• AIR FORCE SATELLITE CONTROL FACILITY ARCHITECTURE

      Konopasek, L. K.; The Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      This paper presents an architectural overview of the Air Force Satellite Control Facility (AFSCF) with emphasis on the network’s Remote Tracking Stations (RTSs). The AFSCF originated twenty-five years ago, and has evolved into a global satellite service network. This worldwide network is composed of twelve RTSs, located at seven geographically dispersed locations, and a Satellite Test Center (STC) at Sunnyvale, California. The AFSCF provides real-time telemetry, tracking, and commanding (TT&C) service to Department of Defense (DoD) spacecraft and launch vehicles. In response to changing DoD space support requirements, the AFSCF and its RTSs have grown through expansion and modernization of their tracking, data processing, and communication capabilities. What follows is, then, a review of this network evolution; a description of today’s, stations, their capabilities and limitations; an introduction of planned improvements; and a view of what will be required for satellite service in the future.
    • REMOTE TRACKING STATION (RTS) MODERNIZATION PROGRAM

      STUART, FLOYD R.; Sunnyvale Air Force Station (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      This paper presents the need for the modernization of the AFSCF RTSs. The system design concept set forth features an automated RTS under remote control by an external control center. The automated RTS objective is to achieve a common ground station configuration for the AFSCF which facilitates interoperability, internetting, and future growth; and to reduce ground station operations and support costs.
    • BALLISTIC RAIL GUN – SOFT RECOVERY TECHNIQUE

      Paduano, Michael J.; Zimmerman, John R.; HQ US Army Armament Research and Development Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      The ARDC 155mm Ballistic Rail Gun Test Facility permits the soft recovery of a test projectile and its payload after subjection to an actual gun launch environment. High G hardening and testing of various electronic and mechanical components can be conducted by use of this system. This paper will discuss the conception, operation and reliability of the Ballistic Rail Gun, and the advantages and limitations of its use in qualification of components. Also discussed will be the development of a novel radar technique to determine muzzle velocity for Rail Gun tests, and a separate telemetry system for characterizing in-bore (acceleration) and in-rail (deceleration) environments.
    • SOFT RECOVERY SYSTEMS FOR GUN-FIRED PROJECTILE COMPONENTS

      Fritch, Paul L.; Spinelli, Carmine J.; Armaments Research and Development Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      Artillery projectile designers have found an ever increasing need to soft recover prototype hardware and componentry in actual gun firings. Further, as projectile fuzes and guidance systems become more sophisticated, and with the increased use of telemetry and on-board memory systems, the soft recovery technique has become a necessity for the projectile development community. Described herein are parachute soft recovery techniques currently being used by the U.S. Army Armament Research and Development Center (ARDC), Large Caliber Weapon Systems Laboratory, Dover, NJ. In one parachute recovery system, the complete projectile body section is recovered. In another system, the nose-fuze/TM section is recovered. And in a third system, a jettisoned canister, housing electro-mechanical components, is recovered.
    • A UNIQUE 155 MM BALLISTIC SHOCK AIR GUN

      Stewart, E. Kenneth; US Army Armament Research and Development Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      A rifled soft recovery air gun used as a ballistic simulator is described and compared to conventional smooth bore air guns. These gun systems provide shock tests for qualification, quality control, and research and development of many items, including telemetry systems and components. The laboratory environment in which they operate is responsible for lower test costs than field tests, and for a higher average number of retests of expensive telemetry units.
    • ARTS OVERVIEW

      Skinner, Patrick J.; Ford Aerospace & Communications Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      Modernizing labor intensive Remote Tracking Station (RTS), increasing individual station capacity, and providing interoperable links between three separate Air Force satellite networks are the objectives of the Automated RTS (ARTS) program. (Viewgraph #1, Title/Logo)
    • OPTIMUM PRESENTATION OF SATELLITE TELEMETRY DURING SATELLITE ACCEPTANCE TESTING

      Thompson, J. T.; The Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      Telemetry data collected during the several months of satellite acceptance testing are voluminous. These test data should be presented in an optimum fashion to facilitate thorough review, leading to high confidence in the quality of the satellite prior to launch. This paper defines various telemetry data types, discusses an optimum method for presentation of each, and summarizes an actual application of these principles. Comparison with earlier methods is included.
    • The Role of Telemetry In Navstar Checkout

