• 19mm Rotary Digital Data and Instrumentation Recording

      DeFrancesco, Richard E.; Honeywell (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      A new family of recording devices has emerged which are user-friendly, 19mm cartridgebased use a MIL-STD format, and are capable of high transfer rates for diverse applications.
    • Addition of Video to Telemetry Tracking System Upgrades Spatial Data to Radar-Quality

      Fournier, John; Sullivan, Arthur; Electro Magnetic Processes, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      Traditionally telemetry trackers have not been required to provide precision space-position data. Such data, when needed, has required expensive radar or optical support. Currently, an increasing number of flight test operations have need of precision spatial data, in conjunction with telemetry data reception, in areas where no radar or optical support is available. To meet this need, EMP has carefully combined existing technologies to upgrade the angle output data accuracy of telemetry trackers to the level expected of precision radars. A TV Boresight Camera and video Tracking Error Detector combined with the EMP Model ACU-6 microprocessor-based Antenna Control Unit provide the means to automatically measure and store all of the systematic bias errors inherent in a telemetry tracking system. The resulting error model is used to provide real-time-data-correction for each error parameter. Video tracking provides correction for dynamic tracking errors in real time. Calibrations utilize boresight and stellar targets. The design goal to reduce dynamic angle data error to <10 arc seconds, RMS, appears to be reasonable.
    • Advanced Instrumentation for Advanced Aircraft

      Penharlow, David; Aydin Vector Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      Advanced aircraft require sophisticated instrumentation system designs. New concepts incorporated in distributed data acquisition systems allow the flight test instrumentation engineer a selection of hardware with reduced size and weight, which requires minimal vehicle wiring between components. Improved accuracy and resolution are additional benefits of the distributed data acquisition systems described in this paper. These systems, currently being delivered by Aydin Vector for several major flight test programs, allow conditioning and encoding to be achieved near the sensors through a variety of remote units. The remote units for these applications differ as the measurement requirements and test program requirements differ. We will examine the distributed data acquisition systems used for several test vehicles and briefly describe vehicle for test program requirements which led to unique designs. The systems described for these applications are variations of the Aydin Vector ADAS-7000 System. The common element for these systems is the PMU-700 Programmable Master Encoder.
    • AMRAAM S-Band Telemetry Antenna Theory and Development

      Koontz, Rollin H.; Pacific Missile Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      The Advanced Medium-Range Air-To-Air Missile (AMRAAM) is one of our newest additions to tactical weaponry. Recently the Pacific Missile Test Center (PMTC) was given the responsibility to develop a new telemetry (TM) package for the AMRAAM that is warhead compatible. The difficulty of this undertaking can best be appreciated if one examines a sketch of the missile as shown in figure 1. Note that the sketch reveals a harness cover opposite top dead center (TDC) for flight that extends over 2/3 the length of the missile. Within this cover is housed all interconnect electrical cabling for the missile. It was also within this harness cover that PMTC had to mount the entire TM package including the S-band antenna. Of necessity there had to be an increase in the height of the harness cover in order to accommodate the TM package. However, this increase was held to only 0.10 inches resulting in no significant change to the flight profile. This report deals only with the design and development of the harness cover mounted TM antenna.
    • Analysis On the Optimum Group Synchronization Code of TIROS Satellite

      Qiu-Cheng, Xie; Jie, Cao; Nanjing Aeronautical Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      In this paper, the group synchronization code (length n = 60 bit) of the TIROS Satellite was analysed. It seems to us the code isn't optimization. A series of optimum group sync codes (n = 60) have been searched out with error tolerance E = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 10, 12. Their error sync probabilities are less than the error sync probability of the TIROS code (from two times to two order of magnitudes about). These optimum or qansi-optimum codes will be presented for application in the second generation of the Meteorological Satellites of China.
    • Application for Spacecraft of the 90's Using MicroDACS Technology

      Horn, Paul; SCI Technology Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      Recent developments in electronics have made possible the miniaturization of many of the subsystem components associated with a typical spacecraft data acquisition and control system. This paper describes a low power consumption, fault tolerant, high performance data acquisition and control system design utilizing third generation hardware. The system includes built in test autonomy, redundancy management and fault tolerant communication busses, and supports multiprocessing with up to five 35 Million instructions per second (Mips) processors.
    • The Application of a Distributed Computing Architecture to a Large Telemetry Ground Station

