual measurements, messages, and/or all Mil-Std-1553B bus information to processes and I/O devices in a data flow environment.
    • Telemetry Chart Recording Via Direct Digital Link

      Smith, Grant M.; Alexander, James H.; Astro-Med, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      Mission safety and cost-efficiency concerns have resulted in a resurgence of interest in real-time strip chart recorders. But conventional recorder technologies require inordinate maintenance and daily calibration. Attempts at strip chart emulation involving costly dedicated microcomputers and CRT's have failed, because the chart itself is not real-time, a basic requirement. The concept of an inexpensive, direct digital link to a telemetry processing computer (VAX, e.g.) is discussed. A thorough examination of real-time monitoring of critical, non-repeatable data is presented. Objectives: An automated, turn-key telemetry data system. Reduce the routine maintenance required by conventional recording systems; eliminate the need for digital-to-analog converters (DAC's); and improve the efficiency of range personnel and the integrity of recorded data.
    • High Performance, Real-Time, Parallel Processing Telemetry System

      Powell, Richard L.; Williamson, Gale L.; Razavian, Farhand; Friedman, Paul J.; Loral Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      Flight test and signal and image processing systems have shown an increasingly voracious appetite for computer resources. Previous solutions employed special-purpose, bit-sliced technology to supplant costly general purpose computers. Although the hardware is less expensive and the throughput greater, the expense to develop or modify applications is very high. Recent parallel processor technology has increased capabilities, but the high applications development cost remains. Input/output (I/O) such as intermediate mass storage and display has been limited to transfer to general purpose or attached I/O computers. The PRO 550 Processing and Storage Subsystem of the System 500 was developed to provide linearly expandable, programmable real-time processing and an interface to distributed data acquisition subsystems. Each data acquisition subsystem can acquire data from multiple telemetry and other real-time sources. Processing resources are provided by one or more 8 MIPS (20 MFLOPS peak) processor modules, which utilize an array of predefined algorithms, algorithms specified by algebraic notation, or developed via high level languages (C and Fortran). Setup and program development occur on an external, general purpose color graphics workstation that is connected to the subsystem via an Ethernet network for command, control, and resultant data display. High-performance peripherals and processors communicate with each other via a 16-MHz broadcast bus, the MUXbus II, where any or all devices can acquire data elements called tokens. A token is a single MUXbus II word of 32 bits of data and a 16-bit tag to identify the word uniquely to the acquiring modules. The output of each device to the bus can be one or more tokens, but each device captures the bus to insert a single token. This ensures all devices receive equal priority and the MUXbus II is maximally utilized. This multiple instruction, multiple data (MIMD) architecture automatically schedules and routes data to processors or to I/O modules without control processor overhead. Traditional peripherals and administrative functions utilize the second subsystem bus, which is a traditional VMEbus. It controls the high performance devices while permitting the utilization of standard off-the-shelf controllers (e.g., magnetic tape, Ethernet, and bus controllers) for less demanding I/O tasks. A dedicated Bridge Module is the gateway for moving data between bus domains.
    • The Application of a Distributed Computing Architecture to a Large Telemetry Ground Station

      Buell, Robert K.; Fairchild Weston Systems Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      The evolution of telemetry ground station systems over the past twenty years has tracked the evolution of the mini-computer industry during that same time period. As the various mini-computer vendors introduced systems offering ever increasing compute power, and ever increasing capabilities to support multiple simultaneous users, the high end of the telemetry ground station systems offered by the industry evolved from single stream, single user, raw data systems to multi-user, multiple stream systems supporting real-time data processing and display functions from a single CPU or, in some cases, a closely coupled set of CPUs. In more recent years we have seen the maturation of networking and clustering concepts within the digital computer industry to a point where such systems coupled with current workstation technology, now permit the development of large telemetry ground station systems which accommodate large numbers of simultaneous users, each with his or her own dedicated computing resources. This paper discusses, at a hardware block diagram and software functional level, the architecture of such a distributed system.
    • Bridging The Gap Between Telemetry and the PC

      Nelson, Wade; Shurtleff, Diana; Loral Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      The explosive use and extensive development of software and hardware for the IBM PC and PC Clones over the past few years has positioned the PC as one of many viable alternatives to system designers configuring systems for both data acquisition and data analysis. Hardware abounds for capturing signals to be digitized and analyzed by software developed for the PC. Communication software has improved to where system developers can easily link instrumentation devices together to form integrated test environments for analyzing and displaying data. Telemetry systems, notable those developed for lab calibration and ground station environments, are one of many applications which can profit from the rapid development of data acquisition techniques for the PC. Recently developed for the ADS100A telemetry processor is a data acquisition module which allows the system to be linked into the PC world. The MUX-I/O module was designed to allow the PC access to telemetry data acquired through the ADS 100A, as well as provide a method by which data can be input into the telemetry environment from a host PC or equivalent RS-232 or GPIB interface. Signals captured and digitized by the ADS100A can be passed on to the PC for further processing and/or report generation. Providing interfaces of this form to the PC greatly enhances the functionality and scope of the abilities already provided by the ADS100A as one of the major front-end processors used in telemetry processing today. The MUX-I/O module helps "bridge the gap" between telemetry and the PC in an ever increasing demand for improving the quantity and quality of processing power required by today's telemetry environment. This paper focuses on two distinct topics, how to transfer data to and from the PC and what off-the-shelf software is available to provide communication links and analysis of incoming data. Major areas of discussion will include software protocols, pre vs post processing, static vs dynamic processing environments, and discussion of the major data analysis and acquisition packages available for the PC today, such as DaDisp and Lotus Measure, which aid the system designer in analyzing and displaying telemetry data. Novel applications of the telemetry to PC link will be discussed.
    • Off-Loading the Host Computer Through Flexible DMA Interface

