• USING DATAFLOW ARCHITECTURE TO SOLVE THE TRANSPORT LAG PROBLEM WHEN INTERFACING WITH AN ENGINEERING MODEL FLIGHT COMPUTER IN A TELEMETRY SIMULATION

      White, Joey; CAE-Link Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      One of the most challenging technical problems in the development of a spacecraft telemetry simulation is the interface with a flight computer running real-world flight software. The ability of the simulation to satisfy flight software requests for telemetry data, and to load, mode, and control the flight software along with the simulation, can be constrained or degraded using conventional interface solutions. Telemetry dataflow architecture systems can be utilized to solve the interface problems with less constraints. This is an especially attractive solution in a telemetry simulation where the telemetry system can also be used to format and serialize spacecraft telemetry, and receive and preprocess commands. This paper discusses the concepts developed for such a system for a training simulation of the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle for NASA at Johnson Space Center.
    • APPLICATIONS AND DESCRIPTION OF THE 9000SE PCM SIMULATOR FOR SIMULATION OF PCM DATA

      Conell, David; Terametrix Systems International (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      This paper will discuss the needs and requirements of a PCM encoder data simulator. The 9000SE PCM encoder data simulator allows for the simulation of flight PCM data as well as bit error rate (BER) test patterns designed for link stress analysis. In addition, the open architecture of the 9000SE as an ISA bus device allows for the incorporation of the simulator into application specific realtime systems.
    • THE ROLE OF THE PC IN GROUND TELEMETRY DATA ANALYSIS

      Burkhart, Fred; Chang, Chia-Mu; Loral Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      The growth of personal computer use was explosive in the last decade. In the telemetry industry, however, the adaptation and utilization of a PC-based telemetry instrument for high-speed data processing and display did not come about until the Intel 80386™ or equivalent processors were widely used in the late 1980s. At this time, the power of these processors finally began to meet the requirement to display, store, and play back the high-speed data (such as 10 Mbps with an embedded asynchronous data stream) that is typical in telemetry applications. Many users are still hesitant to use PCS for their telemetry applications because of the real-time limitations of these instruments. This paper will examine the advantages and disadvantages of PC-based test equipment, the performance these instruments, and the future of PC-based telemetry instrumentation. This paper will also focus on Loral Instrumentation’s d*STAR as an example of a PC-based telemetry system.
    • THE EVOLUTION OF AFSCN TELEMETRY SIMULATION SYSTEMS

      Dessling, R.W.; Lockheed Technical Operations Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      The Air Force satellite control capability was started in the late 1950s to support command and control of orbiting spacecraft. A need to train and certify ground support personnel as well as to validate equipment configurations soon became evident. Ground personnel would have to know how to generate satellite contact plans, establish connectivity between the satellite and telemetry display terminals, analyze satellite telemetry data, and transmit commands to execute the contact plans. They would have to learn specific ground systems capabilities, satellite design information, and approved command and control procedures. This presentation will review the evolution of telemetry simulation systems as they apply to systems test, personnel training and evaluation. Included will be a discussion of the ground and satellite systems, and how system upgrades and changing operations concepts have fostered the development of telemetry simulators. In describing the next generation of AFSCN simulation systems, this paper will highlight the important part they play in validating system configuration and in personnel training.
    • RAPID PROTOTYPING AS AN ACQUISITION STRATEGY OF THE AIR FORCE SATELLITE CONTROL NETWORK

      Whipple, L.K.; Hoida, T.J.; USAF Space Systems Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      The Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN) processes on the order of a thousand separate requirements each year to enhance Network capability to meet the support needs of various satellites. Many of these individual requirements are translated into modifications or additions to the network assets. Rapid Prototyping has been utilized successfully for complex and urgent developments to meet many of these requirements. Rapid Prototyping has also been used for requirements definition and for defining man/machine interfaces. Through Rapid Prototyping, the AFSCN has successfully developed applications using new technology and has improved the process of defining requirements for operational satellite support systems. Rapid prototyping is proving to be an effective alternative to the traditional system acquisition process
    • EXPERT ANALYSIS OF TELEMETRY DATA

      Delatizky, Jonathan; Morrill, Jeff; Lynch, Thomas J., III; Haberl, Karl; Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      We describe FAES, a knowledge-based system for postprocess interpretion of telemetry data obtained from in-water tests of the Torpedo MK48 ADCAP and recorded on tape in a telemetry format. The system is designed to automate a diagnostic application in fleet operations. A generic software solution provides the infrastructure for customization through application-specific knowledge representation. Pattern recognition provides a feature-extraction layer between the raw data and an expert system, and gives domain experts a natural and comfortable representation. Use of features abstracted from the raw data greatly reduces the complexity of encoding the rules that describe the behavior of the system under investigation. This allows the experts – not the system programmers – to control the resulting software. The approach has led to development of a system which accurately determines the cause of shutdown in torpedo tests and which will be extended to the full range of diagnostics now done manually. A slightly modified system is being used to support torpedo proofing by automating comparisons of recorded data with the weapon specification and alerting engineers to violations.
    • A GENERIC OBJECT-ORIENTED DESIGN FOR A RADIO FREQUENCY SIMULATION IN A SPACE TELEMETRY AND COMMAND ENVIRONMENT