      Buell, Robert K.; Fairchild Weston Systems Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      The evolution of telemetry ground station systems over the past twenty years has tracked the evolution of the mini-computer industry during that same time period. As the various mini-computer vendors introduced systems offering ever increasing compute power, and ever increasing capabilities to support multiple simultaneous users, the high end of the telemetry ground station systems offered by the industry evolved from single stream, single user, raw data systems to multi-user, multiple stream systems supporting real-time data processing and display functions from a single CPU or, in some cases, a closely coupled set of CPUs. In more recent years we have seen the maturation of networking and clustering concepts within the digital computer industry to a point where such systems coupled with current workstation technology, now permit the development of large telemetry ground station systems which accommodate large numbers of simultaneous users, each with his or her own dedicated computing resources. This paper discusses, at a hardware block diagram and software functional level, the architecture of such a distributed system.
    • Application of Digital Video in Modern Telemetry Systems

      Druif, David; LORAL/CONIC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      This paper addresses the system issues of applying digital video to modern telemetry systems and problems. Comparison of typical link budgets, block diagrams, as well as improvements and limitations for both analog and digital video are included. Encryption issues are covered from a generic unclassified point of view.
    • Applications of Measurement Instrumentation for Advanced Launch Vehicles of the 90's Using MicroDACS Technology

      Martin, Robert D.; SCI Technology Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      Using MicroDACS* SMT ASIC technology, an instrumentation and control system is designed to meet the low cost, fault tolerant, data handling requirements for advanced launch vehicles of the 901's. Advanced launch vehicles will require low cost autonomous, and reliable measurement circuits. This paper describes many measurements and signal conditioning applications for various types of analog transducers needed to insure missile health and safety on boosters of the future.
    • Auto Ranging Optical Sensor Suitable for High-Energy Laser Measurements

      Kozlosky, E. S.; Desrosiers, D. H.; Glendening, M.; Morelli, L.; Fairchild Space Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      This paper presents the design and performance of an auto ranging optical sensor (AROS) built for space applications and capable of measuring pulsed optical energy over a wide range of pulse widths, energy levels and wavelengths. The AROS measures energy densities over seven orders of magnitude to a maximum of 0.2 J/cm² and can withstand 1 J/cm² without damage. In addition to its intended use as a laser sensor in multi-sensor arrays on target satellites, the AROS is well suited for laboratory use in the measurement and profiling of high-power laser beams.
    • Bridging The Gap Between Telemetry and the PC

      Nelson, Wade; Shurtleff, Diana; Loral Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      The explosive use and extensive development of software and hardware for the IBM PC and PC Clones over the past few years has positioned the PC as one of many viable alternatives to system designers configuring systems for both data acquisition and data analysis. Hardware abounds for capturing signals to be digitized and analyzed by software developed for the PC. Communication software has improved to where system developers can easily link instrumentation devices together to form integrated test environments for analyzing and displaying data. Telemetry systems, notable those developed for lab calibration and ground station environments, are one of many applications which can profit from the rapid development of data acquisition techniques for the PC. Recently developed for the ADS100A telemetry processor is a data acquisition module which allows the system to be linked into the PC world. The MUX-I/O module was designed to allow the PC access to telemetry data acquired through the ADS 100A, as well as provide a method by which data can be input into the telemetry environment from a host PC or equivalent RS-232 or GPIB interface. Signals captured and digitized by the ADS100A can be passed on to the PC for further processing and/or report generation. Providing interfaces of this form to the PC greatly enhances the functionality and scope of the abilities already provided by the ADS100A as one of the major front-end processors used in telemetry processing today. The MUX-I/O module helps "bridge the gap" between telemetry and the PC in an ever increasing demand for improving the quantity and quality of processing power required by today's telemetry environment. This paper focuses on two distinct topics, how to transfer data to and from the PC and what off-the-shelf software is available to provide communication links and analysis of incoming data. Major areas of discussion will include software protocols, pre vs post processing, static vs dynamic processing environments, and discussion of the major data analysis and acquisition packages available for the PC today, such as DaDisp and Lotus Measure, which aid the system designer in analyzing and displaying telemetry data. Novel applications of the telemetry to PC link will be discussed.
    • Characteristics and Application of "Smart" Shaft Encoders

