• International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 26 (1990)

      International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11
    • Self-Contained High-G Wideband Telemetry System for the SADARM Program

      Grassano, Chris J.; U.S. Armament Research Development and Engineering Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      The Telemetry Section was tasked with the effort to develop two projectile/missile wideband telemeters in support of the Sense And Destroy ARMor (SADARM) Program. These telemeters were designed to withstand the complete operating environments of three carriers, namely the Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS), and both the 155mm and 8in guns. The development of these systems was based on gun proven designs and components, but additional design and qualification had to be conducted for the added features. A re-radiation (RERAD) system was also developed to enhance data acquisition in the field. The scope of this paper will include an electrical subsystem design analysis, mechanical design overview, system capabilities, qualification testing, test scenario configuration, and a brief discussion of the RF link analysis and RERAD system. The major advantages of these telemeters are the large amount of data throughput, the fact that the entire system is self-contained, and that they are qualified for use in extreme environments.

      Blasdel, Arthur N., Jr.; Hartman, Wayne; Ford Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      Ford Aerospace Corporation has been working for several years on Independent Research and Development (IR&D) that brings artificial intelligence technology to bear on space mission operations tasks. During this time, we have developed a flexible and sophisticated tool, called Paragon, that supports knowledge representation in a very intuitive and easy to maintain manner. As a fallout of our knowledge representation approach in Paragon, we get a simulation capability that supports testing and verification of the model. This same capability can be used to support various space operations training and readiness activities (1). Recently, we became aware of the very flexible telemetry generation and display capabilities of the Loral 500 system, and found that we could combine our Paragon modeling and simulation capability with the Loral equipment to create an intelligent telemetry simulator that has the potential to dramatically reduce acquisition, development, installation, and maintenance costs for space system simulation. This paper discusses the features and capabilities of the Paragon/Loral 500 Intelligent Telemetry Simulator (ITS) as well as the prototyping we have accomplished to date.
    • UNIX and Real-Time Telemetry

      Querido, Robert; Loral Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      This paper discusses the benefits of using UNIX in a telemetry and satellite control product and some specific features implemented in UNIX-based workstations and file servers. Features discussed include real-time disk archiving and playback using UNIX and single-point-of-failure issues.

      Murphy, Frank; Aydin Computer and Monitor Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      The built-in diagnostic test has taken on an increased role as a maintenance tool in today’s complex electronic systems. While the ultimate diagnostic would exercise all of the major functions in a system and instantly isolate and identify any fault down to the specific part, many practical problems stand in the way. Using the diagnostic facility installed in a recent frame synchronizer/decommutator for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, the author attempts to show the logical approach, considerations, and compromises necessary to design the best possible diagnostic routine in a telemetry processor.
    • Telemetry Simulation Using Direct Digital Synthesis Techniques

      Pitchford, Randall S.; Frontier Engineering, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      Direct digital synthesis technology has been employed in the development of a telemetry data simulator constructed for the Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC). The telemetry simulator, known as TDVS II, is briefly described to provide background; however, the principal subject is related to the development of programmable synthesizer modules employed in the TDVS II system. The programmable synthesizer modules (or PSMs) utilize direct digital synthesizer (DDS) technology to generate a variety of common telemetry signals for simulation output. The internal behavior of DDS devices has been thoroughly examined in the literature for nearly 20 years. The author is aware of significant work in this area by every major aerospace contractor, as well as a broad range of activity by semiconductor developers, and in the universities. The purpose here is to expand awareness of the subject and its basic concepts in support of applications for the telemetry industry. During the TDVS II application development period, new DDS devices have appeared and several advances in device technology (in terms of both speed and technique) have been effected. Many fundamental communications technologies will move into greater capacity and offer new capabilities over the next few years as a direct result of DDS technology. Among these are: cellular telephony, high-definition television and video delivery systems in general, data communications down to the general business facsimile and home modem level, and other communications systems of various types to include telemetry systems. A recent literature search of the topic, limited only to documents available in English, indicates that some 25 articles and dissertations of significance have appeared since 1985, with over 30% of these appearing in international forums (including Germany, Japan, Great Britain, Portugal, Finland...). Product advertisements can readily be found in various publications on test instruments, amateur radio, etc., which indicate that international knowledge and product application of the technology is becoming increasingly widespread.

      Qiu-Cheng, Xie; Zhong-Kui, Lei; Nanjing Aeronautical Institute, Nanjing, China (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      In this paper, twenty-four optimum group synchronization codes (N=31 to 54) for PCM telemetry systems are presented. These optimum codes are the newest development at the category of optimum group synchronization codes up to now in the world.

