• International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 29 (1993)

      International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10

      Lloyd, Joseph W. Jr (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      Desktop Processors (IBM PC, PC-compatible, and Macintosh) have made a major impact on how the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division (NAWCAD}, Patuxent River engineering community performs their work in aircraft weapons tests. The personal processors are utilized by the flight-test engineers not only for report preparation, but also for post-flight Engineering Unit (EU) data reduction and analysis. Present day requirements direct a need for improved post-flight data handling than those of the past. These requirements are driven by the need to analyze all the vehicle's parameters prior to the succeeding test flight, and to generate test reports in a more cost effective and timely manner. This paper defines the post-flight data distribution system at NAWCAD, Patuxent River, explains how these tasks were handled in the past, and the development of a real-time data storage designed approach for post-flight data handling. This engineering design is then described explaining how it sets the precedence for NAWCAD, Patuxent River's future plans; and how it provides the flight-test engineer with the test vehicle's EU data immediately available post-flight at his desktop processor.
    • The Common Airborne Instrumentation System Program Overview

      Jones, Sidney R. Jr; Naval Air Warfare Center, Aircraft Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      The Common Airborne Instrumentation System (CAIS) is being developed by the Department of Defense through a Tri-service Program Office. The goals of the program are two fold. The first is to develop an instrumentation system that will meet the needs of the Air Force, Army, and Navy into the next century. The system is designed to support a full breadth of applications from a few parameters to engineering and management and development programs. The second is to provide a system that is airframe as well as activity independent. To accomplish these goals, the CAIS consists of two segments. The airborne segment consists of a system controller with a suite of data acquisition units. The system is configured with only the units that are required. The ground segment consists of a variety of support equipment. The support equipment enables the user to generate formats, load/verify airborne units, perform system level diagnostics and more.
    • Strategic Ballistic Missile Telemetry and START

      Havrilak, George T.; HQ USAF/XOXI (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      This paper provides a brief history of the role strategic ballistic missile telemetry has played in U.S.-Soviet and Russian arms control relations from the first Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) through the second Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START II).

      Forman, Michael L.; Hazra, Tushar K.; Troendly, Gregory M.; Nickum, William G. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      The performance and cost effectiveness of em bedded processing has greatly enhanced the personal computer's (PC) capability, particularly when used for real-time satellite data acquisition, telemetry processing, command and control operations. Utilizing a transputer based parallel architecture, a modular, reusable, and scalable control system is attainable. The synergism between the personal computer and embedded processing results in efficient, low cost desktop workstations up to 1000 MIPS of performance.

      Josie, Michael W.; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      This paper describes an alterative soft-decision decoding algorithm to be used in hybrid-ARQ error control communication systems. This new scheme promises significant reductions in decoder complexity while exhibiting performance levels comparable to contemporary soft-decision decoders. The development of this algorithm is discussed briefly, its implementation is explained, and the results of computer analysis already performed are considered. It will be shown that the method presented is conducive to the use of a significantly reduced codeword searching algorithm, yielding the advantages of correlation decoding without the corresponding complexity. Keywords: soft-decision block decoding, hybrid- ARQ (Automatic-Repeat-Request) error control, correlation decoding, additive white Gaussian noise channel.

      Osborne, William P.; Whiteman, Don; Ara, Sharmin; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      Much modem telemetry is transmitted in a digital format and to be compatible with existing range equipment the digital data is impressed on the carrier using FM modulation. The receiving system in common use employs an FM limiter/discriminator as a detector followed by an integrate and dump matched filter for bit detection. This system has been studied by previous authors [1] and it is well known that in the absence of frequency uncertainty the optimum transmission parameters consist of a modulation index of .7 (peak-to-peak deviation divided by the bit rate) and an IF filter bandwidth equal to the bit rate followed by a limiter discriminator. In many cases, there is a need for some small amount of analog telemetry transmission in addition to the digital data discussed above. In these cases it is common practice to include analog subcarriers on the main carrier with the digital data modulating the carrier at baseband, the resulting system is called PCM/FM + FM/FM. These hybrid analog/digital systems are the subject of this paper. In particular this paper addresses the performance of these systems through simulation using the Block Oriented System Simulator (BOSS) from Comdisco and with analytical techniques to obtain the BER versus SNR curves for these systems. The simulation is used over a wide range of parameters to find the optimum values of modulation index and IF bandwidth for these systems.
    • Automated Application of Calibration Factors on Telemetered Data

      Kalibjian, J. R.; Voss, T. J.; Yio, J. J.; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      A long standing problem in telemetry post processing is the application of correct calibration factors to telemetered data generated on a system which has had a history of hardware changes. These calibration problems become most exacerbated when old test data is being examined and there is uncertainty as to hardware configuration at the time of the test. In this paper a mechanism for introducing a high degree of reliability in the application of calibration factors is described in an implementation done for Brilliant Pebbles Flight Experiment Three (FE-3).

