Banks, Simon; Penny & Giles Data Systems Ltd (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      Recorders conforming to IRIG Standards have served the data recording community well for many years. Initially, most systems were analog in nature, recording data in either direct or FM modes but as the need for digital recording developed, the IRIG recorder was successfully adapted for this purpose by the addition of formatting and coding sub-systems to form the High Density Digital Recorder (HDDR). Today, user requirements for higher speed, higher capacity and more convenient systems have presented equipment designers with new challenges in terms of the correct choice of technology and system architecture. It is not surprising that system designers should turn for inspiration first to the very high speed transverse and helical products which had been developed for the broadcast industry since these technologies possess many of the attributes necessary for a high rate digital data recorder. It is unfortunate that it has now become a truism that the only logical progression from the longitudinal IRIG system is by means of rotary technology. Recent developments in a technology known as micro-track recording now call this assumption into question. Recording systems based on micro-track technology are available and others are in an advanced state of development, and these offer a costeffective, attractive and low risk alternative to rotary systems for both high rate data capture and tape mass storage applications.

      Hui, C.K.; Morinaga, W.S.; Naval Ocean Systems Center, Hawaii Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      The Naval Ocean Systems Center (NOSC) has developed the Advanced Tethered Vehicle (ATV) that can perform a variety of tasks at ocean depths to 20,000 feet. The ATV employs a bidirectional, fiber optic telemetry system. The design of the telemetry was validated by at-sea testing and its reliability contributed to the ATV’s successful deep ocean operations. The telemetry system transmits commands to the vehicle, and two videos and sensor data to the surface over a single optical fiber. Design requirements, descriptions, and implementation of a high speed 200 Megabits-per-second (Mbps) uplink and a 5 Mbps downlink Time Division Multiplexed telemetry system are discussed in this paper.

      KE ZHI, DANG; Xi’an Institute of Electromechanical Information Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      The high “G” microwave telemetry system is a microwavemetre wave compatible telemetry system and a telemetry system of time division-frequency division hybrid. The so-called “hybrid” means by adding a microwave programcontrolled receiving antenna and a microwave frequency converter to the front-end of metre wave telemetry system, the microwave telemetry system shall be made up, by removing the additional front-end microwave head and connecting to metre wave receiving antenna instead, the metre wave telemetry system shall be made up. The so-called high “G” means that the microwave projectile-borne equipment can stand the high acceleration shock overloading and the high-speed rotation of the gunshot. This system is compact in structure, flexible in forming ground equipment and unique in high-strength design for projectile-borne equipment, the system meets the requirements of small-size, all-purpose and economization for range telemetry, therefore it is the necessary equipment for the range.

      Karki, Maya; Shivashankar, H.N.; Rajangam, R.K.; Dept. of Electrical Engg., U.V.C.E., Bangalore; DSD-ISRO, Bangalore (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      Advances in computer technology and mass storage have paved the way for implementing advanced data compression techniques to improve the efficiency of transmission and storage of images. The present paper deals on the development of a data compression algorithm suitable for images received from satellites. The compression ratio of 1.91:1 is achieved with the proposed technique. The technique used is 1-D DPCM Coding. Hardware-relevant to coder has also been proposed.
    • Implementation of a Reliable Satellite Commanding and Telemetry System

      McKean, Dan; USAF Space Systems Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      A spacecraft command and control system has unique requirements in the areas of telemetry and other data processing. Not only must the system support the processing of high data rate telemetry, but it must also simultaneously support outgoing command streams, usually coupled to the incoming telemetry. In addition, the system must reliably support several satellites (with up to twenty contacts each day per satellite) and be capable of week-long continuous contact with recently launched satellites. Integrating vehicle commanding with a telemetry system utilizing distributed software and hardware processing in such a fashion that no mission data is lost, and presenting the operator with a clean user interface, are just some of the technical challenges that were met in the design of the Operational Mission Unique Equipment (OMUE) project, which was installed earlier this year at the Consolidated Space Test Center (CSTC) at Onizuka AFB, California. This paper describes several of the technical trade-offs that were made in developing the OMUE system and its implementation.

      Shi, Jianfei; Horner, Ward P.; Grebowsky, Gerald J.; Chesney, James R.; RMS Technologies, Inc.; Data Systems Technology Division, Code 520 (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      A high rate Level Zero Processing system is currently being prototyped at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Based on state-of-the-art VLSI technology and the functional component approach, the new system promises capabilities of handling multiple Virtual Channels and Applications with a combined data rate of up to 20 Megabits per second (Mbps) at low cost.

      Deutermann, Alan R.; Schaphorst, Richard A. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      Television signals have been digitally transmitted for telemetry applications for several years. Reasons for digital transmission include the need for encryption, bandwidth compression, and the efficiency of time division multiplex. All digital coding techniques which have been employed to date, for video telemetry, are based on intraframe technology. In this case each TV frame is coded independently of the previous frames. In most video telemetry scenes there is a high degree of correlation between adjacent TV frames, and an interframe coding system which compresses the signal by reducing this frame-to-frame redundancy should be effective. This paper explores the potential advantages of interframe coding for video telemetry. Since this high level of compression typically causes the transmitted signal to be more sensitive to data link errors, the paper also examines advanced error control techniques.
    • International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 27 (1991)

      International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11

      Anderson, William; Loral Data Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      The international market for telemetry systems is growing, and U.S. companies offer technology that cannot be matched. Foreign customers increasingly require local language user interfaces on delivered systems. Emerging software standards allow these requirements to be addressed.

