• Telemetry System User Interface for Windows™

      Windingland, Kim; LaPlante, John; Loral Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      Due to the rapid advancement of technology in GUI design tools within Microsoft Windows™, a sophisticated human-machine interface can be developed for telemetry systems. A PC Windows™-based telemetry system would effectively provide a "bridge" between the telemetry world and the Windows™ world, bringing many low cost off-the-shelf software and hardware tools into the telemetry realm that has been unprecedented. This paper describes the results of such an approach in the development of Loral's Visual Telemetry System (VTS) software.
    • Implementation of a Low Cost Commercial-Off-the-Shelf Commanding System

      Grich, Richard J., Jr.; Bourassa, Chris R.; Storm Integration, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      Traditional satellite and launch control systems have consisted of custom solutions requiring significant development and maintenance costs. These systems have typically been designed to support specific program requirements and are expensive to modify and augment after delivery. Over the past five years, technical advances have resulted in Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) products which greatly reduce the complete life cycle costs associated with satellite and launch control system procurements. These advances, however, have been restricted to specific functional areas of the satellite and launch control system - most notably, telemetry processing and simulation. Until recently, technological advances in the development of COTS products which support functional areas like commanding and mission planning have lagged behind. This paper describes the development and application of a COTS product which provides a highly advanced commanding capability that is tightly integrated with the processing of telemetry data. This closed loop telemetry and commanding system forms the basis of a satellite or launch control system at a fraction of the cost normally associated with systems of this kind.
    • Real-Time Telemetry Data Archival and Distribution

      McFarr, Shawn; Friedman, Paul; Loral Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      High-performance telemetry systems traditionally store prime and processed data on disk drives attached to a host computer. Bandwidth performance of host minicomputer and disk drives limit the amount of data archived to aggregate rates of a few hundred kilobytes per second. Over the years, several approaches have been used to increase performance from pre-recorded analog tape, but real-time storage still required a large host and expensive proprietary parallel disk technology. The advent of distributed architecture system networks divorced the front-end telemetry processor from direct 'DMA' connections to the host. Today's technology moves data storage to the front end for the highest performance and outward to the network for less demanding archival rates. This paper explores several schemes and implementations for increased digital data archival performance in a distributed architecture Telemetry Ground Station. It goes on to discuss the variety of industry-standard devices and media available for storage at tens of megabytes per second on Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks (RAID) to slower but much less expensive optical and streaming tape drives on both the front end and network computing resources. But storage is half the task; networks serve many users requiring archived data access. The paper will also show how the sophistication of today's modern Graphical User Interface (GUI) eases data distribution for Telemetry Ground Station engineers and analysts.
    • Solid State Data Recorder (SSDR) for Airborne/Space Environment

      Intwala, Jay D.; Wyle Laboratories (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      VME bus has been widely accepted as an industry standard for control and process computers. The MSTI (Miniature Sensor Technology Integration) series of satellites employ a VME bus based data acquisition and control system. This system requires a ruggedized, high-speed, compact, low power and light weight data recorder for storing digital imagery from payload video cameras, as well as health and status data of the satellite. No commercial off the shelf systems were found which meet MSTI specifications. Also, a solid state device eliminates certain reliability and spacecraft pointing control problems which are encountered when using rotating (disk or tape) storage systems. The SSDR was designed to meet these requirements and it also has built-in flexibility for many general purpose applications. The electronic hardware design, which conforms to the VME bus specifications [1], can also be configured as stand-alone system. Modular memory array design allows expandability of capacity up to 320 MBytes. This paper will describe the design features of the SSDR. Performance capabilities and system implementation will be discussed. Special approaches required for application of the SSDR in space or harsh environments are also discussed.
    • Micro-Track Digital Cassette Recording

      Kayes, Edwin; Penny & Giles Data System (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      The increasing availability of powerful yet relatively inexpensive data acquisition and processing techniques has precipitated a radical reappraisal of the methods used to capture, manipulate and store data of all kinds. Some of the recently introduced recording systems can be used both for fast data capture and for high capacity archival/back-up applications - effectively bridging a long-standing divide between these two formerly diverse aspects of data recording and processing. This paper offers a brief overview of a new technology known as micro-track recording, and suggests ways in which system designers and integrators may take full advantage of its important new facilities and features.
    • Aircraft Tracking of Underwater Vehicles Equipped with Optical Beacons

