• Automated Application of Calibration Factors on Telemetered Data

      Kalibjian, J. R.; Voss, T. J.; Yio, J. J.; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      A long standing problem in telemetry post processing is the application of correct calibration factors to telemetered data generated on a system which has had a history of hardware changes. These calibration problems become most exacerbated when old test data is being examined and there is uncertainty as to hardware configuration at the time of the test. In this paper a mechanism for introducing a high degree of reliability in the application of calibration factors is described in an implementation done for Brilliant Pebbles Flight Experiment Three (FE-3).
    • Strategic Ballistic Missile Telemetry and START

      Havrilak, George T.; HQ USAF/XOXI (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      This paper provides a brief history of the role strategic ballistic missile telemetry has played in U.S.-Soviet and Russian arms control relations from the first Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) through the second Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START II).

      Osborne, William P.; Whiteman, Don; Ara, Sharmin; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      Much modem telemetry is transmitted in a digital format and to be compatible with existing range equipment the digital data is impressed on the carrier using FM modulation. The receiving system in common use employs an FM limiter/discriminator as a detector followed by an integrate and dump matched filter for bit detection. This system has been studied by previous authors [1] and it is well known that in the absence of frequency uncertainty the optimum transmission parameters consist of a modulation index of .7 (peak-to-peak deviation divided by the bit rate) and an IF filter bandwidth equal to the bit rate followed by a limiter discriminator. In many cases, there is a need for some small amount of analog telemetry transmission in addition to the digital data discussed above. In these cases it is common practice to include analog subcarriers on the main carrier with the digital data modulating the carrier at baseband, the resulting system is called PCM/FM + FM/FM. These hybrid analog/digital systems are the subject of this paper. In particular this paper addresses the performance of these systems through simulation using the Block Oriented System Simulator (BOSS) from Comdisco and with analytical techniques to obtain the BER versus SNR curves for these systems. The simulation is used over a wide range of parameters to find the optimum values of modulation index and IF bandwidth for these systems.

      Gaddis, William R. Jr; Sandland, Sawn; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      DOD flight test centers need affordable, small-format, flight-qualified digital instrumentation recording solutions to support existing and future flight testing. The Advanced Airborne Test Instrumentation System (AATIS) is today's primary data acquisition system at the Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC). Digital Recorder (DR) 1995 is planned to provide full support for AATIS output capabilities and satisfy initial recording requirements for the Common Airborne Instrumentation System (CAIS). The follow-on to the AATIS, the CAIS is a tri-service development to satisfy future DOD flight test data acquisition requirements. DR 2000 is planned as the future recording solution for CAIS and will be able to fully satisfy the 50 Mbps recording requirement. In the developments of DR 1995 and DR 2000, commonality and interoperability have emerged as significant issues. This paper presents an overview of these recording solutions and examines commonality and interoperability issues.
    • A Packet Based, Data Driven Telemetry System for Autonomous Experimental Sub-Orbital Spacecraft

      Kalibjian, J. R.; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      A data driven telemetry system is described that responds to the rapid nature in which experimental satellite telemetry content is changed during the development process. It also meets the needs of a diverse experiment in which the many phases of a mission may contain radically different types of telemetry data. The system emphasizes mechanisms for achieving high redundancy of critical data. A practical example of such an implementation, Brilliant Pebbles Flight Experiment Three (FE-3), is cited.

      Patel, Bharat; LaVallee, Dave; Loral Data Systems; Loral AeroSys (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      Schedule and budget constraints have created a need to produce satellite control centers quickly and efficiently. This need drives the development of a reconfigureable satellite control center. This paper describes such a system. The system is built on an open platform. It can be produced quickly and adapted to a specific satellite or satellites easily. It performs the core functions necessary to monitor and control satellites, and is continually adding new functionality. The system's architecture and openness allow upgrading for new requirements or improvements in technology.
    • The Common Airborne Instrumentation System Program Overview

      Jones, Sidney R. Jr; Naval Air Warfare Center, Aircraft Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      The Common Airborne Instrumentation System (CAIS) is being developed by the Department of Defense through a Tri-service Program Office. The goals of the program are two fold. The first is to develop an instrumentation system that will meet the needs of the Air Force, Army, and Navy into the next century. The system is designed to support a full breadth of applications from a few parameters to engineering and management and development programs. The second is to provide a system that is airframe as well as activity independent. To accomplish these goals, the CAIS consists of two segments. The airborne segment consists of a system controller with a suite of data acquisition units. The system is configured with only the units that are required. The ground segment consists of a variety of support equipment. The support equipment enables the user to generate formats, load/verify airborne units, perform system level diagnostics and more.