      Nicolo, Stephen J.; Aydin Monitor Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      As data rates and system throughput requirements continue to increase, more and more attention must be given to ways of off-loading the host computer by shifting tasks to the front-end preprocessing subsystem. In addition to some of the more common tasks like data compression and EU conversion already performed in the front end, there is the time consuming task of organizing telemetry data. Once relieved from this secondary task the host can solely attend to its primary task of application processing. This paper describes an intelligent DMA interface (CPI007) which permits the automatic building of various types of array buffers in the host computer. This flexible high-speed device uses an EPROM based, bit slice microengine utilizing parameters stored in its operational store RAM during setup to build the array buffers. The interface is implemented on a single module in the front-end preprocessing subsystem and was developed for those mainframe computers that can be configured to accept address/data inputs for DMA to system memory (e.g. Gould Sel, DEC). With this type of architecture, algorithms may easily be written to accommodate a wide variety of data organization and transfer requirements. Along with the technical description of this device, actual data array buffering problems and solutions will also be addressed in this paper.
    • A Programming Parallel Real-Time Process Data Flow Telemetry System

      Da-qing, Huang; Nanjing Aeronautical Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      In this paper, a programming parallel real-time process data flow telemetry system is presented. What we developed recently is a advanced telemetry system which can process multi-data-flow of multi-target for mulit-user at the same time. It can be used in RPV, missile and others. Its main characteristics are as follows: Input radio frequency is S wave band (multi-dot frequencies). In telemetry front-end, the chip microprocessor is used to make demodulation and decode. Telemetry preprocessor consists of parallel distributed chip microprocessor mould plates (bus link). There are menu shope man-computer dialogue, figure display, intelligence display and intelligence self-diagnosis in this system. Now, we have developed data compress mould plate, floating-point arithmetic mould plate, derive calculation mould plate and signal process mould plate etc. The main computer is VAX-II.
    • System Aspects of Digital Video Telemetry

      Deutermann, Alan R.; Randall, Neil C.; Delta Information Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      This paper describes a completely integrated digital video telemetry system and analyzes several critical aspects of that system. The typical video network may consist of video source signals on the ground as well as airborne while the receive site is usually ground based. Examples of system issues which will be described and analyzed are listed below. * Multi-mode operation: It is likely that a single receive site must be able to rapidly switch between video sources having different bit rates and modes of operation. One technique to achieve this capability will be presented and discussed. * Error sensitivity: It is important that the coding compression technique be resilient to transmission errors. Techniques to achieve this robustness for both synchronization and data signals will be discussed. * Data Multiplexing: From a system point of view, it is extremely efficient to multiplex other digital signals (e.g. audio, IRIG time code) with the video signal to form a single stream for encryption and transmission. A particularly efficient multiplex technique will be presented. * Diagnostics: Video telemetry systems are more effective when they contain carefully designed built-in diagnostics. Advanced concepts for both board-level and system-level diagnostics will be presented.
    • Application of Digital Video in Modern Telemetry Systems

      Druif, David; LORAL/CONIC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      This paper addresses the system issues of applying digital video to modern telemetry systems and problems. Comparison of typical link budgets, block diagrams, as well as improvements and limitations for both analog and digital video are included. Encryption issues are covered from a generic unclassified point of view.
    • Application for Spacecraft of the 90's Using MicroDACS Technology

      Horn, Paul; SCI Technology Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      Recent developments in electronics have made possible the miniaturization of many of the subsystem components associated with a typical spacecraft data acquisition and control system. This paper describes a low power consumption, fault tolerant, high performance data acquisition and control system design utilizing third generation hardware. The system includes built in test autonomy, redundancy management and fault tolerant communication busses, and supports multiprocessing with up to five 35 Million instructions per second (Mips) processors.
    • Receiver/Combiner for Shipboard Telemetry Applications

      Baker, Thomas G.; Lennox, William M.; Naval Surface Warfare Center; Microdyne Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      Improvements in the performance and electronic sophistication of Navy missiles require concurrent improvements in telemetry reception. The Microdyne 2800 Receiver/Combiner, developed for the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), provides an improved shipboard receiving capability to meet this requirement. The Microdyne 2800, or "2800", is a dual channel diversity combining telemetry receiver, which, though designed to meet the unique Navy shipboard environment, provides a capability previously available only with large shore based receiving systems.
    • Draft Standard for Digital Transmission of Television Images

      Rieger, James L.; Gattis, Sherri; Naval Weapons Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      This paper describes the characteristics of the HORACE digital protocol intended for transmission of black-and-white standard television images and associated data through a digital channel and reconstruction of an NTSC standard television picture at the receiving end, using adaptive transmission to allow maximum picture quality at a selected data rate. Tradeoffs are discussed for transmission rates in the range from near DC to over 40 Mbits/second. The HORACE protocol will be a government test range standard to be issued by the Telecommunications Group [TCG] of the Range Commanders' Council as RCC Document 209.
    • Video Compression Techniques

      Cilke, Tom; LORAL/CONIC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      This paper will attempt to present algorithms commonly used for video compression, and their effectiveness in aerospace applications where size, weight, and power are of prime importance. These techniques will include samples of one-, two-, and three-dimensional algorithms. Implementation of these algorithms into usable hardware is also explored but limited to monochrome video only.