      Casey, Thomas; Estes, Lee; Fain, Gilbert; Naval Undersea Warefare Center Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      During shallow water exercises, the performance of acoustic tracking and telemetry systems is degraded by severe multipath interference. The feasibility of an optical source attached to the underwater vehicle (UV) and a tracking aircraft-based receiver was theoretically established. Supporting water absorption and surface interaction experiments were also performed. The limiting case was the tracking of an unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV). The requirements of daylight operation, atmospheric visibility, limited space and weight, self-contained power, exercise duration, sample rate, optimum search area, robustness in varying scattering and sea states, non-cooperating (except for low-data-rate communications of information such as depth) source and receiver, and relative simplicity, lead to two optimum candidate systems. One system uses a commercially available 5 megawatt q switched and double laser diode pumped YAG laser operating at 532 nm and 1 Hz rep rates. The second system uses a pulsed (2 μsec) zenon flash tube. Both systems satisfy the robustness constraint by intentional beam spreading. A performance constraint of 10:1 signal to noon solar upwelling shot noise ratio was imposed. This constraint can be met for water depths of 10 and 5 absorption lengths, respectively, for the laser and incoherent systems. An optimum search diameter of approximately 700 meters (m) at an optimum aircraft elevation of 3,000 meters is calculated for both systems. The 4-inch diameter F/1 wide-angle light pulse detection system gates a 4-inch diameter F/1 intensified charged coupled device (CCD) imaging system that locates the light surface penetration point. Another candidate receiver that performs both functions is a positive sensitive photomultiplier tube with crossed wire anodes. A supporting night-time experiment has been designed and is under construction.
    • Mission-Independent Telemetry Processing Software for PCs

      Miller, Richard J.; Micro SciTech Ltd. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      Until the early 80's, telemetry processing systems were commonly run on mainframe or mini computers running proprietary operating systems and software with limited portability. The advent of the 'low-cost' workstation reduced the hardware cost but the software still remained relatively expensive and relatively mission specific. The workstation itself, although comparatively cheap, was not, and is still not, an everyday piece of computing hardware Telemetry Processing software has been developed by Micro SciTech to meet both low-cost hardware requirements and mission independence. It runs on networked IBM PC compatible computers and can be re-configured and used for many different missions and experiments without the need for extensive software rewrites.
    • An Approach for Standardization of Datalink Systems

      Bolino, John V.; Lenz, Russell W. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      The paper explores the concept of standardization of datalink systems and makes a call for industry involvement in the process of defining an approach to standardization. The objectives are to reduce the Department of Defense (DoD) cost of Major Range and Test Facility Base (MRTFB) operations, to improve interoperability, to have the flexibility to meet unique user needs, to have compatibility with existing systems and standards, and to have the ability to evolve to a next generation of datalink systems. The paper describes several current DoD Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) projects and shows how dependent and interdependent they are on datalink systems. A new Joint Service CTEIP project, Standard Interoperable Datalink System (SIDS), will become the facilitator in the process of defining a standard datalink, including weapon system/platform telemetry, time-space-position information, target command and control, voice communications, time correlation data, and possibly video.

      Chengliang, Li; Qishan, Zhang; Beijing Univesity of Aeronautics and Astronautics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      Telemetry as a research interest began to appear in the early days of this century. Since then it has gained great progress with its application fields growing all the time. This paper reviews briefly the history of telemetry introduces its state-of-the-art technology. The research activities and technological levels in this field inside China are included.
    • Uplink/Downlink Real-Time Casualty Assessment Data Acquisition System for U. S. Army Aviation Applications

