• A LOCALLY PROGRAMMABLE/NONVOLATILE WORD SELECTOR FOR DISPLAY OF TAGGED TELEMETRY DATA

      Duffy, Harold A.; Naval Weapons Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      The introduction of Data Compressors into the NWC Telemetry Ground Station has created the opportunity to circumvent usage of data distribution patch panels. An array of Word Selectors can be used to capture telemetry data parameters by tag identification for display on chart recorders. Design goals in the development include: independent operation, resident program storage, variable word length handling, and accommodation of nonstandard data formats. A prototype has been constructed and tested.
    • A MISSILE INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEM DESIGN APPROACH

      Davis, Chuck; Penharlow, David; General Dynamics Convair Division; Aydin Vector Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      Requirements and design constraints of a missile instrumentation system are identified. These considerations were applied and a programmable master/slave PCM encoder with integral signal conditioning was selected for a major classified missile program. The engineering philosophy and hardware selected for this application are presented in this paper.
    • TRENDS IN GERMAN TELEMETRY SINCE THE 50’s

      Mayer, G.; DFVLR-German Aerospace Research Establishment, Applied Data Systems Div. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      The paper gives a short history of the beginnings in tele-meteorology and missile telemetry in Germany and describes the developments since the 50’s in these fields, and in remote control systems up to the present day.
    • RELIABILITY IMPROVEMENT OF COMMUNICATION NETWORKS BY TELEMETRY AND REMOTE CONTROL

      Hammel, K.; Kienzle, W.; Standard Elektrik Lorenz AG (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      Communications is one of the most important markets all over the world for investment as well as for services in this area. Round about half of all employees of modern industrial societies are engaged in transmitting or processing informations.
    • AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO DATA ACQUISITION AND DATA PROCESSING FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

      Schmalz, Axel; Kayser-Threde GmbH (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      The requirements for data acquisition systems grow rapidly with the progress of technology. Increasingly complex test instruments become available. Integration of instruments and computers into an operational measurement system, however, is more difficult and expensive as requirements increase. A family of instruments was developed which can perform complex measurement tasks without a large integration effort since it provides a large number of compatible hardware and software modules for conditioning and conversion of signals into digital form, for data storage, data transmission, and data pre-processing.
    • PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS FOR NONSYNCHRONOUS TELEMETRY AND DATA SYSTEMS

      Grant, Eugene N.; Martin Marietta Orlando Aerospace (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      The modern pulse code modulated (PCM) telemetry or data transmission system should have its input data rates synchronized by its own, or an external clock. Either arrangement allows all pulsed input data to arrive in a known clocked time sequence. Data transmission is orderly, and all input and output gating occurs at required time intervals. Events in nature do not always follow an ordered sequence, but data transmission requires the pattern and order found in a synchronous system. Today’s missiles and aircraft do not always have the nicety of synchronous systems. In many systems today, the PCM will run at one clock rate, while the navigational computer will be set to a second rate, the autopilot processor at a third and the weapons handling system at a forth. In the slower data use systems such as “1553", data can be stored, deleted, refreshed, and data buffers or memory used. Output data loss is not too important, since output data use rates are well below input data rates. However, research and development aircraft and missile test flight applications require real time or at least time-tagged data. Transient responses cannot be lost because of clock skips or phase differences between clocks. This paper will review and explain data loss through clock skips or phase differences. The paper will show causes and effects with real time flight systems that have flown recently. Solutions such as direct synchronization, phase locked loops between separate clocked systems, and sample and hold first-in, first-out buffers, will be discussed. The applications and limitations of these solutions will be described. A development nonsynchronous system for a flight missile will be reviewed, showing block diagrams, component utilization, circuit schematics, and command application interfaces and software. The intent of this paper is not to give ultimate solutions to the clock synchronization problem, but to alert the telemetry system designer to this data problem. The paper will help define his solutions before he finds his data lost, missing or scrambled on flight test records.
    • Telemetry from Experimental Rescue- and Recovery Systems