      Keller, G. E., Jr; Air Force Armament Laboratory (AFATL) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      Current telemetry instrumentation systems are subject to space and weight limitations for use in bombs, dispensers, submunitions, projectiles and other tactical weapon systems. It is not now feasible to instrument submunitions and projectiles for weapon effectiveness data because state-of-the-art telemetry devices cannot be rapidly and cost effectively installed in unmodified munitions. Furthermore, aircraft modifications for flutter/loads testing are extremely expensive and time consuming. This program will develop a low cost telemetry chip-set consisting of integrated sensors, signal conditioning, transmitters and encryptors. “Peel-and-Stick” (See Figure 1) telemetry devices, containing a specific chip-set with integrated sensors, a battery, and antenna in an extremely small package, will also be developed. Subminiature Telemetry Technology (SMT) will directly impact all future tactical submunition development programs during pre-production RDT&E. This program will also support compatibility and safe separation testing done in the Air Force SEEK EAGLE program. Conventional and kinetic energy projectile programs and advanced missile programs will have long-term benefit. Telemetry and encryption designs developed in this program will advance the state-of-the-art in telemetry fabrication from hybrid to monolithic providing smaller, more shock resistant systems at a much lower cost. Subminiature telemetry devices could be integrated with the weapon system during its development allowing for a non-destructive, non-contaminating test of the system. This will greatly reduce the cost and logistics of determining weapon readiness and health status during long time periods of storage.
    • Modified Instrumentation for Torsional Impulse Projectiles

      PETRELLESE, JOSEPH, JR.; US ARMAMENT RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND ENGINEERING CENTER (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      The demand for test projectiles instrumented for gathering in-bore torsional impulse data has been steadily increasing. A test projectile consists of a telemeter, 12 accelerometers, and the remaining necessary hardware. Cost, availability, and survivability of commercial accelerometers being used have become a major concern. In-house testing of a new source and different technology accelerometer show a cost benefit, higher availability and a much higher survivability rate. This paper outlines the recent progress of qualifying a new source and different technology accelerometer, which leads to a modification of the current Torsional Impulse test projectile, along with potential developments to insure a more cost effective, available, and reliable test projectile to be used in future torsional impulse tests.
    • The Error-Correcting Codes of The m-Sequence

      Tingxian, Zhou; LIKUN, HOU; BINGXING, XU; Harbin Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      The paper analyses the properties of m-sequence error-correcting codes when adapting the correlation detection decoding method, deduces the error-tolerant number formula of binary sequence with a good auto-correlation property being used as error-correcting codes, provides with a method to increase the efficiency of the m-sequence error-correcting codes and make its coding and decoding procedures in the form of framed figures.
    • Small Multipurpose Stored Data Acquisition System

      Hauser, G. C.; Ryerson, D. E.; Sandia National Laboratories Telemetry Department (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      Sandia National Laboratories Telemetry Department has designed and is fielding a small, inexpensive multipurpose stored data acquisition system in tests ranging from 6000 meters below the ocean surface in seafloor penetrators to 40,000 meters above sea level in gamma ray telescope balloons. The system consists of a simple microprocessor-controlled unit which digitizes analog data and stores the data in memory for readout after the test by a portable personal computer. The system has been used in over ninety tests consisting of parachute drops, water entry tests, vehicle environmental monitoring, and seafloor penetration tests. Data typically recorded with the system are acceleration, strain, temperature, pressure, and angular velocity. The system is also capable of generating control functions such as parachute release.
    • An Object-Oriented Telemetry Format Management (TFM) System

      Li, Tientien; TACT Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      The telemetry format is a key piece of information utilized by both the flight segment and the ground segment of a mission. During the evolution of a mission, the telemetry format is usually going through many changes and refinements. Sometimes, a format may even evolve from mission to mission. The conventional Relational Data Base Management Systems (RDBMS) do not work well with telemetry formats because of the multidimensional nature of most telemetry formats. To reduce the complexity of managing dynamic telemetry formats, an innovative Telemetry Format Management (TFM) system has been designed. The TFM system utilizes new object-oriented concepts in managing the creation, the evolution, and the utilization of telemetry formats. It supports common telemetry formats including: Time-Division Multiplexed (TDM) telemetry formats and packet telemetry formats. By using the TFM system, one can greatly simplify most tasks associated with the development of telemetry formats. This paper describes the architecture, design concepts, and operational philosophy of the TFM system.
    • Color Extension for the HORACE TV Compression Protocol

      Gattis, Sherri L.; Rieger, James L.; Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      The HORACE protocol[5] was designed as a common medium of exchange for digitized black-and-white television images at varying resolutions at bit rates from below 9600 to over 50M bits per second. At the 1 time of the protocol’s creation, “hooks” were added to allow use of the system to transmit and receive two-and three-color images from an NTSC, RGBY, RGB, or “S-type” input and produce outputs in the same format, but those systems remained undefined. Two systems implementing various features of the extended color protocol have been built and demonstrated by two different manufacturers, and an effort to standardize the protocol for all users and manufacturers is underway.

      Deutermann, Alan; Schaphorst, Richard; Delta Information Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      As the role of television in the aerospace industry has expanded so has the need for video telemetry. In most cases it is important that the video signal be encrypted due to the sensitive nature of the data. Since this means that the signal must be transmitted in digital form, video compression technology must be employed to minimize the transmitted bit rate while maintaining the picture quality at an acceptable level. The basic compression technique which has been employed recently, with successful results, is a combination of Differential PCM and Variable Length coding (DPCM/VLC). This technique has been proposed to the Range Commanders Council to become a possible standard. The purpose of this paper is to compare the basic DPCM/VLC technique with alternative coding technologies. Alternative compression techniques which will be reviewed include Transform coding, Vector Quantization, and Bit Plane coding. All candidate techniques will be viewed as containing four elements -- signal conditioning, signal processing, quantization, and variable length coding. All four techniques will be evaluated and compared from the stand point of compression ratio and picture quality.