      Kirkpatrick, Charles R.; Banks, Keith A.; Inter-Coastal Electronics, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      The On-board Data Interface Module (ODIM) was developed specifically to provide real-time casualty assessment telemetry data for the training environment on the instrumented range system at the U. S. Army National Training Center (NTC) located at Ft. Irwin, California. Real-time data acquisition and telemetry systems, such as the ODIM, which enhance the feed back capabilities of fielded training systems are becoming increasingly important to the Department of Defense in these times of shrinking defense budgets and decreasing global stability. The ODIM is designed to combine, process and transmit data from the AH-64 (Apache) 1553 data bus, the Aircraft Survivability Equipment (ASE) threat warnings, the on-board training system laser belt, cockpit kill indicators, and status data. The ODIM also downlinks the stored data though the Micro-B transceiver on the AH-64A. For the application at the NTC, the ODIM looks for very specific data from the AH-64 and the MILES/AGES II system. However, the ODIM is programmable to collect any of the data available from these systems. The uplink/ downlink available through the Micro-B transceiver allows the user access to the ODIM's features even from a remote location.
    • Magellan Recorder Data Recovery Algorithms

      Scott, Chuck; Nussbaum, Howard; Shaffer, Scott; California Institute of Technology; Hughes Aircraft (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      This paper describes algorithms implemented by the Magellan High Rate Processor to recover radar data corrupted by the failure of an onboard tape recorder that dropped bits. For data with error correction coding, an algorithm was developed that decodes data in the presence of bit errors and missing bits. For the SAR data, the algorithm takes advantage of properties in SAR data to locate corrupted bits and reduce there effects on downstream processing. The algorithms rely on communication approaches, including an efficient tree search and the Viterbi algorithm to maintain the required throughput rate.

      Pereira, Carlos M.; Sandberg, Craig D.; U. S. Armament Research Development & Engineering Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      This paper describes developments in miniature, high shock telemetry at ARDEC using monolithic millimeter wave integrated circuit (MMIC) technology. Telemetry systems using this technology have been fabricated and gun tested at 60,000 g's with excellent results. Efforts to develop rugged telemetry systems to support testing at very high "G" levels have been underway since 1984. The initial effort was targeted at developing rugged telemetry instrumentation to engineer high performance munitions such as the 105mm and the 120mm Armor Piercing Fin Stabilized Discarding Sabot (APFSDS) which produce very high in-bore accelerations. The initial result demonstrated circuit stability and operation during very high accelerations (60,000 g's). A second phase was launched to develop a telemetry system consisting of an FM multiplex, a summing amplifier and a transmitter. These efforts demonstrated that telemetry data could be transmitted during acceleration thrust, through the ionized gases and could provide the real time projectile performance data. This paper presents the results of the work done to date and the potential for broad application in families of high performance munitions systems throughout the testing community.
    • A Rugged, Low-Cost, Advanced Data-Acquisition System for Field Test Projects

      Simms, D. A.; Cousineau, K. L.; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Zond Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has teamed up with Zond Systems, Inc., to provide a rugged, low-cost, advanced data-acquisition system (ADAS) for use in field test projects. The ADAS simplifies the process of making accurate measurements on mechanical equipment exposed to harsh environments. It provides synchronized, time-series measurement data from multiple, independent sources. The ADAS is currently being used to acquire data from large wind turbines in operational wind-plant environments. ADAS modules are mounted on rotating blades, turbine towers, nacelles, control modules, meteorological towers, and electrical stations. The ADAS has the potential to meet the testing and monitoring needs of many other technologies as well, including vehicles, heavy equipment, piping and power transmission networks, and building energy systems.
    • Automated Analysis Tools for Reducing Spacecraft Telemetry Data

      Voss, T. J.; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      A practical description is presented of the methods used to reduce spacecraft telemetry data using a hierarchial toolkit of software programs developed for a UNIX environment.
    • Batch Processing of Flight Test Data

      Turver, Kim D.; Boeing Commercial Airplane Group (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      Boeing's Test Data Retrieval System not only acts as an interface between the Airborne Data Acquisition System and a mainframe computer but also does batch mode processing of data at faster than real time. Analysis engineers request time intervals and measurements of interest. Time intervals and measurements requested are acquired from the flight tape, converted to first order engineering units, and output to 3480 data cartridge tape for post processing. This allows all test data to be stored and only the data of interest to be processed at any given time.
    • Real Time Data Reduction and Analysis Using Artificial Neural Networks