      Klewe, Hans-Joachim; Institute for Flight Mechanics Braunschweig/Germany (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      Measuring techniques in rescue and recovery systems are mainly applied to parachute and ejection seat systems. Thereby, the measurements of special interest are: forces occuring in the suspension lines of parachutes during inflation; accelerations acting on persons to be rescued or on materials to be recovered; the progress of velocities during the retarding of persons, ejection seats, test verhicles and so on; as well as measurements of the static pressure and possibly the outside temperature for the determination of altitudes. Further, the change of the projected area of a parachute during inflation will also be of interest. The data values are transformed by the transducers to analogue electric signals and telemetered to the ground station. To determine the projected area of the parachute during inflation this event is filmed by a high speed film camera which is installed in the rear of the test vehicle. Furthermore, the entire experiment is filmed from the ground by another high speed camera. On request, a cinetheodolite and a tracking radar installation is used additionally to get data concerning rate of descent and trajectory of the parachute-load system. (1,2)
    • TELEMETRY FOR EMC-TESTS ON ELECTRO-EXPLOSIVE DEVICES (EED’S) IN WEAPON SYSTEMS

      Freymann, Dieter; Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm (MBB) Dynamics Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      A data transmission system using fibre-optics data links has been developed to determine the compatibility of weapon systems electro-explosive devices to radiated electromagnetic environments. The EED’s are instrumented with temperature sensors which are as sensitive to pulsed RF as to continuous wave RF. Significant progress has been made in reducing the RF coupling of the sensors and in decreasing size, weight and power consumption of the decentralized telemetry system. After the description of the system some examples of measurements are reported. In coordination with the Military Departments this specific data transmission system will become a Military Standard in the near future.
    • SOFTWARE FOR THE FLIGHT DATA ACQUISITION AND PROCESSING SYSTEM (FDAPS)

      Hutchinson, Michael P.; Fairchild Weston (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      Since the advent of the DEC VAX 11/780 in the late 1970’s, the trend in telemetry computer systems is to do more processing of data on the data acquisition system. This trend has led to more and more functions being performed on these systems. In addition, multi-user features of VAX/VMS are being used in these newer systems to enhance review and processing of the data. Lastly, a trend to systems that can be operated by users less familiar with the computer has led to changes in the interaction of software and user (for example, menu driven systems). The FDAPS system was designed as a total system with hardware and software tradeoffs made to provide a high speed, “user friendly”, multi-user system.
    • AN OVER THE HORIZON COMMAND/DATA LINK SYSTEM

      Turner, William C.; Electro Magnetic Processes, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      An Over the Horizon Command/Data Link is fraught with unforeseen design problems. Multipath, ducting, holding aircraft position and altitude, as well as base-band signal processing equipment interface anomalies contribute to link degradation beyond predicted quality. This paper describes a three channel link, L-band, MDI-band, and S-band, over which command, video, and telemetry respectively are transmitted. Successful operation is currently achieved over a 100 mile range.
    • IN-BORE TORSIONAL IMPULSE MEASUREMENT IN AN ARTILLERY PROJECTILE

      McGOWAN, JOSEPH T.; SMITH, HARRY G.; CHUNG, KOK Y.; ARMAMENT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      Torsional impulse is a phenomenon recently recognized by the artillery projectile community as an important design criteria for large caliber weapon systems. In 1976, an investigation on the in-bore motion of gun launched projectiles was initiated after the failure of a threaded joint in an 8 in. rocket assisted projectile. The failure prompted various attempts by projectile designers to characterize the torsional environment that caused the mechanical failure of the joint. Experiments were conducted using the wire-in-bore technique to provide transmission between the instruments on board the projectile and data acquisition ground station. Due to the high set-back and lateral forces, extraneous responses contained in the recorded signals made analysis of the data extremely difficult. Subsequently, the Technical Support Directorate and Large Caliber Weapons Systems Laboratory of the Armament Research and Development Center developed a telemetry projectile system (presented at the 1983 ITC Conference) capable of measuring torsional impulse phenomenon in a gun launch environment. This paper will correlate test data obtained from the first firing with the TM projectile to the response of the projectile in the tube. The accuracy of the data will be independently verified by external measurements and compared with experiments performed by Sandia Laboratories (Fig. 1). Finally, weapon design parameters that could affect the magnitude of torsional impulse and recommendations on how to minimize the potential hazard of this environment will be discussed.
    • A ONE-WAY DATA LINK OPERATING WITH EXTREME WEAK SIGNALS