      Radak, J. Jr.; Mercadante, D. S. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      Numerous checkout systems are being conceived for factory test, launch readiness assessment, and on-orbit performance evaluation for spacecraft designs of ever-increasing complexity. These systems must in addition be extremely flexible in design to maintain supportive capability at reasonable cost during transition from development through operational program phases. This paper describes a telemetry dependent checkout system for the Navstar Global Positioning Satellite. The Space-Ground Link System (SGLS) compatible telemetry based checkout features elemental units that simulate the Satellite Test Center (STC) and the Remote Tracking Stations (RTS). This approach minimizes the duplication of hardware and software design and documentation for the overall spacecraft assembly-to-orbit checkout process. The telemetry-checkout design is shown to be versatile enough to support growth in both numbers and types of payloads; to reduce the operator training demands; to provide test results, equipment status, and other data to remote evaluation personnel; and to improve delivery through computer-assisted performance assessments.
    • TRACKING STATION INTEROPERABILITY

      Krenek, D. A.; The Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      The DoD is focusing considerable attention on interoperability and internetting as effective means of increasing the survivability of space systems. The tracking stations of the various DoD space systems are prime candidates for interoperability and internetting enhancements for two reasons: (1) a belief that the “front ends” of the various ground command and control segments is where the greatest commonality of functions should already exist; and (2) the knowledge of the large existing DoD capital investment in tracking station assets. This paper provides a method for examining the similarities and commonalities among tracking stations and for identifying incompatibilities and differences which, if eliminated, would facilitate interoperability and internetting and, hence, improve the survivability of DoD space systems.
    • A LOCALLY PROGRAMMABLE/NONVOLATILE WORD SELECTOR FOR DISPLAY OF TAGGED TELEMETRY DATA

      Duffy, Harold A.; Naval Weapons Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      The introduction of Data Compressors into the NWC Telemetry Ground Station has created the opportunity to circumvent usage of data distribution patch panels. An array of Word Selectors can be used to capture telemetry data parameters by tag identification for display on chart recorders. Design goals in the development include: independent operation, resident program storage, variable word length handling, and accommodation of nonstandard data formats. A prototype has been constructed and tested.
    • A MODULAR, LARGE SCALE, INTERACTIVE TELEMETRY DATA ANALYSIS SYSTEM

      Luten, Robert H.; Computer Technology Associates, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      The Test and Evaluation Data Center (TEDC) was originally developed at Lockheed Missiles and Space Company with the objective of providing a data processing facility to support major systems test evaluation. This data center was responsible for the acquisition, reduction (to engineering units), analysis, protection, and management of all (telemetered) test data produced during system integration and test activities. The TEDC was developed as a local area network, consisting of several VAX-11 computers and other commercial off-the-shelf hardware, which could acquire telemetry data at rates greater than 1 Mbps (potentially 4-5 Mbps) and, with rapid turnaround, make it available to a large number of engineering analysts via interactive graphics terminals. This paper discusses the engineering, design, and development of the TEDC, including descriptions of the major algorithms, data structures, and techniques used to optimize its overall performance. Discussion of plans for the evolutionary growth of the system are also included.
    • ANALYTICAL STUDY ON BIT-SYNCHRONIZATION PROBLEMS IN A CODED COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

      Ng, Wai-Hung; The Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      Many bit-synchronization techniques in digital communications depend on bit transitions for successful operation. In this paper, we first categorize the four main sources of generating transitionless signals. Then we describe general properties of channel coding and explain that, by injecting a well-selected detectable error pattern into the transmitted and coded signal, this bit transitionless problem can be eliminated without any additional bandwidth penalty. Finally, examples in both block code and convolutional code are selected for illustrating this simple but useful application.
    • PREDETECTION RECORDING OF PCM TELEMETRY SIGNALS

      Law, Eugene L.; Pacific Missile Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      This paper discusses the performance of predetection recording of pulse code modulation (PCM) telemetry signals. The topics discussed include bit rate versus predetection carrier frequency, effects of receiver and demodulator bandwidths on data quality, and demodulation at tape carrier frequencies versus upconversion and demodulation.
    • THE WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE TELEMETRY VALIDATION SYSTEM (TVS)

      Avila, G. Edwardo; Rice, William A.; White Sands Missile Range, NM (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      The purpose of this paper is to briefly discuss the evolution and history of the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) Telemetry Validation System (TVS). Ongoing development of an automated TVS is discussed in terms of system philosphy, configuration, and operation.
    • FIBER OPTIC DIGITAL WIDEBAND COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

