• The Need for Standardized Performance Characteristics for Digital Strip Chart Recorders

      Smith, Grant M.; Gaskill, Dave; Astro-Med, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      Digital-based linear-array chart recorders are replacing conventional stylus recorders in telemetry data stations everywhere. They offer advantages in virtually all respects, and are becoming indispensable. But because of the completely different writing method and technology employed, it is difficult to make completely analogous performance comparisons between analog and digital chart recorders. This has led to some confusion when replacing aging stylus recorders is contemplated. Objectives: Establish a set of universal, standardized performance characteristics for digital chart recorders. Introduce appropriate terminology, allowing valid, repeatable comparison of old and new systems.
    • Parallel Bus Implementations in Satellite Communications Systems

      Yun, Paul M.; E-Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      As the volume of linkages in the satellite communications systems increases, the parallel bus between the various processors of the satellite becomes a bottle neck to transfer the commands and data. The remedies to this problem are trivial in the ground stations; however, this problem imposes severe restrictions in parallel bus implementation of the satellite communications systems. The most severe restriction is the minimization of wire connections in the physical layer to minimize the weight, size and power consumption, and also to maximize the reliability. Another restriction is the flexibility in the link layer to adapt the different characteristics of the command and data messages. In this paper, the implementation to overcome the imposed restrictions in both physical and link layer of the parallel bus will be discussed.
    • Data Transport Subsystem: The SFOC Glue

      Parr, Stephen J.; California Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      The Data Transport Subsystem (DTS) is a core subsystem of SFOC which holds together the GIFs, TISes, DMDs, DTVs and other SFOC application subsystems allowing them to operate in a distributed LAN based workstation environment. DTS does this by providing two primary features. The first feature is transparent local and remote interprocess communication. The communications interface is identical between two application subsystem processes whether they're running in the same machine or different machines. The second feature is the Logical Name Server, which makes connections on a name basis without regard to location or network topology. With these two features SFOC becomes a distributed system. Processes within a subsystem can even be distributed to perform load leveling and enhance system performance. Distribution fosters the use of redundancy and hot backups by allowing nodes to serve multiple purposes. Distribution allows isolation of mission telemetry while providing shared use of a common database. It supports the SFOC goal of off-the-shelf hardware expansion and upgrade. DTS provides an open-close-send-receive model of interprocess communication. It offers three types of service: virtual circuit, datagram and broadcast. The virtual circuit service supplies a full duplex path between communication endpoints and guarantees data integrity. The datagram service allows many communications endpoints to send to one endpoint. This is useful for sending status to a central process. The broadcast service allows a process to send to many receiver endpoints. This can be used for continuous monitoring of telemetry streams by multiple processes.
    • Video Compression Techniques

      Cilke, Tom; LORAL/CONIC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      This paper will attempt to present algorithms commonly used for video compression, and their effectiveness in aerospace applications where size, weight, and power are of prime importance. These techniques will include samples of one-, two-, and three-dimensional algorithms. Implementation of these algorithms into usable hardware is also explored but limited to monochrome video only.
    • VLSI High Speed Packet Processor

      Grebowsky, Gerald J.; Dominy, Carol T.; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      The Goddard Space Flight Center Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate has developed a Packet Processor card utilizing semi-custom very large scale integration (VLSI) devices, microprocessors, and programmable gate arrays to support the implementation of multi-channel telemetry data capture systems. This card will receive synchronized error corrected telemetry transfer frames and output annotated application packets derived from this data. An adaptable format capability is provided by the programmability of three microprocessors while the throughput capability of the Packet Processor is achieved by a data pipeline consisting of two separate RAM systems controlled by specially designed semi-custom VLSI logic.
    • uDACS Micropackaged Data Acquisition and Control System

      Sodini, Gregory L.; SCI Technology Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      The miniaturization of Aerospace Systems, has created a demand for effective, compact, lightweight, and power efficient General Purpose Stand-Alone Flight Computers, as well as Command, Data Handling and Control Systems, that maintain High Reliability, Full Redundancy, Radiation Hardness, Explosive Processing Speed, Rapid Throughput, and High Accuracy. The innovative design techniques used in the uDACS (Micropackaged Data Acquisition and Control System) offer a unique and comprehensive solution to this quandary.
    • Addition of Video to Telemetry Tracking System Upgrades Spatial Data to Radar-Quality