      Caldera, M. C.; Paz, Marco; Edwards Air Force Base; Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      The Advanced Airborne Test Instrumentation System (AATIS) was developed by the Air Force to satisfy its flight-test mission needs through the 1990s. The Common Airborne Instrumentation System (CAIS) is a tri-service development aimed at providing a common airborne data acquisition system for all DoD flight-test programs into the next century. Both AATIS and CAIS include ground support equipment which performs the primary functions of documenting the instrumentation system, generating and loading the telemetry data formats, and performing instrumentation system diagnostics. The AATIS and CAIS ground systems will each support both the AATIS and the CAIS airborne systems. The AATIS ground system also supports the older ATIS airborne systems. The approach taken by the two ground support systems is similar but the scope of functionality is larger in the AATIS ground system because it needed to respond to the more extensive ground support requirements of the Air Force users. This paper provides a brief description of both ground systems and discusses the issues of commonality and interoperability.

      Maschhoff, Robert H.; Johnson, David W.; Gulton Data Systems; Boeing Commercial Airplane Group (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      This paper describes a data acquisition system with integral signal conditioning capability. It is a distributed bus oriented system which greatly reduces the amount of wiring and structural penetrations required in previous systems used for this purpose. The system interfaces with virtually all of the transducer types existing on operational aircraft as well as those typically used for flight testing and proofing such as the strain gauges. It outputs data in digital form to a central unit which combines this data with other aircraft operational parameters for recording on tape or telemetry to the ground. The system consists of a remote multiplexer (RMUX) which provides the formatting and central processing functions and has provision for 16 plug-in signal conditioning modules. It also has provision for up to 20 external multiplexers (EMUXes) which are designed to service a cluster of like sensors in a local area. EMUX types include bridge, thermocouple, and a highly integrated pressure scanner unit. Signal conditioning and processing functions include input transient protection, variable blocks of gain, analog pre-sample filtering, and precision bandlimiting using digital techniques . The penalty for moving the acquisition units to remote locations on the aircraft as compared to previously used cabin mounted equipment is a much more severe environment. Temperature extremes and vibration are particularly severe around the engines. Because of the planned use on operational aircraft, provisions to prevent lightning propagation to the cabin are a significant future.

      Chang, Dah W.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      The Advanced Airborne Test Instrumentation System (AATIS), one of the major instrumentation systems in use today by the Department of Defense (DoD), was developed in the late 1980's to improve and modernize its predecessor - the Airborne Test Instrumentation System (ATIS). Use of AATIS, by not only the Air Force but the Navy and Army, has improved instrumentation commonality and interoperability across multiple test programs. AATIS, developed by the same manufacturer as the DoD Common Airborne Instrumentation System (CAIS), has a common bus structure - enabling cross utilization of many components which will ease transition from one system to another. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview on the Advanced ATIS System and its logistics support concept. For system description, an overview is presented on the airborne system and related ground support equipment. A brief description is given on the three levels of maintenance being used or planned for by the using activities. Finally, a projection is presented on the utilization of this system for the next 3 years.
    • Real-Time Telemetry Data Archival and Distribution

      McFarr, Shawn; Friedman, Paul; Loral Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      High-performance telemetry systems traditionally store prime and processed data on disk drives attached to a host computer. Bandwidth performance of host minicomputer and disk drives limit the amount of data archived to aggregate rates of a few hundred kilobytes per second. Over the years, several approaches have been used to increase performance from pre-recorded analog tape, but real-time storage still required a large host and expensive proprietary parallel disk technology. The advent of distributed architecture system networks divorced the front-end telemetry processor from direct 'DMA' connections to the host. Today's technology moves data storage to the front end for the highest performance and outward to the network for less demanding archival rates. This paper explores several schemes and implementations for increased digital data archival performance in a distributed architecture Telemetry Ground Station. It goes on to discuss the variety of industry-standard devices and media available for storage at tens of megabytes per second on Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks (RAID) to slower but much less expensive optical and streaming tape drives on both the front end and network computing resources. But storage is half the task; networks serve many users requiring archived data access. The paper will also show how the sophistication of today's modern Graphical User Interface (GUI) eases data distribution for Telemetry Ground Station engineers and analysts.
    • Implementation of CCSDS Telemetry and Command Standards for the Fast Auroral Snapshot (FAST) Small Explorer Mission

      Olsen, Douglas; Hughes STX Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      Recommendations of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) provide a standard approach for implementing spacecraft packet telemetry and command interfaces. The Fast Auroral Snapshot (FAST) Small Explorer mission relies heavily on the CCSDS virtual channel and packetization concepts to achieve near real-time commanding and distribution of telemetry between separate space borne science and spacecraft processors and multiple ground stations. Use of the CCSDS recommendations allows the FAST mission to realize significant re-use of ground systems developed for the first Small Explorer mission, and also simplifies system interfaces and interactions between flight software developers, spacecraft integrators, and ground system operators.
    • Spaceborne Video Interface Module (VIM)