      Laufman, G.E.; Slivkoff, W.J.; Stanford Telecommunications, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      A low cost Transportable Ground Station (TGS) for satellite tracking, Telemetry & control (TT&C) applications has been developed. The initial focus of the TGS is to provide S-Band Space-Ground-Link-Subsystem (SGLS) TT&C services for these satellites with compatible transponders. The TGS also has the capability to be expanded to perform mission control station tasks including telemetry data analysis, command formulation, mission analysis and satellite ephemeris generation. The TGS consists of an International Shipping Organization (ISO) shelter and a foldable 5 meter antenna both of which are mounted on a 48' commercial air ride trailer. The TGS size meets requirements for United States highway transportation. The TGS can also be transported via C-130 aircraft. A photograph of the TGS model is shown in Figures 1 and 2.
    • Macintosh II Based Space Telemetry and Command (MacTAC) System

      Dominy, Carol T.; Chesney, James R.; Collins, Aaron S.; Kay, W. Kevin; NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center; Clemson University; RMS Technologies, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      NASA’s reaction to requirements for the Space Station Freedom era’s telemetry data systems has been the continuing effort to combine a modular design approach with stateof-the-art VLSI technology for developing telemetry data processing systems. As part of this effort, NASA’s Data Systems Technology Division, in cooperation with Clemson University, is developing a Macintosh II based Telemetry and Command (MacTAC) system. This system performs telemetry data processing functions including frame synchronization, Reed-Solomon decoding, and packet reassembly at moderate data rates of 5 Mbps (20 Mbps burst). The MacTAC is a low-cost, transportable, easy to use, compact system designed to meet requirements specified by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) while remaining flexible enough to support a wide variety of other user specific telemetry processing requirements (e.g., TDM data). In addition, the MacTAC can accept or generate forward data (such as spacecraft commands), calculate and append a Polynomial Check Code (PCC), and output this data to NASCOM to provide full Telemetry and Command (TAC) capability. Semi-custom VLSI gate arrays perform the return link functions of NASCOM deblocking, correlation, and frame synchronization. Reed-Solomon decoding (for error detection) and packet reassembly are also performed by modern microprocessor and semi-custom VLSI components. The local user interface is a standard Macintosh application with the wellknown look and feel of the Macintosh environment. A remote interface is possible via Ethernet which allows the system to be completely controlled from any location capable of generating the required remote operating commands. Return link data may be viewed in real time on the local or remote user interface screen in a variety of formats along with system status information. In addition, data may also be archived on SCSI disks for later retrieval and analysis as needed. This paper describes the general architecture and functionality of this MacTAC system including the particular custom telemetry cards, the various input/output interfaces, and the icon driven user interface.

      ROSALES, MARCELO V.; WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE, NM (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      This paper discusses the design and implementation of a microcomputer system that functions as the central processing unit for performing servo system control, tracking mode determination, operator interface, switching, and logic operations. The computer hardware consists of VMEbus compatible boards that include a Motorola 32-bit MC68020 microprocessor-based CPU board, and a variety of interface boards. The computer is connected to the Radio Frequency system, Antenna Control Unit, azimuth and elevation servo systems, and other systems of the Advanced Transportable Telemetry Acquisition System (TTAS-A) through extensive serial, analog, and digital input/output interfacing. The software platform consists of a commercially-acquired real-time multi-tasking operating system, and in-house developed device drivers and tracking system software. The operating system kernel is written in assembly language, while the application software is written using the C programming language. To enhance the operation of the TTAS-A, software was also developed to provide color graphics, CRT menus, printer listings, interactive real-time hardware/software diagnostics, and a GPIB (IEEE-488 bus) interface for Automated Testing System support.

      NEWTON, HENRY L.; WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE, NM (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      Missile Flight Test Safety Managers (MFTSM) and other flight safety personnel at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) constantly monitor the realtime space position of missile and airborne target vehicles and the telemetered missile and target vehicle performance parameters during the test flight to determine if these are about to leave Range boundaries or if erratic vehicle performance might endanger Range personnel, Range support assets or the nearby civilian population. WSMR flight safety personnel rely on the vehicle telemetry system to observe the Flight Termination System (FTS) parameters. A realtime closed loop that involves the ground command-destruct transmitter, the vehicle command-destruct receiver (CDR), other FTS components, the missile S-band telemetry transmitter, and the ground telemetry acquisition/ demultiplex system is active when the vehicle is in flight. The FTS engineer relies upon telemetry to provide read-back status of the flight termination system aboard the vehicle. WSMR flight safety personnel use the telemetry system to assess realtime airborne vehicle systems performance and advise the MFTSM. The MFTSM uses this information, in conjunction with space position information provided by an Interactive Graphics Display System (IGDS), to make realtime destruct decisions about missiles and targets in flight. This paper will aid the missile or target developer in understanding the type of vehicle performance data and FTS parameters WSMR flight safety personnel are concerned with, in realtime missile test operations.