      Gaddis, William R. Jr; Sandland, Sawn; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      DOD flight test centers need affordable, small-format, flight-qualified digital instrumentation recording solutions to support existing and future flight testing. The Advanced Airborne Test Instrumentation System (AATIS) is today's primary data acquisition system at the Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC). Digital Recorder (DR) 1995 is planned to provide full support for AATIS output capabilities and satisfy initial recording requirements for the Common Airborne Instrumentation System (CAIS). The follow-on to the AATIS, the CAIS is a tri-service development to satisfy future DOD flight test data acquisition requirements. DR 2000 is planned as the future recording solution for CAIS and will be able to fully satisfy the 50 Mbps recording requirement. In the developments of DR 1995 and DR 2000, commonality and interoperability have emerged as significant issues. This paper presents an overview of these recording solutions and examines commonality and interoperability issues.
    • A Packet Based, Data Driven Telemetry System for Autonomous Experimental Sub-Orbital Spacecraft

      Kalibjian, J. R.; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      A data driven telemetry system is described that responds to the rapid nature in which experimental satellite telemetry content is changed during the development process. It also meets the needs of a diverse experiment in which the many phases of a mission may contain radically different types of telemetry data. The system emphasizes mechanisms for achieving high redundancy of critical data. A practical example of such an implementation, Brilliant Pebbles Flight Experiment Three (FE-3), is cited.

      Patel, Bharat; LaVallee, Dave; Loral Data Systems; Loral AeroSys (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      Schedule and budget constraints have created a need to produce satellite control centers quickly and efficiently. This need drives the development of a reconfigureable satellite control center. This paper describes such a system. The system is built on an open platform. It can be produced quickly and adapted to a specific satellite or satellites easily. It performs the core functions necessary to monitor and control satellites, and is continually adding new functionality. The system's architecture and openness allow upgrading for new requirements or improvements in technology.

      Diez, Jeffrey L.; Vandenberg Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      The Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) introduces an important new element into the Mission planning and operation processes of the Western Range and its users. In the past, safe and successful completion of a ballistic or space operation was the primary mission of the Range. Under START, the Western Range has the added responsibility of playing a major role in the verification process necessary for a safe reduction of the world's ballistic nuclear weapons. This paper describes the impact of the Treaty on both the Western Range and its users while outlining how the Range has adapted to meet the challenges introduced by the Treaty.

      Shaver, John W.; US Army Electronic Proving Ground (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      TERIS is a CTEIP (Central Test and Evaluation Investment program) project to provide wideband communications facilities between major ranges and laboratories economically and reliably. TERIS uses existing modern technology, off-the-shelf hardware and software, and leased commercial telephone facilities, Nine ranges and two laboratory facilities have been surveyed to determine costs and feasibility of connecting the TERIS. An initial three-node network is planned to be operating in early 1994.

      Richard, Gaetan C.; DECS, Inc (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      Two different types of tracking feeds are currently used in the majority of telemetry tracking antenna systems when autotrack operation is required. They are of the conical scanner or of the single channel monopulse family and they employ well known technologies. In broadband applications, these feeds all suffer from the same inherent degradation in efficiency caused by their inability to maintain a constant crossover loss value and by their failure to properly illuminate the reflector. In high dynamics situations they can also generate unwanted and sometimes detrimental modulation whenever on-axis tracking is not maintained. In addition, currently available versions of the conical scanner are not capable of high scan rates or of scan rate agility and they are ill-suited for use in tracking systems based on non-orthogonal axes positioners. This paper describes a new high efficiency tracking feed system based on proven conical scanner technology. Its design incorporates features such as variable crossover, steerable beam, high scan rates, scan rate agility as well as stable reference coordinate system. In addition to these features, this new feed is also capable of delivering, in all but one operational category, levels of performance superior to that achievable to date by any other implementation of the conical scanner or of the single channel monopulse technology.

