• Spaceborne Video Interface Module (VIM)

      Eason, Mark; Wyle Laboratories (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      The use of video imaging in VME based data acquisitions systems is increasing. Some systems require the video data to be telemetered. In telemetry systems that require video data to be sent, a dedicated video data channel is common. It is the purpose of this paper to present the combination of a video interface and a video PCM channel into one module. The name of this project is "Video Interface Module" (VIM).
    • Space Qualified Magnetic Disk

      Treff, Arthur J.; Forella, John F.; Raymond Engineering, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      Highly reliable data storage for satellites and spacecraft is a challenging technology. The space environment is a unique combination of many environmental factors which impact the reliability and even the very survival of electronic systems. The need for space qualified memory is becoming even more important with the advent of on-board data processing which requires rapid access to large data bases. This paper describes the unique environmental and design considerations that must be taken into account for a magnetic disk that is designed to operate for years in the space environment.
    • Ground Detection System for Re-entry Vehicle' s Telemetry

      San, Lu-Ji; Yu, Zhou-Jian (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      This paper abstractly introduces the configuration, main modules, and software of the ground detection system for re-entry vehicle' s telemetry. It focuses on introducing intelligent high bit rate CAMAC(Computer Automic Mete And Control) modules, high frequency CAMAC modules, adaption between CAMAC bus and telemetry bus, and writing high bit rate data into disk under the control of CCU (Central Control Unit), etc.
    • Real Time Data Reduction and Analysis Using Artificial Neural Networks

      Dionisi, Steven M.; AFFTC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      An artificial neural network (ANN) for use in real time data reduction and analysis will be presented. The use and advantage of hardware and software implementations of neural networks will be considered. The ability of neural networks to learn and store associations between different sets of data can be used to create custom algorithms for some of the data analysis done during missions. Once trained, the ANN can distill the signals from several sensors into a single output, such as safe/unsafe. Used on a neural chip, the trained ANN can eliminate the need for A/D conversions and multiplexing for processing of combined parameters and the massively parallel nature of the network allows the processing time to remain independent of the number of parameters. As a software routine, the advantages of using an ANN over conventional algorithms include the ease of use for engineers, and the ability to handle nonlinear, noisy and imperfect data. This paper will apply the ANN to performance data from a T-38 aircraft.
    • Real-Time Telemetry Data Archival and Distribution

      McFarr, Shawn; Friedman, Paul; Loral Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      High-performance telemetry systems traditionally store prime and processed data on disk drives attached to a host computer. Bandwidth performance of host minicomputer and disk drives limit the amount of data archived to aggregate rates of a few hundred kilobytes per second. Over the years, several approaches have been used to increase performance from pre-recorded analog tape, but real-time storage still required a large host and expensive proprietary parallel disk technology. The advent of distributed architecture system networks divorced the front-end telemetry processor from direct 'DMA' connections to the host. Today's technology moves data storage to the front end for the highest performance and outward to the network for less demanding archival rates. This paper explores several schemes and implementations for increased digital data archival performance in a distributed architecture Telemetry Ground Station. It goes on to discuss the variety of industry-standard devices and media available for storage at tens of megabytes per second on Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks (RAID) to slower but much less expensive optical and streaming tape drives on both the front end and network computing resources. But storage is half the task; networks serve many users requiring archived data access. The paper will also show how the sophistication of today's modern Graphical User Interface (GUI) eases data distribution for Telemetry Ground Station engineers and analysts.
    • EOS High Rate Telemetry Processing Components

      Bennett, Toby; Looney, Kirstin; Chesney, Jim; NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      The unprecedented volume of earth science data generated by NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) will require significant advancements in the capability and scale of ground-based data acquisition and processing systems. In order to meet this challenge, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has initiated the development of key subsystem components for CCSDS front-end processing at 150 Mbps data rates. This effort is a continuation of the Functional Components Approach (1), an approach applied over the last eight years that uses modular, VMEbus subsystems based on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) technology to create pipelined, multi-processor telemetry data systems. The result of this development effort is the creation of four new functional component subsystems incorporating four new VLSI Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) and the augmentation of two existing subsystems to include elements for frame synchronization, Reed- Solomon error correction, CCSDS Service processing, and simulation at EOS data rates. This paper describes this development effort and provides initial functional and performance expectations.
    • Replacement of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Telemetry Front-End Using Very-Large-Scale Integration (VLSI)-Based Components