      Policella, Joseph; CAE-Link Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      In a generic telemetry simulation the overall fidelity of the simulation is largely based on the simulated vehicle’s On-Board-Systems (OBS) engineering models that drive the generation of the telemetry. Also, the actual transfer of data between the simulated vehicle and control center depends on the ability of the Radio Frequency (RF) OBS to acquire and process the RF links thus resulting in a Acquisition of Signal or Loss of Signal (AOS/LOS) determination. The simulated RF links are a function of the communications OBS models, and the communications environment models. The communications OBS models are responsible for propagating the RF signal. Since the RF link analysis is highly integrated into the characteristics of the communications equipment and environment models, RF link software needs to be constantly redeveloped as communications equipment models change, fidelity is added, or multiple links are created. However, by using a generic objectoriented design, RF link software can process any number of differing links based on the RF characteristics of the propagated wave. As a result, the communications equipment model software can be changed to reflect possible design changes without having to rewrite the RF link software thus allowing reuse of existing code.
    • MODERNIZING THE REMOTE TRACKING STATION

      Blanchard, W. N. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      Since the inception of the Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN) in the late 1950s, capabilities of the network’s Remote Tracking Stations (RTSs) were evolutionarily developed to meet satellite Tracking, Telemetry, and Commanding (TT&C) needs. The result, although fully satisfactory operationally, was an RTS network requiring manpowerintensive mission support. Additionally, reconfiguration of an RTS between satellite contacts consumed far more time than was operationally desirable as demands for RTS contact support continued to grow. To improve network responsiveness and cost effectiveness, the Air Force undertook, in the mid-1980s, a major “block upgrade” under the Automated Remote Tracking Station (ARTS) Program. This paper traces historical RTS capabilities, identifies emerging mid1980s RTS support requirements, and defines the operational and financial advantages accruing to the Air Force through ARTS implementation to meet those requirements. Possible future upgrades to further enhance AFSCN TT&C mission capability are also briefly discussed.
    • A GUI BASED SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATIC CONSTRUCTION OF ENGINEERING MODEL SOFTWARE FOR COMMAND RESPONSE AND TELEMETRY GENERATION

      Parlanti, Joe; Pinkerton, Ronnie; CAE-Link Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      There exists today, numerous off-the-shelf hardware solutions for the generation of simulated telemetry data streams. The ability to rapidly develop engineering models to drive the data contents of the telemetry is restricted by the lack of contemporary CASE tools. This paper presents an object-oriented Graphical User Interface (GUI) approach to generation of mathematical models in order to reduce the time required for model generation to a fraction of today’s development time, eliminate the need to write substantial amounts of software, and allow reuse of model objects in a manner consistent with the GUI cut, paste, and copy metaphors.
    • FARADAY CUP SYSTEM CONTROL LOGIC ON THE WIND SPACECRAFT

      Mavretic, Anton; Konstantinidis, Anastasios; Gergin, Emile; Zhou, Runde; Boston University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      A satellite-mounted instrument has been developed to measure the energy spectrum of the solar proton flux in the solar wind. The instrument consists of a sensor --- the Faraday Cup, an analog signal processing chain, a high voltage modulator and a digital section. This paper presents the digital section designed and built in our laboratory which functions well to (a) interface with the main processor, (b) to provide the logic signals with proper timing to the analog circuitry, (c) to deliver the necessary bit pattern to the high voltage modulator, (d) to provide the calibration mode control signals when necessary, and (e) to synchronize the sequence of events at the begining of every spacecraft rotation. As with all space projects primary concerns beyond the logical functionality consistes of circuit power consumption, instrumental mass, radiation tolerance levels, stability with respect to temperature, and relative ease of component procurement. The NASA WIND laboratory spacecraft that will carry the experiment is due to be launched in December of 1992 and eventually come to park in an orbit at the first Lagrangian point.
    • THE BRIDGE FUNCTION TELEMETRY SYSTEM