      Breslow, Donald H.; Litton Industries (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      A family of absolute optical shaft encoders has been configured which is based upon an electro-optical multiplexing architecture. When interfaced to a microprocessor, the resulting "smart" encoder can perform several allied data processing functions and can replace many types of electro-mechanical components. Encoder architecture, interfacing, and several allied signal processing examples are discussed.
    • Characteristics and Uses of Multipoint Radio in the 950 MHz Telemetry Band

      Ziemienski, Bruce V.; City of Fresno, California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      Data communications is one of the fastest growing industries today. Many see data communications as one key to increasing workforce productivity. Communications circuits are becoming increasingly expensive especially if wireline is used. A simple solution to this problem is utilized radio. With the advent of the new Multi- Point distribution Service on the 950 MHz Microwave band, simple and relatively inexpensive solutions to data communications distribution has been solved. This paper will explore this new service and its uses as related to data communications.
    • Characterization of Self-Focusing and Self-Defocusing of Light in Sodium Vapor

      Largent, C.; Northwestern University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      Self-focusing of light in sodium vapor was first observed on a cw basis in 1974. Recently at Northwestern University, efforts to develop a quantum optical communications network employing squeezed states of light have required quantitative characterization of the self-action effects. It has been determined that self-focusing and self-defocusing change the spatial structure of the output beams of the forward four-wave mixer used in the experiments, thus worsening the homodyne-detection efficiency by creating a mismatch between the squeezed output beam and the local-oscillator beam. Consequently, the need to characterize the self-action effects in sodium vapor has arisen. By characterizing the self-action effects as a function of the sodium cell temperature, input beam intensity, and the dye laser frequency, it will be possible to modify the localoscillator wavefront to compensate for the spatial mismatch, and thus improve the homodyne-detection efficiency. This paper reports the results of an experiment carried out in the Fall and Winter Quarters of the 1987/1988 school year as an Honors Project in Electrical Engineering. The theories of self-focusing of optical beams and Gaussian beam propagation are developed early in the paper in order to lay the groundwork for the presentation and interpretation of the experimental results. A general description of the laboratory setup is given, and the experimental procedure is described in detail. Finally, the paper concludes with a presentation and interpretation of the experimental findings.
    • A Charge-Balancing Incremental Analog to Digital Converter for Instrumental Applications

      Zrilić, D.; Skendzić, D.; Pajavić, S.; Ghorishi, R.; Fu, F.; Kandus, G.; Boston University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      A switched-capacitor technique for realization of one bit serial A/D converter is presented. A conversion accuracy that is higher than 15 bits can be expected from its integrated realization. Results of simulation are presented. It is shown that arithmetic operations on bit serial signals are possible. Using arithmetic operations on delta-modulated signals, it is possible to build inexpensive options necessary in instrumentation.
    • Data Compression Using the Fast Fourier Transform

      Maschhoff, Robert H.; Lee, Kyong H.; Gulton Data Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technique has long been used for spectral analysis but it has not been fully exploited for data compression purposes. This paper presents the concept for compressing telemetry data using the FFT in such a manner that the time domain waveform can be recovered. The sampled time-domain data is transformed into the frequency-domain data and only the significant components are selected and transmitted. Actual flight data is used to simulate the data compression performance. Some comparisons are made between this FFT approach and other possibilities.
    • Data Handling and Processing as Applied to White Sands Missile Range