      Fournier, John; Sullivan, Arthur; Electro Magnetic Processes, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      Traditionally telemetry trackers have not been required to provide precision space-position data. Such data, when needed, has required expensive radar or optical support. Currently, an increasing number of flight test operations have need of precision spatial data, in conjunction with telemetry data reception, in areas where no radar or optical support is available. To meet this need, EMP has carefully combined existing technologies to upgrade the angle output data accuracy of telemetry trackers to the level expected of precision radars. A TV Boresight Camera and video Tracking Error Detector combined with the EMP Model ACU-6 microprocessor-based Antenna Control Unit provide the means to automatically measure and store all of the systematic bias errors inherent in a telemetry tracking system. The resulting error model is used to provide real-time-data-correction for each error parameter. Video tracking provides correction for dynamic tracking errors in real time. Calibrations utilize boresight and stellar targets. The design goal to reduce dynamic angle data error to <10 arc seconds, RMS, appears to be reasonable.
    • GPS: The Versatile Tool for Range Instrumentation

      Hoefener, Carl; Richardson, William; Interstate Electronics Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      The Global Positioning System (GPS) has made significant contributions in range instrumentation. It was the prime tracking method for both realtime range safety and metric tracking for the Trident II. Because of its many advantages, GPS will become the primary source of time, space, and position information (TSPI) on the ranges. Many activities requiring precision TSPI have already committed to GPS and others are planning on the application of GPS in the future for use on the ranges. GPS is also an extremely accurate time source, with timing accuracies of 10 nanoseconds obtainable worldwide. The range interoperability problem is solvable through the use of GPS as the TSPI source. There is little doubt that GPS will become the standard TSPI source for all test and training ranges.
    • Digital Microwave System Mobile, All-Terrain System for Telemetry or Communications

      Strom, Robert L.; Emmenegger, J. M. (Hans); Boeing Aerospace Company; Broadcast Microwave Services, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      Portable, mobile tactical microwave telemetry and/or communications systems have always been plagued with three major problems: antenna height for first fresnel zone clearance over the terrain between the two ends of the link, atmospheric multipath fading and multipath reflections from buildings, bodies of water, certain terrain features, etc. This paper describes a digital microwave system with a modular capability to add additional digital channels, analog channels or voice channels as required. A modular Baseband Processor is used, which provides multiplexing capability and modulation of high speed digital data at a bandwidth of one bit per Hz using the Duobinary Technique which also provides error detection capability without the need for adding extra bits to the stream.
    • Bridging The Gap Between Telemetry and the PC

      Nelson, Wade; Shurtleff, Diana; Loral Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      The explosive use and extensive development of software and hardware for the IBM PC and PC Clones over the past few years has positioned the PC as one of many viable alternatives to system designers configuring systems for both data acquisition and data analysis. Hardware abounds for capturing signals to be digitized and analyzed by software developed for the PC. Communication software has improved to where system developers can easily link instrumentation devices together to form integrated test environments for analyzing and displaying data. Telemetry systems, notable those developed for lab calibration and ground station environments, are one of many applications which can profit from the rapid development of data acquisition techniques for the PC. Recently developed for the ADS100A telemetry processor is a data acquisition module which allows the system to be linked into the PC world. The MUX-I/O module was designed to allow the PC access to telemetry data acquired through the ADS 100A, as well as provide a method by which data can be input into the telemetry environment from a host PC or equivalent RS-232 or GPIB interface. Signals captured and digitized by the ADS100A can be passed on to the PC for further processing and/or report generation. Providing interfaces of this form to the PC greatly enhances the functionality and scope of the abilities already provided by the ADS100A as one of the major front-end processors used in telemetry processing today. The MUX-I/O module helps "bridge the gap" between telemetry and the PC in an ever increasing demand for improving the quantity and quality of processing power required by today's telemetry environment. This paper focuses on two distinct topics, how to transfer data to and from the PC and what off-the-shelf software is available to provide communication links and analysis of incoming data. Major areas of discussion will include software protocols, pre vs post processing, static vs dynamic processing environments, and discussion of the major data analysis and acquisition packages available for the PC today, such as DaDisp and Lotus Measure, which aid the system designer in analyzing and displaying telemetry data. Novel applications of the telemetry to PC link will be discussed.
    • Application for Spacecraft of the 90's Using MicroDACS Technology