      Dionisi, Steven M.; AFFTC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      An artificial neural network (ANN) for use in real time data reduction and analysis will be presented. The use and advantage of hardware and software implementations of neural networks will be considered. The ability of neural networks to learn and store associations between different sets of data can be used to create custom algorithms for some of the data analysis done during missions. Once trained, the ANN can distill the signals from several sensors into a single output, such as safe/unsafe. Used on a neural chip, the trained ANN can eliminate the need for A/D conversions and multiplexing for processing of combined parameters and the massively parallel nature of the network allows the processing time to remain independent of the number of parameters. As a software routine, the advantages of using an ANN over conventional algorithms include the ease of use for engineers, and the ability to handle nonlinear, noisy and imperfect data. This paper will apply the ANN to performance data from a T-38 aircraft.
    • Delivery of Very High Bandwidth with ATM Switches and SONET

      Gossage, Steven A. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      To deliver high bandwidth, a ubiquitous inter-/intra-building cable plant consisting of single mode and multimode fiber as well as twisted pair copper is required. The selection of the "glue" to transport and interconnect distributed LANs with central facility resources over a pervasive cable plant is the focus of this paper. A description of the traditional problems that must be overcome to provide very high bandwidth beyond the narrow confines of a computer center is given. The applicability of Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) switching (interconnection) and Synchronous Optical NETwork (SONET) (transport) for high bandwidth delivery is described using the environment and requirements of Sandia National Laboratories. Other methods for distributing high data rates are compared and contrasted. Sandia is implementing a standards based foundation utilizing a pervasive single mode fiber cable plant, SONET transport, and ATM switching to meet the goals of gigabit networking.
    • The Phillips Laboratory's Mobile Ground Telemetry Station (MGTS) Configuration and Operations

      Flint, Keith D.; Mathis, Gregory P.; Cronauer, Tom G.; Philips Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      In support of the various programs that the Phillips Laboratory's Space Experiments Directorate is conducting for the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO), the Range Operations Division is developing a mobile telemetry processing system as part of the Mobile Ground Telemetry Station (MGTS) program. The MGTS program's goals are to develop a mission-dedicated telemetry system to supplement current test range capabilities by receiving, processing and recording multiple data streams, sometimes exceeding 10 Mbps. The system will support airborne and suborbital vehicles as well as customized satellite downlinks designed for spacecraft bus State-of-Health monitoring and sensor payload observations. Autonomy and off-road capabilities are also important factors since some of the operations envisioned require deployment to remote field locations where no telemetry processing capabilities currently exist to support the unique data handling requirements. The Phillips Laboratory has completed, with support from Wyle Laboratories and Systems Engineering and Management Company (SEMCO), a "proof-of-concept" mobile telemetry processing system referred to as MGTS #2. Demonstration of the system has been accomplished with the successful deployment and operational support provided to both BMDO's Lightweight Exo-Atmospheric Projectile (LEAP) sub-orbital missions and Miniature Sensor Technology Integration (MSTI) satellite program. MGTS #2 has deployed and is scheduled for further deployment to various operating sites including: White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), NM; Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards AFB, CA; Vandenberg AFB, CA; and NASA's Wallops Island Flight Facility, VA. While deployed MGTS #2 processes, records and rapidly distributes the critical mission telemetry data conforming to both IRIG and SGLS standards. This paper will describe the evolution of the MGTS program, current hardware configurations and the various mission scenarios that have been supported by the MGTS team.

      Kight, William D.; Pfister, Robert E.; PKE, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10)
      This paper addresses the creation of a large virtual-range environment whereby multiple, geographically dispersed, test ranges may operate in concert to support test operations. The most significant benefit of the virtual range environment is the time-sharing of costly processing resources. Other benefits include improved reliability and responsiveness of inter-range data transfer. This paper will focus on existing and near-term technology that may be applied to create a virtual-range and will address the technological and economic advantages and disadvantages of TDM vs. ATM approaches.
    • International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 29 (1993)

      International Foundation for Telemetering, 1993-10