      Scaffidi, Charles; Stafford, Richard; Mission Operations Division; Loral AeroSys; NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Observatory Management System (HSTOMS), located at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), provides telemetry, command, analysis and mission planning functions in support of the HST spacecraft. The Telemetry and Command System (TAC) is an aging system that performs National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Communications (Nascom) block and telemetry processing functions. Future maintainability is of concern because of the criticality of this system element. HSTOMS has embarked on replacing the TAC by using functional elements developed by the Microelectronics Systems Branch of the GSFC. This project, known as the Transportable TAC (TTAC) because of its inherent flexibility, is addressing challenges that have resulted from applying recent technological advances into an existing operational environment. Besides presenting a brief overview of the original TAC and the new TTAC, this paper also describes the challenges faced and the approach to overcoming them.
    • Space-based Concepts to Support the Tactical Weather Users

      Sheets, K. Yvonne; Bennett, Roger; SPARTA, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      Recent military theater operations such as Desert Storm have underscored the need for additional support for theater users. The needs of specific user communities are varied, and it is appropriate to examine those needs and develop system concepts which can enable the tactical community to more effectively perform their mission. This paper examines the needs and requirements of the tactical weather community and how additional space-based assets could be used to increase the tactical mission effectiveness. The approach investigated is to augment the current military meteorological satellite program, DMSP, which operates in low earth orbit with a geosynchronous platform capable of data collection and dissemination within the theater. This approach has several advantages, including the ability to provide focused, long-term coverage over the theater, with real-time downlink directly to the tactical user. One of the goals of the study was to determine what combinations of sensors and communications services might be provided from a smaller satellite on the order of 1000 lbs. This study was performed to evaluate alternatives to providing the tactical military user with space-based environmental monitoring information as an augmentation to the Defense Meteorological Satellite System (DMSS). The effort was driven by the most recent requirements, the MAC SON 211-89 Tactical Weather Observing System (TWOS) and MAC SON 216-89 Tactical Forecast System (TFS). Emphasis on the study was the focus on geosynchronous augmentations to the current set of DMSS satellites, which included climatical scenarios and requirements analysis, as well as sensor technologies assessments.
    • A New Approach to Telemetry Data Decomposition and Analysis Based on Large-Capacity Semiconductor RAM

      Jun, Zhang; Qishan, Zhang; Zhihui, Zhang; Jian, Huang; Beijing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      With the development of microelectronics and computer technology, telemetry computer systems are demanded to provide larger storage capacity and higher storage data rate than ever before. This paper fully considers various factors of a high-speed PCM fiber-optic telemetry system such as data format, data rate, data storage, the width of data storage, storage data rate. All these considerations lead to a new scheme with a semiconductor RAM and a dedicated program as its basic idea. This scheme chooses 1Mbits or 4Mbits static-RAM chips to implement the telemetry data storage device with a total capacity of 4Mbytes, 16Mbytes, or 64Mbytes. The software running on COMPAQ 386/25M or its compatibles is written in Turbo C 2. 0 to fetch, decompose, display and process data stored in the large-capacity RAM. The main task of the system processing software is to identify the flag words of frame sync-code -pattern and then demultiplex the data into separate channel data to be stored in the disk. Besides the ability to recognize specific data format, the software can also rectify data confusion to some extent. The scheme has already been proved to be efficient to receive large capacity of data with features of high data rate, high data storage in a short time.
    • Windows at a Tracking Site