      Horn, Paul; SCI Technology Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      Recent developments in electronics have made possible the miniaturization of many of the subsystem components associated with a typical spacecraft data acquisition and control system. This paper describes a low power consumption, fault tolerant, high performance data acquisition and control system design utilizing third generation hardware. The system includes built in test autonomy, redundancy management and fault tolerant communication busses, and supports multiprocessing with up to five 35 Million instructions per second (Mips) processors.
    • Application of Digital Video in Modern Telemetry Systems

      Druif, David; LORAL/CONIC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      This paper addresses the system issues of applying digital video to modern telemetry systems and problems. Comparison of typical link budgets, block diagrams, as well as improvements and limitations for both analog and digital video are included. Encryption issues are covered from a generic unclassified point of view.
    • Distributed, Real-Time, High-Resolution Color Graphics Display System for Telemetry

      Querido, Robert; Friedman, Paul J.; Loral Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      Dramatic increases in telemetry data rates and sources require test engineers to view and digest real-time data in order to make cogent decisions about whether to continue or modify flight tests. Traditional telemetry systems offer limited insight through a myriad of strip charts and alphanumeric displays. Attempts to improve this human interface employed expensive central superminicomputers and display systems. Although these methods have been successful, development and procurement costs and delays have limited their deployment. Recent advances in low-cost standard display, processing, and network technology have led to the development of the System 500. The System 500 employs a distributed architecture. Independent, relatively low cost, high-resolution color graphics workstations connect to the data acquisition and processing subsystems via Ethernet.* Each station is independent, requesting and then receiving only data for display. The combined ability to physically display and update only a few hundred parameters, each at relatively few samples per second makes Ethernet and standard upper layer protocols ideal for this application. The state-of-the-art human interface lets users select or mix a variety of methods to create and modify display contents, including: choosing from a list using arrow keys or a mouse, moving a scroll bar to pan through parameter files, or entering commands via keyboard where response anticipation reduces keystrokes to those uniquely defining a choice. A repertoire of graphic window displays is available to present real-time and static data concisely in analog and alphanumeric formats. Window size, location, and color have been chosen to focus attention rather than beautify. Standard windows and accent colors direct user attention to specific areas without cluttering and distracting.
    • Off-Loading the Host Computer Through Flexible DMA Interface

      Nicolo, Stephen J.; Aydin Monitor Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      As data rates and system throughput requirements continue to increase, more and more attention must be given to ways of off-loading the host computer by shifting tasks to the front-end preprocessing subsystem. In addition to some of the more common tasks like data compression and EU conversion already performed in the front end, there is the time consuming task of organizing telemetry data. Once relieved from this secondary task the host can solely attend to its primary task of application processing. This paper describes an intelligent DMA interface (CPI007) which permits the automatic building of various types of array buffers in the host computer. This flexible high-speed device uses an EPROM based, bit slice microengine utilizing parameters stored in its operational store RAM during setup to build the array buffers. The interface is implemented on a single module in the front-end preprocessing subsystem and was developed for those mainframe computers that can be configured to accept address/data inputs for DMA to system memory (e.g. Gould Sel, DEC). With this type of architecture, algorithms may easily be written to accommodate a wide variety of data organization and transfer requirements. Along with the technical description of this device, actual data array buffering problems and solutions will also be addressed in this paper.
    • A Programming Parallel Real-Time Process Data Flow Telemetry System

      Da-qing, Huang; Nanjing Aeronautical Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      In this paper, a programming parallel real-time process data flow telemetry system is presented. What we developed recently is a advanced telemetry system which can process multi-data-flow of multi-target for mulit-user at the same time. It can be used in RPV, missile and others. Its main characteristics are as follows: Input radio frequency is S wave band (multi-dot frequencies). In telemetry front-end, the chip microprocessor is used to make demodulation and decode. Telemetry preprocessor consists of parallel distributed chip microprocessor mould plates (bus link). There are menu shope man-computer dialogue, figure display, intelligence display and intelligence self-diagnosis in this system. Now, we have developed data compress mould plate, floating-point arithmetic mould plate, derive calculation mould plate and signal process mould plate etc. The main computer is VAX-II.
    • The Application of a Distributed Computing Architecture to a Large Telemetry Ground Station

