• EOS High Rate Telemetry Processing Components

      Bennett, Toby; Looney, Kirstin; Chesney, Jim; NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      The unprecedented volume of earth science data generated by NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) will require significant advancements in the capability and scale of ground-based data acquisition and processing systems. In order to meet this challenge, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has initiated the development of key subsystem components for CCSDS front-end processing at 150 Mbps data rates. This effort is a continuation of the Functional Components Approach (1), an approach applied over the last eight years that uses modular, VMEbus subsystems based on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) technology to create pipelined, multi-processor telemetry data systems. The result of this development effort is the creation of four new functional component subsystems incorporating four new VLSI Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) and the augmentation of two existing subsystems to include elements for frame synchronization, Reed- Solomon error correction, CCSDS Service processing, and simulation at EOS data rates. This paper describes this development effort and provides initial functional and performance expectations.
    • Real-Time Simulation for System Integration

      Allen, Michael P.; CTA Incorporated (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      Functional integration and validation of complex systems in an operational environment, prior to delivery or installation, can be expensive. Real-time simulation, in a lab environment, can replace hardware subsystems to provide the interfaces necessary to validate and or integrate the test article. The test article can be hardware, software or firmware. Multitasking simulations can provide modeling of subsystems and environmental sensor data for complex system integration. The simulation presented provides the capability to integrate 1553 remote terminals and provide validation of 1553 bus controller software.
    • Open Architecture Telemetry Processing Systems

      McMillen, Mark D.; AP Labs (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      With the move toward design and interface standards in data acquisition and processing hardware and software, the development of open architecture telemetry processing systems has moved from a goal to a reality. The potential for a system to support hardware and software from a variety of vendors, allow inclusion of user-written software and user-provided interfaces, and provide a scalable, growth oriented processing capability can now be realized. This paper discusses the open architecture concept throughout the hardware and software components of the typical telemetry processing system. Utilizing such a system ensures flexibility to support different configurations, better and faster analysis through greater user programmability, and overall reduced costs by providing a system that can grow as future hardware and software components are brought to market.
    • On The Move, Interactive Telemetry Data Acquisition System for the Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS)

      Kirkpatrick, Charles R.; Tuncay, A. Ayban; Inter-Coastal Electronics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      This paper describes the Launcher Instrumentation and Data Acquisition System (LIDAS) that has been developed for real-time monitoring and simultaneous recording of a diverse set of data buses on a moving MLRS launcher. The launcher onboard instrumentation consists of a central Bus Data Conversion Module (BDCM) and several specialized, intelligent "break-in" boxes. The break-in boxes collect and tag the data by using the IRIG-B standard time-code, and transfer them to the BDCM using a unique asynchronous scheme. The BDCM is built around an Intel 80960CA processor board in a VME bus environment. It coordinates all the data traffic and also stores selected data to an onboard Flash ROM data storage unit. The data from different MLRS buses are combined into a 1 megabits per second RS4-22 serial stream and telemetered to a ground station, where the user interface is provided through an IBM PC/AT type computer with touch-screen controls. The developed PC software offers several data monitoring options with engineering-unit conversions and allows simultaneous recording on a hard-disk. Because of its interactive capabilities, the system is also well suited for personnel training.
    • Aircraft Tracking of Underwater Vehicles Equipped with Optical Beacons