      Goebel, Walter; DFVLR - German Aerospace Research Establishment (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      For maritime applications of distress communications via geostationary satellites a special method of signal processing was developed, called superposition technique. The data frame containing the alert message is transmitted from a distress equipment repeatedly. After being relayed by the satellite the signal is detected and improved by superimposing the frames. Around 14 dB is the actual processing gain. Thus a distress buoy is able to transfer a message from all over the world with high reliability by only transmitting a power of 50 mW omnidirectionally over a slant range of about 40 000 km. The described system, called the Distress Radio Call System (DRCS) was tested in a Coordinated Trials Program (CTP) of 6 nations. Both in a simulation phase and in a field test under exactly the same environmental conditions the DRCS with its superposition technique was able to detect signals with lowest signal-to-noise-density ratio without error. In laboratory tests using GAUSS channel conditions, a system threshold of 13 dB-Hz could be demonstrated. In a real environment (North Cape) 15 dB-Hz was the lower limit for error-free reception. CCIR approved a recommendation in June, 1984 for a system operating through geostationary satellites at 1.6 GHz being a DRCS-type with very little modifications.
    • DEVELOPING AN ALL-IN-ONE, HIGH-SPEED, ANALOG DIGITIZATION PACKAGE FOR THE VAX COMPUTER

      Saulsberry, Garen J.; Reber, Tilo; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      The Physical Science Laboratory has developed a process for digitizing analog data using state-of-the-art equipment and software techniques. The problems encountered have been resolved using off-the-shelf computer equipment, a PSL interface unit, and systems application software to meet the specific needs of high-speed, analog data collection through digitization. The authors relate the problems encountered in collecting the raw data, processing it through the analog-to-digital converter and host computer, and recording the data on digital medium. The reader is taken through the design of a system to digitize analog data and log it on a high-speed computer disk system. The design is backed by actual test results showing the capabilities and limitations of the system. The paper illustrates the techniques used to collect the analog data through the system and the means used in the recovery process of the data in the post-collection period.
    • DEVELOPMENT OF A WIDEBAM HIGH "C’ TELEMETRY SYSTEM FOR THE SADARM 8" PROJECTILE

      Longo, Salvatore; Anderson, David E.; Naber, Hildi S.; HQ US Army Armmnent Research And Development Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      A definite need existed for a high frequency, wideband, modular telemeter. This challenge was met with the development of two state-of-the-art projectile telemeters proven in support of the SADARM program. With the employment of existing gun proven designs, components, and software, two unique modular telemeters were designed. The modular design greatly facilitated testing and repair of these telemeters. Rail gun qualifying tests prepared these telemeters for use in high G environments. These gun rugged telemeters can withstand setback accelerations in excess of 12K G’s. Salient features of these telemeters include the use of numerous non-standard high frequency VCO’s, and a state-of-the-art transmitter with large deviation and data transmission capabilities. Emphasis is also given to design and application of a dual-van signal acquisition scheme. Deep nulls in the transmission antenna pattern were minimized with the employment of two receiving vans and an RF RERAD link between the vans which thereby enhanced transmission reliability. The scope of this paper includes an RF link analysis of the telemetry field test configuration. The facets elaborated upon include modular design, support software, and an in-depth electrical subsystem analysis. The major advantages of these telemeters is the employment of high frequency VCO’s with multi-channel capability for numerous simultaneous high frequency measurements.
    • EFFECT OF PCM ENCODING ON WIDE BAND TELEMETRY DATA