      Buell, Robert K.; Fairchild Weston Systems Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      The evolution of telemetry ground station systems over the past twenty years has tracked the evolution of the mini-computer industry during that same time period. As the various mini-computer vendors introduced systems offering ever increasing compute power, and ever increasing capabilities to support multiple simultaneous users, the high end of the telemetry ground station systems offered by the industry evolved from single stream, single user, raw data systems to multi-user, multiple stream systems supporting real-time data processing and display functions from a single CPU or, in some cases, a closely coupled set of CPUs. In more recent years we have seen the maturation of networking and clustering concepts within the digital computer industry to a point where such systems coupled with current workstation technology, now permit the development of large telemetry ground station systems which accommodate large numbers of simultaneous users, each with his or her own dedicated computing resources. This paper discusses, at a hardware block diagram and software functional level, the architecture of such a distributed system.
    • Decommutation of Mil-Std 1553B Data from EA6B or IRIG Telemetry Formats

      Devlin, Steve; Aydin Monitor Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      With the acceptance of Mil-Std-1553B by vehicle and weapons industries a wealth of new information is available for vehicle testing. In the past, selected data was extracted and included in a standard PCM telemetry stream. But only the selected data was made available. In EA6B and in the proposed IRIG Standard, multiple Mil-Std-1553B data busses are combined with identifying control bits in a single PCM telemetry stream. All of the information traveling each bus is available to the ground station. These formats share a number of features. One is that for each Bus the Mil-Std-1553B word appears in the same order in the telemetry stream. Another is that individual data words do not depend on their position in the telemetry stream for identification, but they do depend on the control information associated with the current message to give meaning to the data words. An efficient approach is outlined for identifying, selecting and routing individual measurements, messages, and/or all Mil-Std-1553B bus information to processes and I/O devices in a data flow environment.
    • Digital Color TV Telemetry

      Schaphorst, Richard A.; Comeau, Charles P.; Delta Information Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      In most of the initial applications of digital TV telemetry the video source signal is monochrome (typically RS-170 standard). However color TV is now employed extensively in many of the government test ranges, and it is likely that it will be required to digitally transmit the NTSC color TV signal for security and other reasons. It is also likely that the bit rates which will be employed for this transmission will range from 1 to 20 mbps depending upon the application. This paper presents the general issues involved in digitizing color TV signals, describes alternative color coding techniques, compares these alternatives, and describes one particularly promising approach in detail. Alternative coding techniques that will be discussed and analyzed include direct coding of the composite NTSC signal as well as several component coding concepts - Y, I, Q; Y, R-Y, B-Y; and the transmission of chroma lines on an alternating basis. Specific techniques for multiplexing the digitized color component signals will be presented. It is desirable that the color coding technique be an incremental expansion relative to existing monochrome coding concepts. One particular technique which shows promise of meeting this objective is presented and discussed.
    • Auto Ranging Optical Sensor Suitable for High-Energy Laser Measurements

      Kozlosky, E. S.; Desrosiers, D. H.; Glendening, M.; Morelli, L.; Fairchild Space Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      This paper presents the design and performance of an auto ranging optical sensor (AROS) built for space applications and capable of measuring pulsed optical energy over a wide range of pulse widths, energy levels and wavelengths. The AROS measures energy densities over seven orders of magnitude to a maximum of 0.2 J/cm² and can withstand 1 J/cm² without damage. In addition to its intended use as a laser sensor in multi-sensor arrays on target satellites, the AROS is well suited for laboratory use in the measurement and profiling of high-power laser beams.
    • A New Microcomputer-Based Reel Servo System in the Instrumentation Magnetic Recorder

      Rui, Xiong; Yunxiang, Shao; Beijing Research Institute of Telemetry (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1988-10)
      This paper describes the design of a adaptive microcomputer-based reel servo system in the instrumentation magnetic recorder. When the reel parameters and load characteristics might vary during recording, the newly designed adaptive reel servo system is capable of compensating for these variations. The new reel servo system consists of a single-board microcomputer (QJ-80) and two D.C. motor actuators. A model reference adaptive control was chosen as the basis for adaptive reel controller design. The experiment results show that the new microcomputer-based reel servo system effectively eliminates the affect of the parameter variations. The performance of the whole transport system is improved therely.