      Eason, Mark; Wyle Laboratories (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      The use of video imaging in VME based data acquisitions systems is increasing. Some systems require the video data to be telemetered. In telemetry systems that require video data to be sent, a dedicated video data channel is common. It is the purpose of this paper to present the combination of a video interface and a video PCM channel into one module. The name of this project is "Video Interface Module" (VIM).
    • Ground Detection System for Re-entry Vehicle' s Telemetry

      San, Lu-Ji; Yu, Zhou-Jian (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      This paper abstractly introduces the configuration, main modules, and software of the ground detection system for re-entry vehicle' s telemetry. It focuses on introducing intelligent high bit rate CAMAC(Computer Automic Mete And Control) modules, high frequency CAMAC modules, adaption between CAMAC bus and telemetry bus, and writing high bit rate data into disk under the control of CCU (Central Control Unit), etc.
    • PCM/FM+FM/FM Bit Error Rate Determination by Modeling and Simulation

      Carden, Frank F.; Ara, Sharmin; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      A composite PCM/FM+FM/FM system combines the spectral efficiency of the analog system with the accuracy of a PCM system when needed for specific sensors and allows the direct transmission of binary computer words if necessary. A PCM/FM+FM/FM system combines the bit sequence with the modulated subcarriers at baseband and the resultant modulates the carrier. In the design of the composite system it is of importance to determine the impact of the subcarriers on the bit error rate of the bit sequence and to determine the degradation of the output signal-to-noise ratio of the subcarrier channels caused by the bit sequence.

      White, Joey; Policella, Joseph; CAE-Link Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      A tremendous amount of work has been done recently in the area of Object Oriented Design (OOD) methodology. Most often, texts and papers explaining these methodologies are centered around the explanation of some arcane graphical notation. One is led to believe that the key to understanding Object Orientedness in general will be found by understanding and applying this notation. An understanding of the essence of OOD is difficult to acquire in this manner due to the disproportionate amount of energy required to memorize the graphic symbology. The prospective designer is often left with an understanding of the symbols, but with no understanding of how to apply them to a real world large scale problem. This paper provides an explanation of the Object Oriented paradigm with an example application to telemetry measurements. Next this paper provides an explanation of the most popular graphic notation for Object Oriented Design, the Booch Notation. Finally, this paper shows an alternative graphic notation that can be effectively used in Object Oriented Design during the initial stages of design to help eliminate the learning curve associated with the more popular Object Oriented notations.

      Myers, Robert; Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      In the world of Real-Time Telemetry, a vital element is voice communications. Aircraft "hotmike" provides a continuous one way link from the aircraft to the Data Center, thereby allowing the flight test personnel to monitor all cockpit audio. Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) containing digitized hotmike is one method used to transmit voice. This paper details a device that extracts digitized voice words from a PCM stream and then converts this data to its original analog form.
    • Use of Nonstandard FM Subcarriers for Telemetry Systems

      Rieger, James L.; Naval Air Warfare Center, Weapons Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      Subcarrier use in telemetry has decreased in recent years due to emphasis on all-digital systems, but some cases lend themselves more easily to a mixed-service system carrying subcarriers along with a baseband signal. The 'IRIG 106' Telemetry Standards have maintained and expanded several series of FM subcarriers, but some uses are better served with 'non-standard' subcarriers that might be standard in other types of service, making components relatively easily available and inexpensive. This paper examines topics from the RCC study and describes some of the uses of subcarrier systems available to the telemetry designer.

      Morrill, Jeffrey P.; Delatizky, Jonathan; Bolt, Beranek, and Newman Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      This paper describes a real-time implementation of the pattern recognition technology originally developed by BBN [Delatizky et al] for post-processing of time-sampled telemetry data. This makes it possible to monitor a data stream for a characteristic shape, such as an arrhythmic heartbeat or a step-response whose overshoot is unacceptably large. Once programmed to recognize patterns of interest, it generates a symbolic description of a time-series signal in intuitive, object-oriented terms. The basic technique is to decompose the signal into a hierarchy of simpler components using rules of grammar, analogous to the process of decomposing a sentence into phrases and words. This paper describes the basic technique used for pattern recognition of time-series signals and the problems that must be solved to apply the techniques in real time. We present experimental results for an unoptimized prototype demonstrating that 4000 samples per second can be handled easily on conventional hardware.

      Yang, Kent; Wong, Cecelia; Loral Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      With the ever increasing need for faster data rates and the emergence of faster network interfaces such as Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI), the task of adding new network interfaces to a telemetry system and supporting existing ones is becoming increasingly more complex. This complexity can be eliminated if the data acquisition hardware and software allows new network interfaces to be easily integrated into a telemetry system. It is the purpose of this paper to address the issues involved when dealing with multiple, heterogeneous, networking environments in telemetry systems. The paper will show how the use of flexible telemetry hardware and software will simplify the integration of new networks into an existing system, and how this flexibility can allow data acquisition applications to take advantage of a heterogeneous network.