      Cipolla, Frank; Seck, Gerry; Datron Systems Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      Datron Systems Inc. has developed a high efficiency autotrack feed series which uses a tracking mode coupler to generate track error signals. The mode coupler allows the use of a corrugated feed horn in doubly shaped or cassegrain geometries or a scaler ring feed in prime focus reflectors, to achieve extremely high overall antenna efficiencies. The low insertion loss of the mode coupler allows the incorporation of autotrack capability in an antenna system without degradation of the overall G/T or EIRP. Another feature of this feed is the excellent cross talk performance. The mode coupler is a rho-theta type tracker and as such is suitable for use in both single channel monopulse and equivalent full three channel monopulse autotrack applications. Datron has built, installed, and tested feeds of this type at S, C, and X band frequencies and is currently under contract to develop a dual K/Q band version. Datron has also integrated other components into the mode coupler feed assembly such as: amplifiers, filters, diplexers, couplers, downconverters, switches, noise sources, etc.

      DeWaters, Ronald; Anderson, William; Naval Surface Warfare Center; Loral Data Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      In 1986 the Navy procured Automatic Engineering Read Out (AERO) Telemetry Test Systems to receive, record, process and display telemetry data transmitted from SM-1 and SM-2 STANDARD missiles. AERO systems are self-contained data acquisition systems which are portable for field use, and are capable of receiving missile data, recording the data on analog tape, decommutating data into a computer compatible format, recording data on disk, and displaying processed data on the operator’s terminal. The original design was intended to be versatile and to accommodate future telemeters through software programming, signal switching, unit/module substitution, or add-on equipment. Original missile formats included data rates up to 50,000 data words per second. AERO systems have been used to support field testing of Navy missiles since 1987. In 1989 the AERO system requirements were changed to include support for a new STANDARD missile telemeter which transmits data at much higher rates. The AERO systems have been upgraded to support the new requirement by replacing I/O modules in the host computer, and modifying the control software. The modified system, which is hosted by a low cost DEC MicroVAX computer, records 100 percent of the telemeter data on disk at rates up to 600,000 bytes (300,000 data words) per second, and displays results for quick look review immediately after the missile test. This paper discusses the requirements for the AERO systems, the design philosophy used to ensure an upgradable path, and the benefits of that philosophy when an upgrade was required. The upgrade itself is significant because a low cost MicroVAX has been adapted to a high performance application. The AERO systems were designed, developed and upgraded by Loral Data Systems (formerly Fairchild Weston Data Systems) to the specifications of the Naval Surface Warfare Center in Dahlgren, Virginia.

      COOK, JAMES H., JR.; KOSTER, A. RENEE; SCIENTIFIC-ATLANTA, INC. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      The design and performance of a 1435 MHZ to 2600 MHZ ESCAN1 feed will be discussed. The radiation characteristics of a very small (<10 wavelengths) reflector antenna will be presented. The ESCAN tracking concept offers a significant improvement in the effective gain, sidelobes and tracking performance for broadband telemetry trackers over previous, low-cost approaches. The tradeoffs associated with the optimization of the ESCAN antenna’s radiation performance will be presented along with a comparison of conical scan and single channel monopulse performance. The tradeoffs will include an analysis of the limitations in performance due to central blockage, aperture illumination, spillover, and coma effects of an “effective” off-axis feed for a small, paraboloidal reflector antenna.
    • Telemetry Antenna Patterns for Single and Multi-Element Arrays

      Rieger, James L.; Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      The use of multiple antennas (or multiport) antennas for vehicular telemetry causes patterns to result which are unknown and not well understood by the telemetry designer. When the antenna ports are separated by distances of more than a half wavelength, the resulting patterns are rarely what was intended. The antenna plotting program, an extension of a earlier University of Utah antenna plotting routine, allows rapid creation of patterns for up to 30 (or more) antennas of like polarization displaced from each other in all three axes. Single-port antennas are modeled as compound antennas to produce the observed pattern, and combinations of these single-port antennas are then plotted. Case studies are shown for an aircraft and a missile body.
    • Onboard Television Transmission from A Supersonic Vehicle

      Rose, Robert P.; Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      A telemetry system designed to photograph and transmit views of a working recovery system. The system utilizes a 5-inch diameter vehicle fitted with a 1/1000-second electronically shuttered video camera and a wideband telemetry transmitter with a pulse code modulation [PCM] signal sent via a second radio frequency [RF] channel.

      Malone, Erle W.; Breedlove, Phillip; Boeing Aerospace, Seattle, WA; Loral Conic, San Diego, CA (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      A telemetry system which integrates MIL-STD-1553 bus data, dual-simplex bus data, vehicle performance data, and environmental sensor data multiplexing involves many interfacing constraints. The engineering design considerations and hardware constraints required to implement this system are presented in this paper.