      Rasmussen, Arthur N. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      A number of efforts at NASA's Johnson Space Center are exploring ways of improving operational efficiency and effectiveness of telemetry data distribution. An important component of this is the Real-Time Data System project in the Shuttle Mission Control Center. This project's telemetry system is based on a network of engineering workstations that acquire, distribute, analyze, and display the data. Telemetry data is acquired and partially processed through a commercial programmable telemetry processor. The data is then transferred into workstations where the remaining decommutation, conversion and calibration steps are performed. The results are sent over the network to applications operating within end user workstations. This complex distributed environment is managed by PILOT, an intelligent system that monitors data flow and process integrity with the goal of providing a very high level of availability requiring minimal human involvement. PILOT is a rule-based expert system that oversees the operation of the system. It interacts with agents that operate in the local environment of each workstation and advises the local agents of system status and configuration. This enables each local agent to manage its local environment and provides a resource to which it can come with issues that need a global view for resolution. PILOT is implemented using a commercially available real-time expert system shell and operates in a heterogeneous set of hardware platforms.

      Waggener, W. N.; Kelley, J.; Loral Data Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      The 1990's has been an era of integrating telemetry systems into networks. With the networking of telemetry systems, communications between systems is increasingly important. The telemetry system is no longer an isolated subsystem and the requirement for ubiquitous, distribution of telemetry data is also increasing. With declining DoD budgets, the cost of providing, not only, range-wide data distribution, but also, inter-range distribution is a major issue. Recent developments in commercial telecommunication data services may provide an answer to the range communications problems. In this paper, the use of Asynchronous transfer Mode (ATM) technology is examined as a means for transporting telemetry and other range data.

      Hoaglund, Catharine M.; Gardner, Lee S.; Bender, Victor W.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      The increasing complexity and volume of the information needed to support flight test missions has led to a need to expand the capability of current test data management systems. While the abilities currently exist to collect and manage calibration and telemetry information in an automated fashion, new requirements have emerged to link this data with other systems and to expand the functions and devices supported. Coordinating and directing the overall flow of information required for a successful flight test is a very big task. It calls for a view into flight test planning and scheduling activities, test objectives and methods, and the requirements for viewing and processing the test data in real-time and postflight. To meet this challenge, the Automated Test Data Management System (ATDMS) is being developed at the Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards AFB, California. This paper describes the critical information and interfaces that the ATDMS will manage to bring cohesion to the management of flight test support data.

      Wanfang, Zhang; Beijing Crown Cable TV Technical Corp. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      In order to reduce the measuring channels for the single-transient signals, the author propose the time division multiplex technique and introduce the method of SAW delay line in this paper. That used method of SAW tap-delay line in this system is different from previous methods consists in making traditional method, which is one-path signal input different delayed multi- path signals output, alter new method, which is simultaneous multi-path signal inputs that are respectively delayed and one-path signal serial output.
    • Optimum Subcarrier Deviation for PCM/FM+FM/FM Systems using IRIG Constant Bandwidth Channels

      Osborne, William P.; Whiteman, Donald E.; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      A typical PCM/FM system is designed for a peak to peak carrier deviation of 0.7 times the bit rate of the PCM data. This value of PCM data deviation has been shown to be optimum for both PCM/FM [1] and PCM/FM+FM/FM [2] systems. However, the optimum deviation of the carrier by the FM subcarrier for a PCM/FM+FM/FM system is dependent upon the specific subcarrier type and required subcarrier signal to noise ratio at the receiver output. This paper introduces a simple method to calculate the optimum deviation of the carrier by FM subcarriers for a PCM/FM+FM/FM system. The method developed is used to calculate the optimum value of subcarrier deviation for two sample PCM/FM+FM/FM systems when IRIG constant bandwidth channels are used as FM subcarriers. The calculated optimum values of FM subcarrier deviation of the carrier, subcarrier mod index, are utilized in a companion paper to study the performance of PCM/FM+FM/FM systems [3]. The work presented herein can be extended to calculate the optimum deviation of the carrier by FM subcarriers for any PCM/FM+FM/FM system.

      Yang, Kent; Wong, Cecelia; Loral Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      With the ever increasing need for faster data rates and the emergence of faster network interfaces such as Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI), the task of adding new network interfaces to a telemetry system and supporting existing ones is becoming increasingly more complex. This complexity can be eliminated if the data acquisition hardware and software allows new network interfaces to be easily integrated into a telemetry system. It is the purpose of this paper to address the issues involved when dealing with multiple, heterogeneous, networking environments in telemetry systems. The paper will show how the use of flexible telemetry hardware and software will simplify the integration of new networks into an existing system, and how this flexibility can allow data acquisition applications to take advantage of a heterogeneous network.