      Casey, Thomas; Estes, Lee; Fain, Gilbert; Naval Undersea Warefare Center Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      During shallow water exercises, the performance of acoustic tracking and telemetry systems is degraded by severe multipath interference. The feasibility of an optical source attached to the underwater vehicle (UV) and a tracking aircraft-based receiver was theoretically established. Supporting water absorption and surface interaction experiments were also performed. The limiting case was the tracking of an unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV). The requirements of daylight operation, atmospheric visibility, limited space and weight, self-contained power, exercise duration, sample rate, optimum search area, robustness in varying scattering and sea states, non-cooperating (except for low-data-rate communications of information such as depth) source and receiver, and relative simplicity, lead to two optimum candidate systems. One system uses a commercially available 5 megawatt q switched and double laser diode pumped YAG laser operating at 532 nm and 1 Hz rep rates. The second system uses a pulsed (2 μsec) zenon flash tube. Both systems satisfy the robustness constraint by intentional beam spreading. A performance constraint of 10:1 signal to noon solar upwelling shot noise ratio was imposed. This constraint can be met for water depths of 10 and 5 absorption lengths, respectively, for the laser and incoherent systems. An optimum search diameter of approximately 700 meters (m) at an optimum aircraft elevation of 3,000 meters is calculated for both systems. The 4-inch diameter F/1 wide-angle light pulse detection system gates a 4-inch diameter F/1 intensified charged coupled device (CCD) imaging system that locates the light surface penetration point. Another candidate receiver that performs both functions is a positive sensitive photomultiplier tube with crossed wire anodes. A supporting night-time experiment has been designed and is under construction.
    • "Don't Leave the Pad Without It": Using Deployable Assets to Conduct Pre-Launch and On-Orbit Testing

      Morimoto, Todd; Sargent, Cliff; Onizuka Air Force Base; Loral Space and Range Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      When hundreds of millions of dollars are invested in building, launching, and command/control of modern military space systems, the developers and operators need assurance that when their system achieves orbit, it will be able to "talk" with the ground network, exchanging commands, telemetry and ranging signals. Furthermore, prior to launch they need proof of compatibility with the ground data systems, showing that operational ground-based crypto keys, database parameters, and processing software are in-fact compatible with the spacecraft. This paper describes Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC), Space & Missile Center (SMC) Detachment 2's four classes of deployable test assets, emphasizing deployable's contribution to successful on-orbit performance. With not only the huge dollar investment, but even more important, the ability to execute a vital test or operational mission riding on compatibility, and launch vehicle and on-orbit test and evaluation operations the watchwords are "Don't leave the pad without it."
    • PCM/FM+FM/FM Bit Error Rate Determination by Modeling and Simulation

      Carden, Frank F.; Ara, Sharmin; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      A composite PCM/FM+FM/FM system combines the spectral efficiency of the analog system with the accuracy of a PCM system when needed for specific sensors and allows the direct transmission of binary computer words if necessary. A PCM/FM+FM/FM system combines the bit sequence with the modulated subcarriers at baseband and the resultant modulates the carrier. In the design of the composite system it is of importance to determine the impact of the subcarriers on the bit error rate of the bit sequence and to determine the degradation of the output signal-to-noise ratio of the subcarrier channels caused by the bit sequence.
    • Space Qualified Magnetic Disk

      Treff, Arthur J.; Forella, John F.; Raymond Engineering, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      Highly reliable data storage for satellites and spacecraft is a challenging technology. The space environment is a unique combination of many environmental factors which impact the reliability and even the very survival of electronic systems. The need for space qualified memory is becoming even more important with the advent of on-board data processing which requires rapid access to large data bases. This paper describes the unique environmental and design considerations that must be taken into account for a magnetic disk that is designed to operate for years in the space environment.
    • Windows at a Tracking Site

      Streich, Ronald G.; Townsend, Charles R.; Computer Sciences Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      Rapid setup and verification of 4 automatic tracking antennas, 2 radio frequency switch matrixes, 32 telemetry receivers with 16 diversity combiners, an intermediate frequency switch matrix and the signal distribution equipment interface to the analog and digital fiber optic relay systems was required. This paper provides sample displays of the station status window, telemetry receiver and test parameter dialog boxes, mission event log window and test result windows for bit error rate, noise power ratio, solar calibration and antenna servo tests. Use of the software is apparent from sample displays so the text concentrates on lessons learned from site surveys, verification of configuration against mission files, accommodation of change of plug-in modules (e.g., IF filters in the telemetry receiver), tolerance of equipment removed from the system for maintenance, built-in test of serial and parallel communications and modular software design for replacement of equipment.
    • Spaceborne Video Interface Module (VIM)