      Qishan, Zhang; BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      Based on the theory of orthogonality, two orthogonal multiplex systems called frequency division multiplexing (FDM) and time division multiplexing (TDM) have long been developed. Therefore, many people tend to think that these two systems represent the ONLY two multiplexing methods that satisfy the orthogonal condition. However, after years of research, we've discovered a new kind of orthogonal functions called Bridge functions. The Bridge functions have the every promise of being the basis for constructing an entirely new kind of telemetry system, which has been named as sequency division multiplexing (SDM). Since the Bridge functions are the mathematical basis of the new telemetry system, we will give a summary of the Bridge functions at first. We have successfully constructed an experimental prototype called BAM-FM system in our laboratory. The main ideas, block diagram, operational principles, and technical problems are discussed in this paper. All our work has proved that SDM has not only research interests, but also practical value.
    • Transmission of a PCM Telemetry Subcarrier with a Baseband TV Signal

      Rose, Robert P.; Rieger, James L.; Naval Weapons Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      An FM television system using a baseband color TV signal with a 100 kB/s PCM data FM subcarrier is described. Techniques used are based more like those for satellite transmission of TV images than those used for telemetry or broadcast TV. Discussion of optimization of transmission bandwidth, deviation, and subcarrier injection levels are discussed, along with the philosopy and application of such designs in instrumentation systems.
    • SHIPBORNE TELEMETRY RECEIVING/RECORDING SYSTEM FOR ARLEIGH BURKE DDG 51 AEGIS CLASS DESTROYERS

      Kimbley, Robert; Bates, LeRoy; Naval Ship Weapon Systems Engineering Station (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      Portable Telemetry Data Receive/Record Sets (TDRRS) are temporarily installed in Navy ships to record and display data from tactical surface-to-air and surface-to-surface missiles (e.g., STANDARD, HARPOON, TOMAHAWK and SEA SPARROW). The Arleigh Burke DDG 51 AEGIS class Destroyer is the fleet’s newest Man-of-War. The first ship of this class, the USS Arleigh Burke (DDG 51), was recently commissioned on 4 July 1991. Permanent telemetry data RF and control transmission cabling systems will be installed in these Destroyers. The purpose of the dedicated cabling system is to deliver high quality telemetry data to the portable TDRRS. A dedicated quality interface guarantees reliable communications with the STANDARD Missile (SM) 2 during the pre-exit and initial airborne stages during missile launched from the ship’s Vertical Launch System (VLS). Previous ship classes depended on portable cables and equipment to provide for this function. Cables were brought through hatchways and bulkheads to the telemetry receiving and recording equipments. The DDG 51 AEGIS Class Destroyer uses a Collective Protection System (CPS) that provides for differential inside air pressure that is greater than the outside air pressure. This is intended to prevent chemical, biological, and nuclear contamination from entering the ship. To preserve CPS integrity, telemetry cabling is routed through airtight bulkhead connectors. This paper introduces the new integrated shipboard telemetry cable interface and the recently developed fleet telemetry receive and record system. Discussions will be provided on the SM 2 Vertical Launch System telemetry data transfer and the latest state-of-the-art receive and record equipment installed on the Arleigh Burke DDG 51 AEGIS Class Destroyers.
    • AIRBORNE DATA ACQUISITION and RELAY SYSTEM

      Netzer, Allan (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), 6545th Test Group, is the Air Force center of expertise for Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) test and evaluation (T&E). To facilitate this mission, the 6545th Test Group developed three NC-130 Surrogate Carrier Launch Platform (SCLP) aircraft for UAV test support. The SCLP aircraft support various test functions including avionics testing, captive-carriage, and launch of UAVs and missiles. The system can support concept validation and early Developmental Test and Evaluation (DT&E) without requiring the operational launch platform, freeing these critical assets from test support. The SCLP aircraft use a palletized “roll-on/roll-off” approach to increase test support flexibility and decrease test costs. Capabilities include airborne command and control, flight termination, telemetry tracking, recording, relay of in-flight test vehicle data, and engineering test stations for airborne data analysis and test control. The SCLP can captive-carry, launch, and operate a test article out of line of sight of range ground stations. SCLP can display engineering data and relay the data to a Mission Control Center (MCC). Additionally, the SCLP permits autonomous operation on undeveloped airspace or supplements capabilities at existing facilities. Early SCLP configurations were used during concept validation of the air-launched Tacit Rainbow missile, while later variations supported several efforts, including classified programs. This paper describes the telemetry-tracking and relay capabilities of the SCLP using the Airborne Data Acquisition and Relay System (ADARS) station. The ADARS uses a combination of tracking and omni-directional antennas to acquire, track, record, and retransmit telemetry data. The combination of two directional tracking antennas and diversity combining of the received signals enables the system to reliably acquire test vehicle data at relatively low signal levels or with high fade rates. The system proved very versatile and was modified to support various special project requirements. The system is currently configured to receive and retransmit telemetry data up to a rate of 1.92 Megabits per second (Mbps).
    • HARDWARE PRE-PROCESSING FOR DATA OF UNDERWATER MEASURING SYSTEM