      Anderson, Robert B.; Industrial Data Link (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      Industrial Data Link Corporation is presently installing a 3 phase, 30 Km fiber optic voice/data communication system for the Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) in Arizona. This system will provide a backbone communication system for YPG to transmit digital telemetry data and voice circuits between 3 test centers and the Base Dial Central Office. The fiber optic cable is being installed in three different modes; underground (direct burial), duct and aerial. Our proposed paper would cover the following areas: a.) System requirements --data channels (up to 56 Kb/s) --voice channels --future growth (video) b.) System design - component description c.) Installation d.) Test and initial system operation e.) Pictures (slides) and video coverage of system installation to augment the presentation f.) Cost and technical trade-off studies between fiber optic cable and microwave link as the communication medium g.) Cost analysis (ratios) for laying of fiber optic cable, dollars per meter for burial, duct and aerial h.) Summary of state-of-the-art of fiber optic component and predictions of future component/system capabilities for range telemetry applications. i.) The special characteristics of fiber optic cable links as applied to secure telemetry requirements on Government Test Ranges.
    • Distributed Instrumentation A ‘Mini-’ Range Instrumentation System

      Heyser, Bob; Army Materiel Test and Evaluation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      In a test environment where several projects are vying for time for their test program, how do you support the programs who are waiting their turn in line? Or the program which only wants telemetry support in his assembly area, and doesn’t want to pay for the entire range? The answer is a ‘mini-’ range instrumentation facility without the expensive tracking and relay systems. Distributed Instrumentation allows for 1) Project dedicated support; 2) Project unique support; and 3) Project favorable costs. Distributed Instrumentation is a network of instrumentation capabilities which can be catalog selected and integrated into a project friendly system, and can support the project’s particular requirements and time schedule.
    • HIGH DENSITY DIGITAL RADAR RECORDING SYSTEM

      LEUNG, VICTOR; DATATAPE INCORPORATED (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      EGLIN AFB, Armament Division, had initiated an ongoing update efforts to replace the obsolete video recorders and associated digitizing capability used to record radar signature data. The prime objective of this program was realized and has demostrated the feasibility of HIGH DENSITY DIGITAL RECORDING, as a means of radar video recording and has developed the interface design criteria for all radar sites at EGLIN AFB. The HIGH DENSITY DIGITAL RECORDER/REPRODUCER system had been adapted for radar use with a micro-processor driven radar interface unit that includes the following: A/D and D/A Converters, Input and Output formatter, Memories, Filtering Networks and Error Detection and Correction (EDAC), Auxiliary data mux and demux. The System has four modes of operation with a digitizing rate of 30 Mega-samples and a selectable 6, 7 or 8 bit resolution. The four modes are: Single radar channel, Dual radar channel, PRI sequence and Snapshot memory.
    • COMPANDER CIRCUITS IMPROVE TRANSDUCER DATA QUALITY

      Rieger, James L.; Naval Weapons Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      AC-coupled transducers such as crystal accelerometers and microphones can produce a large dynamic range of signals, but the expected level from such devices in an actual test situation may be difficult to predict. Use of compander circuits intended for telephone and “hi-fi” systems can increase dynamic range and accuracy of the signals from such devices and reduce noise at low levels and clipping at the top of the range. Companders (COMPressor plus expANDER) can be used in single- or double-ended modes depending on the data requirements. They do introduce predictable artifacts of their own, but many of these can be removed.
    • THE STEERABLE LUNEBURG LENS AS A COMMUNICATION LINK ANTENNA

      Higgs, James A.; Worth, Richard A.; Teledyne Micronetics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      A review of the Luneburg Lens and its use as an antenna aperture is presented. Also discussed are methods of electromechanical and electronically switchable operation along with design criteria. Applications in the field of data link communications and telemetry are suggested and the performance of several operational systems are outlined.
    • S-BAND CIRCULARLY POLARIZED MICROSTRIP PHASED ARRAY

      Coombs, Dennis L.; Ball Aerospace Systems Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      A highly efficient circulary polarized S-band microstrip planar phased array is described. The array is: • Electronically steerable in elevation and azimuth • Highly efficient at the subarray level (greater than 60 percent) • Well matched for active impedance with a near cos a scan performance • Designed for optimum G/T performance • Designed to have a thin profile but be extremely strong The microstrip elements, phase shifters and combiner network are described in detail and their operation is explained.