      Streich, Ronald G.; Townsend, Charles R.; Computer Sciences Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      Rapid setup and verification of 4 automatic tracking antennas, 2 radio frequency switch matrixes, 32 telemetry receivers with 16 diversity combiners, an intermediate frequency switch matrix and the signal distribution equipment interface to the analog and digital fiber optic relay systems was required. This paper provides sample displays of the station status window, telemetry receiver and test parameter dialog boxes, mission event log window and test result windows for bit error rate, noise power ratio, solar calibration and antenna servo tests. Use of the software is apparent from sample displays so the text concentrates on lessons learned from site surveys, verification of configuration against mission files, accommodation of change of plug-in modules (e.g., IF filters in the telemetry receiver), tolerance of equipment removed from the system for maintenance, built-in test of serial and parallel communications and modular software design for replacement of equipment.
    • Open Architecture Telemetry Processing Systems

      McMillen, Mark D.; AP Labs (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      With the move toward design and interface standards in data acquisition and processing hardware and software, the development of open architecture telemetry processing systems has moved from a goal to a reality. The potential for a system to support hardware and software from a variety of vendors, allow inclusion of user-written software and user-provided interfaces, and provide a scalable, growth oriented processing capability can now be realized. This paper discusses the open architecture concept throughout the hardware and software components of the typical telemetry processing system. Utilizing such a system ensures flexibility to support different configurations, better and faster analysis through greater user programmability, and overall reduced costs by providing a system that can grow as future hardware and software components are brought to market.
    • On The Move, Interactive Telemetry Data Acquisition System for the Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS)

      Kirkpatrick, Charles R.; Tuncay, A. Ayban; Inter-Coastal Electronics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      This paper describes the Launcher Instrumentation and Data Acquisition System (LIDAS) that has been developed for real-time monitoring and simultaneous recording of a diverse set of data buses on a moving MLRS launcher. The launcher onboard instrumentation consists of a central Bus Data Conversion Module (BDCM) and several specialized, intelligent "break-in" boxes. The break-in boxes collect and tag the data by using the IRIG-B standard time-code, and transfer them to the BDCM using a unique asynchronous scheme. The BDCM is built around an Intel 80960CA processor board in a VME bus environment. It coordinates all the data traffic and also stores selected data to an onboard Flash ROM data storage unit. The data from different MLRS buses are combined into a 1 megabits per second RS4-22 serial stream and telemetered to a ground station, where the user interface is provided through an IBM PC/AT type computer with touch-screen controls. The developed PC software offers several data monitoring options with engineering-unit conversions and allows simultaneous recording on a hard-disk. Because of its interactive capabilities, the system is also well suited for personnel training.
    • Implementation of a Low Cost Commercial-Off-the-Shelf Commanding System

      Grich, Richard J., Jr.; Bourassa, Chris R.; Storm Integration, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      Traditional satellite and launch control systems have consisted of custom solutions requiring significant development and maintenance costs. These systems have typically been designed to support specific program requirements and are expensive to modify and augment after delivery. Over the past five years, technical advances have resulted in Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) products which greatly reduce the complete life cycle costs associated with satellite and launch control system procurements. These advances, however, have been restricted to specific functional areas of the satellite and launch control system - most notably, telemetry processing and simulation. Until recently, technological advances in the development of COTS products which support functional areas like commanding and mission planning have lagged behind. This paper describes the development and application of a COTS product which provides a highly advanced commanding capability that is tightly integrated with the processing of telemetry data. This closed loop telemetry and commanding system forms the basis of a satellite or launch control system at a fraction of the cost normally associated with systems of this kind.
    • The History of Telemetry at White Sands Missile Range, NM

      Montano, William G.; Newton, Henry L.; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      This paper presents a history of telemetry at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. White Sands Missile Range is located in the Tularosa Basin between the San Andres and the Organ Mountains on the west and the Sacramento Mountains on the east. Designation of more than one million acres of New Mexico range land as a testing areas established White Sands Proving Ground on July 9, 1945 as the Birthplace of Americas Missile and Space activity. On July 16, 1945 the first Atomic Bomb was exploded at Trinity Site. Project Hermes began in November of 1944 with a contract to General Electric by the Ordnance Department to develop a long range guided missile for the Army. Missile testing began in September of 1945 with the firing of Tiny Tim missiles. The capture of German V2 rockets led to testing and firing V2s concurrently with the Hermes. The first two-stage rocket consisted of a WAC Corporal mounted on the nose of a V2. Bumper # 5 set flight records of 5,150 miles an hour and an altitude of 244 miles on February 24, 1949. The paper includes: *Chronological highlights of telemetering events. *Discussion of telemetry systems and events that occurred at WSPG/WSMR from 1944 through 1990. *Telemetry systems and events from 1990 to the present. *Planned future telemetry systems and probable future systems.
    • Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems for Free-Flight Drop Model Testing