      Eason, Mark; Wyle Laboratories (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      The use of video imaging in VME based data acquisitions systems is increasing. Some systems require the video data to be telemetered. In telemetry systems that require video data to be sent, a dedicated video data channel is common. It is the purpose of this paper to present the combination of a video interface and a video PCM channel into one module. The name of this project is "Video Interface Module" (VIM).
    • Lessons Learned in Using COTS for Real Time High Speed Data Distribution

      Downing, Bob; Bretz, Jim; SPARTA Incorporated (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      Currently, there is a large effort being placed on the use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment to satisfy dedicated system requirements. This emphasis is being pursued in the quest of reducing overall system development costs. The development activity discussed in this paper consisted of determining some of the boundaries and constraints in the use of COTS equipment for high speed data distribution. This paper will present some of the lessons learned in developing a real-time high speed (greater than 1 MByte/sec) data distribution subsystem using COTS equipment based on industry accepted standards and POSIX P1003.1 operating system compliance.
    • TRADAT VI Telemetry Ranging System

      Bertenshaw, Thomas G.; Oklahoma State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      Frequently a requirement exists to track sounding rockets or balloons from remote locations which have no radar capability. Occasionally, there is also a requirement to provide an alternative to radar tracking at those locations where it exists. TRADAT VI satisfies both requirements by providing vehicle positional from telemetry. In addition, it also provides real-time trajectory plots by its graphical display.
    • An Approach for Standardization of Datalink Systems

      Bolino, John V.; Lenz, Russell W. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      The paper explores the concept of standardization of datalink systems and makes a call for industry involvement in the process of defining an approach to standardization. The objectives are to reduce the Department of Defense (DoD) cost of Major Range and Test Facility Base (MRTFB) operations, to improve interoperability, to have the flexibility to meet unique user needs, to have compatibility with existing systems and standards, and to have the ability to evolve to a next generation of datalink systems. The paper describes several current DoD Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) projects and shows how dependent and interdependent they are on datalink systems. A new Joint Service CTEIP project, Standard Interoperable Datalink System (SIDS), will become the facilitator in the process of defining a standard datalink, including weapon system/platform telemetry, time-space-position information, target command and control, voice communications, time correlation data, and possibly video.
    • Multiple Channel, Multiple Data Type, Rugged 8mm Recorder

      Harris, Kevin E.; Veda Incorporated (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      Low cost recording devices for telemetry and other data acquisition applications are of vital importance in light of today's shrinking budgets and project cut-backs. The desire to replace large, expensive, multi-channel recorders with smaller, less expensive recorders is becoming commonplace in government and industry. Many of these small recorders in the past have been limited to a single recording channel, and to one particular data type, due to recorder architectures. The 8 millimeter (8mm) tape cartridge recorder has been looked at in the past as a low cost recording device, however products utilizing this technology have been strictly limited in the number of channels, and data types. In response to this need, Veda has developed a new data acquisition recorder utilizing an 8mm recorder packaged in a small, flight qualified rugged enclosure with modular, and interchangeable, input channels. These microprocessor controlled inputs are capable of accepting PCM telemetry, MIL-STD-1553, voice, IRIG time, and ARINC 429/629 data. The new architecture allows for multiplexing of multiple channels onto the single channel tape medium as well as direct playback from the recorder for certain data types. This paper will discuss the recorder's architecture, design problems solved during development, and general capabilities.
    • TDRSS Link Budget Design Table

      Minnix, Timothy; Horan, Stephen; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) has issued a Recommendation CCSDS 401.0-B for Radio Frequency and Modulation Systems to be used in Earth stations and spacecraft. Part of this Recommendation is a standardized design tool for link budget computations. This design tool is intended to assist spacecraft designers in preparing the power and performance designs of their spacecraft for communicating with existing standard ground stations. The present CCSDS Recommendation addresses a link design typical for that found with the Deep Space Network (DSN). DSN link analyses use a large subset of link-specific parameters not of any particular use if the space data link passes through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The link architecture also differs in that the TDRSS parameter set needs to include an extra link through the satellite (two-hop) link versus a DSN-type link which is single-hop. Conversely, the treatment of ranging, PN coding requirements, and TDRSS acquisition and data group formalities are either not of the same format or not present at all on the DSN-type links. The baseline CCSDS 401 design tool is a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet that can run on an IBM PC or compatible computer. This baseline spreadsheet has been modified to account for the differences between baseline CCSDS model and TDRSS link operations. The paper will discuss the modifications made to the spreadsheet for the TDRSS system details. We will also present example usages of the spreadsheet.
    • Using the Telemetry Attributes Transfer Standard