      Mukun, Wang; Gozhi, Liu; Zhenglian, Li (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      The synchro double pulse signal mode is freqently used in Short Base Line (SBL) underwater positioning system so as to obtain the information of both distance and depth of a target simultaneously. Howerer, this signal mode also brings about ranging indistinctness resulting in a shorter positioning distance much less than that limited by the period of the synchro signal. This paper presents a hardware distance gate date acquiring scheme. It puts the original data sent to the computer in order of “direct first pulse--depth information pulse (or first pulse reflected by water surface)•••- to guarantee the effective positioning distance of the system. It has the advantage of reducing the processing time of the computer thus ensuring the realtime functioning of the system.
    • A TELEMETRY AND SPACE COMMUNICATION NETWORK SIMULATION FOR TRAINING

      White, Joey; Policella, Joseph; CAE-Link Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      Telemetry and data communications network simulation training devices are used to train mission controllers and spacecraft flight crews to manage the space network’s resources for consistent and reliable data flow between a user’s spacecraft and control center. A Space Communication Network simulation for communication controller training contains models for; network configuration, resource scheduling, simulation of tracking data blocks, data quality monitoring (DQM), responses and interaction, malfunctions, and a communication environment to control the flow of data. The goal of the simulation is to train in the management of the Space Communication Network utilizing real-world formats and real-world protocols thus enabling the simulator to appear to the trainees as the real-world network.
    • ADVANCED TELEMETRY TRACKING SERVO SYSTEM

      HART, MICHAEL JAMES; INSTRUMENTATION DIRECTORATE, WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE, NM (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      The primary objective of the Advanced Telemetry Tracking System Integration and Development program at WSMR was the development and evaluation of an advanced, almost totally digital servo tracking and control system. This was satisfied by replacing the aging analog servo tracking and control system in one of WSMR’s seven Transportable Telemetry Acquisition Systems (TTAS) with a Digital Control Unit (DCU), an Antenna Control Unit (ACU), and other related equipment, and then evaluating the performance of the resultant digital tracking system, referred to as the Advanced TTAS (TTAS-A). The ACU is the primary interface between the operator and the DCU. Through the ACU, the TTAS-A operator has independent control over each pedestal axis (elevation and azimuth) involving the selection of tracking mode and servo bandwidth. The DCU reports various servo system status and warning conditions back to the operator through the ACU. In this paper, a discussion of the TTAS-A servo system, with emphasis upon hardware external to the DCU, is presented. This includes the operation of servo position and rate loops, system status and warning conditions, and a description of the operator-to-system interface via the ACU display and control functions.
    • International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 27 (1991)

      Unknown author (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
    • A DSP IMPLEMENTED DIGITAL FM MULTIPLEXING SYSTEM

      Rosenthal, Glenn K.; Metraplex Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      Recent advancements in high-speed Digital Signal Processing (DSP) concepts and devices permit digital hardware implementation of relatively high-frequency signal processing, which formerly required analog circuitry. Systems utilizing this technology can provide a high degree of software programmability; improved reproducibility, reliability, and maintainability; immunity to temperature induced drift errors; and compare favorably in cost to their analog counterparts. This paper describes the DSP implementation of a software programmable, digital frequency multiplexed FM system providing up to 4 output multiplexes, containing up to 36 subcarrier channels extending up to 4 MHZ, and accommodating modulating frequencies up to 64 kHz. System overall design goals and the implementation of these goals are presented.
    • MISSILE FLIGHT SAFETY AND TELEMETRY AT WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE

      NEWTON, HENRY L.; WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE, NM (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      Missile Flight Test Safety Managers (MFTSM) and other flight safety personnel at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) constantly monitor the realtime space position of missile and airborne target vehicles and the telemetered missile and target vehicle performance parameters during the test flight to determine if these are about to leave Range boundaries or if erratic vehicle performance might endanger Range personnel, Range support assets or the nearby civilian population. WSMR flight safety personnel rely on the vehicle telemetry system to observe the Flight Termination System (FTS) parameters. A realtime closed loop that involves the ground command-destruct transmitter, the vehicle command-destruct receiver (CDR), other FTS components, the missile S-band telemetry transmitter, and the ground telemetry acquisition/ demultiplex system is active when the vehicle is in flight. The FTS engineer relies upon telemetry to provide read-back status of the flight termination system aboard the vehicle. WSMR flight safety personnel use the telemetry system to assess realtime airborne vehicle systems performance and advise the MFTSM. The MFTSM uses this information, in conjunction with space position information provided by an Interactive Graphics Display System (IGDS), to make realtime destruct decisions about missiles and targets in flight. This paper will aid the missile or target developer in understanding the type of vehicle performance data and FTS parameters WSMR flight safety personnel are concerned with, in realtime missile test operations.