      Hyde, Charles R.; Massie, Jeffrey J.; NASA Langley Research Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      This paper presents instrumentation and telemetry system techniques used in free-flight research drop model testing at the NASA Langley Research Center. The free-flight drop model test technique is used to conduct flight dynamics research of high performance aircraft using dynamically scaled models. The free-flight drop model flight testing supplements research using computer analysis and wind tunnel testing. The drop models are scaled to approximately 20% of the size of the actual aircraft. This paper presents an introduction to the Free-Flight Drop Model Program which will be followed by a description of the current instrumentation and telemetry systems used at the NASA Langley Research Center, Plum Tree Test Site. The paper describes three telemetry downlinks used to acquire the data, video, and radar tracking information from the model. Also described are two telemetry uplinks, one used to fly the model employing a ground based flight control computer and a second to activate commands for visual tracking and parachute recovery of the model. The paper concludes with a discussion of free-flight drop model instrumentation and telemetry system development currently in progress for future drop model projects at the NASA Langley Research Center.
    • Batch Processing of Flight Test Data

      Turver, Kim D.; Boeing Commercial Airplane Group (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      Boeing's Test Data Retrieval System not only acts as an interface between the Airborne Data Acquisition System and a mainframe computer but also does batch mode processing of data at faster than real time. Analysis engineers request time intervals and measurements of interest. Time intervals and measurements requested are acquired from the flight tape, converted to first order engineering units, and output to 3480 data cartridge tape for post processing. This allows all test data to be stored and only the data of interest to be processed at any given time.
    • Automated Analysis Tools for Reducing Spacecraft Telemetry Data

      Voss, T. J.; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      A practical description is presented of the methods used to reduce spacecraft telemetry data using a hierarchial toolkit of software programs developed for a UNIX environment.
    • A Rugged, Low-Cost, Advanced Data-Acquisition System for Field Test Projects

      Simms, D. A.; Cousineau, K. L.; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Zond Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has teamed up with Zond Systems, Inc., to provide a rugged, low-cost, advanced data-acquisition system (ADAS) for use in field test projects. The ADAS simplifies the process of making accurate measurements on mechanical equipment exposed to harsh environments. It provides synchronized, time-series measurement data from multiple, independent sources. The ADAS is currently being used to acquire data from large wind turbines in operational wind-plant environments. ADAS modules are mounted on rotating blades, turbine towers, nacelles, control modules, meteorological towers, and electrical stations. The ADAS has the potential to meet the testing and monitoring needs of many other technologies as well, including vehicles, heavy equipment, piping and power transmission networks, and building energy systems.
    • Magellan Recorder Data Recovery Algorithms

      Scott, Chuck; Nussbaum, Howard; Shaffer, Scott; California Institute of Technology; Hughes Aircraft (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      This paper describes algorithms implemented by the Magellan High Rate Processor to recover radar data corrupted by the failure of an onboard tape recorder that dropped bits. For data with error correction coding, an algorithm was developed that decodes data in the presence of bit errors and missing bits. For the SAR data, the algorithm takes advantage of properties in SAR data to locate corrupted bits and reduce there effects on downstream processing. The algorithms rely on communication approaches, including an efficient tree search and the Viterbi algorithm to maintain the required throughput rate.
    • Real-Time Simulation for System Integration

      Allen, Michael P.; CTA Incorporated (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      Functional integration and validation of complex systems in an operational environment, prior to delivery or installation, can be expensive. Real-time simulation, in a lab environment, can replace hardware subsystems to provide the interfaces necessary to validate and or integrate the test article. The test article can be hardware, software or firmware. Multitasking simulations can provide modeling of subsystems and environmental sensor data for complex system integration. The simulation presented provides the capability to integrate 1553 remote terminals and provide validation of 1553 bus controller software.