      Cox, T. F.; Nichols, M. H.; Naval Weapons Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      In order to comply with certain mission requirements, it is necessary to encode telemetry data into pulse code modulation (PCM). For this reason, test data have been obtained in order to determine the effects of quantization errors and bit errors with special reference to wide band noise-like data signals involving data reduction by spectral analysis. The use of notch noises tests for determining coder/decoder (CODEC) performance has been evaluated. Test procedures and test results are given using CODEC configurations of 4 to 12 bits per word. Parameters for encoding constant bandwidth (CBW) and proportional bandwidth (PBW) subcarrier multiplexes for PCM transmission are included.
    • AIRBORNE TELEMETRY: THE ADVANCED RANGE INSTRUMENTATION AIRCRAFT

      Avery, Lawrence G., Jr.; ARIA Programs Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      The topic of this paper is the history of ARIA from its beginning during the Apollo program to its current use as an airborne telemetry platform for orbital, ballistic, and cruise missile testing. The evolution of ARIA telemetry equipment from 1968 to the present will be discussed, as well as plans for future modernization and improved capability. Specific areas to he covered include: real-time data relay, pseudomonopulse tracking, onboard data processing, computer controlled tracking, new receivers, new recorders, and planned modifications to meet future requirements.
    • EHF SOLID STATE POWER AMPLIFIER DESIGN FOR EXTENDED MISSION LIFE

      Edwards, John; deGruyl, J.A.; Asmus, Julius R.; LNR Communications, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      Recent developments at LNR have demonstrated practical solid state power amplifier (SSPA) configurations capable of generating 20 watts pf CW RF power with a 5% bandwidth at 20 GHz. The driving force behind these developments is the need for a reliable, cost effective SSPA deployment on spacecraft, consistent with a ten year and greater mission life. The operational life of the SSPA will be described in terms of (1) minimum acceptable output power, (2) system redundancy and (3) SSPA active device lifetime. The singular and combined effects of the defined categories on the SSPA operational life are examined. More specifically, the various aspects of a power backoff capability of the modular power amplifier design as they relate to system reliability are discussed and graphically demonstrated. The availability of gallium arsenide impact ionization avalanche transit time (IMPATT) diodes with proven performance and reliability has been responsible for the development and manufacture of high power, reliable solid state amplifiers from X-band to Q-band. Based on preliminary accelerated life test data of unscreened devices and a 1dB power reduction, an IMPATT diode reliability of < 50 FITs is projected, substantially exceeding a ten year mission life. IMPATT diode characteristics, and reliability design considerations and performance of power amplifiers at 20 GHz will be described.
    • CALCULATING RMS VALUES FROM DIGITAL AND SAMPLED DATA

      Rieger, James L.; Birch, Kent N.; PE/PTBW; Naval Weapons Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      The root-mean-square (RMS) of the amplitude of a waveform is defined for continuous data. When sampled data is used, the signal may be converted to a continuous analog signal, filtered, and the RMS value measured by traditional means; if, however, the data exists already in sampled digital form, the RMS value can be calculated on the sampled data itself. By so doing, moreover, the lower integration limit and the integration interval can be varied to provide better frequency response and/or accuracy. A computer program in BASIC is shown for demonstration purposes which may be spliced into a larger data analysis program.
    • A LEAK GUARD SYSTEM FOR FLEXIBLE SUBMARINE OIL PIPELINES

      Möller, Erhard; Bernstein, Lutz; Labor für Nachrichtentechnik (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      Using the actual Off-Shore-Technique large oil tankers do not call at ports but charge and discharge their oil at terminals anchored as far as 30 km off the shore. Figure 1 shows such a terminal as a floating buoy anchored to the seabed with a mooring tanker. Tanker and buoy are connected by flexible floating hoses, buoy and seabed terminal by flexible submarine hoses and seabed terminal with the shore station by steel pipelines. A control system had to be developed that would give an early warning before leakage. No details were given by the manufacturer or the users of the pipelines. Therefore a solution of the telemetring problems had to be derived from an analysis of the growing leak and the Off- Shore-System.
    • THE WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE TELEMETRY VALIDATION SYSTEM (TVS)

      Avila, G. Edwardo; Rice, William A.; White Sands Missile Range, NM (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1984-10)
      The purpose of this paper is to briefly discuss the evolution and history of the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) Telemetry Validation System (TVS). Ongoing development of an automated TVS is discussed in terms of system philosphy, configuration, and operation.