      Kelley, A. L.; Malone, C. P.; Fairchild Weston Systems Inc.; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      Today's large missile testing ranges are demanding sophisticated processing and displays of telemetry data for real-time decisions. These present-day requirements created a need for better data handling and processing than those of the past. These requirements are driven by higher data rates, more complex formats, and increased real-time decision making (i.e., flight safety area). White Sands Missile Range's (WSMR's) initial real-time Telemetry Data Processing System was provided by IBM in 1969. This system was augmented several times by adding higher-speed telemetry front ends and preprocessors. However, this was not adequate to keep pace with requirements for data processing and display at WSMR. Presently, WSMR has Fairchild Weston Systems, Inc. (FWSI) under contract for a new Telemetry Data Handling System. This FWSI system will support WSMR's anticipated demands for now, for the next decade's planned growth, and beyond. This paper defines data-handling tasks at WSMR, explains how these tasks were handled in the past, and how they are presently handled. Next, the new system is described explaining how it fits into WSMR's present and future plans; and how it provides all the telemetry data handling, storage, processing, and display capabilities to support these tasks. Both hardware and software are discussed for this totally turn-key operating system.
    • Data System Overview

      Karhr, Joseph R.; Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      The design of the SFOC data system is based on a "design for change" philosophy. It emphasizes standards throughout the implementation, allowing for reuse of software, for periodic changeout of hardware, and for an evolving network configuration. Commercial off-the-shelf hardware and software components are incorporated in a way that avoids dependencies on any single vendor. Multiple flight projects are supported by building upon the baseline system with a minimum of special purpose adaptations. In addition to the multi-mission aspect of SFOC, it must also satisfy multiple users representing multiple disciplines. Data system operators monitor and control SFOC itself. Spacecraft team members keep a vigil to protect the health of the spacecraft. Mission planners and sequence designers control the spacecraft. Science investigators remotely calibrate and control their onboard instruments. SFOC provides near-realtime and nonrealtime support to end-users for downlink (telemetry) and uplink (command) functions. This paper provides an overview to the design of the overall SFOC system and describes the implementation of the current baseline SFOC. It summarizes the important design decisions that have been made, and explains the approach taken to meeting these challenging requirements.
    • Data Transport Subsystem: The SFOC Glue

      Parr, Stephen J.; California Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      The Data Transport Subsystem (DTS) is a core subsystem of SFOC which holds together the GIFs, TISes, DMDs, DTVs and other SFOC application subsystems allowing them to operate in a distributed LAN based workstation environment. DTS does this by providing two primary features. The first feature is transparent local and remote interprocess communication. The communications interface is identical between two application subsystem processes whether they're running in the same machine or different machines. The second feature is the Logical Name Server, which makes connections on a name basis without regard to location or network topology. With these two features SFOC becomes a distributed system. Processes within a subsystem can even be distributed to perform load leveling and enhance system performance. Distribution fosters the use of redundancy and hot backups by allowing nodes to serve multiple purposes. Distribution allows isolation of mission telemetry while providing shared use of a common database. It supports the SFOC goal of off-the-shelf hardware expansion and upgrade. DTS provides an open-close-send-receive model of interprocess communication. It offers three types of service: virtual circuit, datagram and broadcast. The virtual circuit service supplies a full duplex path between communication endpoints and guarantees data integrity. The datagram service allows many communications endpoints to send to one endpoint. This is useful for sending status to a central process. The broadcast service allows a process to send to many receiver endpoints. This can be used for continuous monitoring of telemetry streams by multiple processes.
    • Decommutation of Mil-Std 1553B Data from EA6B or IRIG Telemetry Formats

      Devlin, Steve; Aydin Monitor Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      With the acceptance of Mil-Std-1553B by vehicle and weapons industries a wealth of new information is available for vehicle testing. In the past, selected data was extracted and included in a standard PCM telemetry stream. But only the selected data was made available. In EA6B and in the proposed IRIG Standard, multiple Mil-Std-1553B data busses are combined with identifying control bits in a single PCM telemetry stream. All of the information traveling each bus is available to the ground station. These formats share a number of features. One is that for each Bus the Mil-Std-1553B word appears in the same order in the telemetry stream. Another is that individual data words do not depend on their position in the telemetry stream for identification, but they do depend on the control information associated with the current message to give meaning to the data words. An efficient approach is outlined for identifying, selecting and routing individual measurements, messages, and/or all Mil-Std-1553B bus information to processes and I/O devices in a data flow environment.