      Berger, Haim; Schechter, Jacob; IAI - Israel/MLM (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      The testing and integration of modern avionic systems is facing us with new dimensions of complexity and sophistication. A smaller, faster avionic distributed processing system and small airborne spaces are demanding a new, innovative way to handle the telemetry requirements. The various types of data, ranging from analog values like temperature, vibrations, pressure and bi-level signals, up to the contents of fast buses like the MIL-STD-1553B and/or distributed multi-processor systems (performing calculations of a distributed nature) challenge the telemetry engineer coping with this task in the most efficient way.

      Blanchard, W. N. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      Since the inception of the Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN) in the late 1950s, capabilities of the network’s Remote Tracking Stations (RTSs) were evolutionarily developed to meet satellite Tracking, Telemetry, and Commanding (TT&C) needs. The result, although fully satisfactory operationally, was an RTS network requiring manpowerintensive mission support. Additionally, reconfiguration of an RTS between satellite contacts consumed far more time than was operationally desirable as demands for RTS contact support continued to grow. To improve network responsiveness and cost effectiveness, the Air Force undertook, in the mid-1980s, a major “block upgrade” under the Automated Remote Tracking Station (ARTS) Program. This paper traces historical RTS capabilities, identifies emerging mid1980s RTS support requirements, and defines the operational and financial advantages accruing to the Air Force through ARTS implementation to meet those requirements. Possible future upgrades to further enhance AFSCN TT&C mission capability are also briefly discussed.

      Can, Ouyan; Chang-jie, Shi; Beijing Research Institute of Telemetry; Ministry of Aeronautics and Astronautics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      The Multi-Stream Data-Driven Telemetry System (MSDDTS) is a new generation system in China developed by Beijing Research Institute of Telemetry (BRIT) for high bit rate, multi-stream data acquisition, processing and display. Features of the MSDDTS include: .Up to 4 data streams; .Data driven architecture; .Multi-processor for parallel processing; .Modular, Configurable, expandable and programmable; .Stand-along capability; .And, external control by host computer. This paper addresses three very important aspects of the MSDDTS. First, the system architecture is discussed. Second, three basic models of the system configuration are described. The third shows the future development of the system.

      Smyth, Padhraic; Chauvin, Todd; Oliver, Gordon; Statman, Joseph; Jet Propulsion Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      The availability of GPS (Global Position Satellite) information in real-time via the RAJPO Datalink system will significantly increase the capacity of flight test and training ranges in terms of missions supported. This increase in mission activity will in turn impose more demands on mission planning in the range operations environment. In this context, network management tools which can improve the capability of range personnel to plan, monitor, and control network resources, are of significant interest. In this paper we describe the application of both simulation and artificial intelligence techniques to develop such network management tools.

      Eccles, Lee H.; Malchodi, Lawrence A.; Boeing Commercial Airplane Group (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      The Boeing Commercial Airplane Group’s Flight Test Engineering organization is developing two new data acquisition systems. One of these systems will be used to investigate problems on aircraft which are being flown by the airlines in normal airline service. The second system is intended for use as the data acquisition system during the certification of the new 777 airplane. The two systems will differ in physical size, capacity and the recorder being used. They are expected to use as much of the same hardware and software as possible. This paper discusses the design of both systems.

      Bennett, Toby; Looney, Kristin; Chesney, Jim; NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      Space telemetry data processing elements for flight and ground systems are currently developed using discrete components on a project-by-project basis. The adoption of various standards, such as those recommended by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), brings commonality of requirements across future NASA communications elements and affords the opportunity to create standard components to meet these requirements. Over the past five years, NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has developed a series of high performance Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) components for space data systems. These standard components have enabled the development of high performance data systems that are an order of magnitude more compact and cost effective than systems of the previous generation. Recent advances in design automation tools and integrated circuit densities have yielded the means to achieve yet another leap in the integration levels, performance and cost reduction of space data systems. Design automation tools can generate complex integrated circuit designs from high level technology independent functional descriptions. A single reusable functional description can be targeted to a variety of circuit technologies including CMOS, ECL and GaAs. With available densities of over 1 million integrated transistors in both CMOS and GaAs technologies, standard components integrating multiple processing elements are realizable for both flight and ground projects. This paper describes the ongoing efforts of the Microelectronics Systems Branch at GSFC to create highly integrated components to meet functions outlined by the CCSDS using design automation techniques.

      Liu, X.D. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      This paper describes a numerical control and information gathering transmission system. The system is designed around an Intel MSC51 single chip microcomputer. The system has proven to be simple and dependable in a user environment. The system is described first, followed by descriptions of the hardware, the memory assignment, and the software strategy.