      Takacs, Theodore, Jr. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      Telemetry attributes are the detailed items of information needed for a receiving/processing system to acquire and process data from a given test item. There are currently as many different ways to describe telemetry attributes as there are different organizations which provide them (instrumentation groups and aircraft/missile manufacturers) and use them (telemetry processing systems/test ranges). The Telemetry Attributes Transfer Standard (TMATS) has been developed as a method of standardizing the transfer of telemetry attributes information. This paper describes the TMATS standard and discusses its purpose and application.
    • Micro-Track Digital Cassette Recording

      Kayes, Edwin; Penny & Giles Data System (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      The increasing availability of powerful yet relatively inexpensive data acquisition and processing techniques has precipitated a radical reappraisal of the methods used to capture, manipulate and store data of all kinds. Some of the recently introduced recording systems can be used both for fast data capture and for high capacity archival/back-up applications - effectively bridging a long-standing divide between these two formerly diverse aspects of data recording and processing. This paper offers a brief overview of a new technology known as micro-track recording, and suggests ways in which system designers and integrators may take full advantage of its important new facilities and features.
    • High Speed Digital Data Inputs for Thermal Array Chart Recorders

      Gaskill, David M.; Astro-Med Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      Many telemetry stations would like to convert from using digital-to analog converters (DAC's) to using direct digital inputs to their chart recorders but can't find a suitable recorder interface. These stations often have hundreds or even thousands of channels of information being bussed around at very high speeds on propriatary real-time computer systems. The lack of standardization has naturally presented recorder manufacturers with problems in selecting the appropriate interface hardware. Standard parallel interfaces, such as SCSI and GPIB, are usually too slow and not really suited for real-time transfer, although they can be used in some circumstances which will be described. The best choice seems to be a general purpose parallel port of at least 16 data bits which can support a large number of addresses. Such an interface can be used with a high speed network like SCRAMNet as well as with a general purpose computer or workstation. This paper will describe several available parallel ports using both TTL and RS-485 (long-line) hardware and some practical implementations of thermal array recorder use with SCRAMNet, GPIB, and general purpose parallel busses.
    • Bit Error Problems with DES

      Loebner, Christopher E. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      The Data Encryption Standard (DES) was developed in 1977 by IBM for the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) as a standard way to encrypt unclassified data for security protection. When the DES decrypts the encrypted data blocks, it assumes that there are no bit errors in the data blocks. It is the object of this project to determine the Hamming distance between the original data block and the data block after decryption if there occurs a single bit error anywhere in the encrypted bit block of 64 bits. This project shows that if a single bit error occurs anywhere in the 64-bit encrypted data block, a mean Hamming distance of 32 with a standard deviation of 4 is produced between the original bit block an the decrypted bit block. Furthermore, it is highly recommended by this project to use a forward error correction scheme like BCH (127, 64) or Reed-Solomon (127, 64) so that the probability of this bit error occurring is decreased.
    • Implementation of CCSDS Telemetry and Command Standards for the Fast Auroral Snapshot (FAST) Small Explorer Mission

      Olsen, Douglas; Hughes STX Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      Recommendations of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) provide a standard approach for implementing spacecraft packet telemetry and command interfaces. The Fast Auroral Snapshot (FAST) Small Explorer mission relies heavily on the CCSDS virtual channel and packetization concepts to achieve near real-time commanding and distribution of telemetry between separate space borne science and spacecraft processors and multiple ground stations. Use of the CCSDS recommendations allows the FAST mission to realize significant re-use of ground systems developed for the first Small Explorer mission, and also simplifies system interfaces and interactions between flight software developers, spacecraft integrators, and ground system operators.