KIBLER, R.; RODGERS, B.; BEERS, R.; JOSEPH, D.; MODCOMP; ARCATA (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      This paper describes the history, planning, analysis, design and performance specifications/results of a very fast, real time data acquisition and processing system. The heart of the system is MODCOMP’s fully pre-emptive, realtime UNIX operating system REAL/IX2. The entire system consists of 19 intelligent communication/interface processors on a VME bus all managed by the REAL/X2 master processor. The application for this system was developed by Arcata Assoc. of Las Vegas, NV. for use at Nellis Air Force Base. It resides in the Nellis Range Support network as the master switching node subsystem. The Nellis Network is a data communications system which supports interactive, fullduplex communication of digital data between terminal nodes on electronic combat ranges and range user nodes at Nellis AFB. Many obstacles to meeting the specified performance had to be overcome. When the system was delivered and installed by MODCOMP it met or exceeded the original data handling requirements and throughput. Other system features involve communication processor products from SIMPACT Inc. a San Diego company. The paper will present their involvement in delivering this solution system to ARCATA and ultimately Nellis AFB as well as all performance data achieved from this multi-company venture.

      Murphy, Frank; Aydin Computer and Monitor Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      The built-in diagnostic test has taken on an increased role as a maintenance tool in today’s complex electronic systems. While the ultimate diagnostic would exercise all of the major functions in a system and instantly isolate and identify any fault down to the specific part, many practical problems stand in the way. Using the diagnostic facility installed in a recent frame synchronizer/decommutator for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, the author attempts to show the logical approach, considerations, and compromises necessary to design the best possible diagnostic routine in a telemetry processor.
    • UNIX and Real-Time Telemetry

      Querido, Robert; Loral Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      This paper discusses the benefits of using UNIX in a telemetry and satellite control product and some specific features implemented in UNIX-based workstations and file servers. Features discussed include real-time disk archiving and playback using UNIX and single-point-of-failure issues.
    • Telemetry Simulation Using Direct Digital Synthesis Techniques

      Pitchford, Randall S.; Frontier Engineering, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      Direct digital synthesis technology has been employed in the development of a telemetry data simulator constructed for the Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC). The telemetry simulator, known as TDVS II, is briefly described to provide background; however, the principal subject is related to the development of programmable synthesizer modules employed in the TDVS II system. The programmable synthesizer modules (or PSMs) utilize direct digital synthesizer (DDS) technology to generate a variety of common telemetry signals for simulation output. The internal behavior of DDS devices has been thoroughly examined in the literature for nearly 20 years. The author is aware of significant work in this area by every major aerospace contractor, as well as a broad range of activity by semiconductor developers, and in the universities. The purpose here is to expand awareness of the subject and its basic concepts in support of applications for the telemetry industry. During the TDVS II application development period, new DDS devices have appeared and several advances in device technology (in terms of both speed and technique) have been effected. Many fundamental communications technologies will move into greater capacity and offer new capabilities over the next few years as a direct result of DDS technology. Among these are: cellular telephony, high-definition television and video delivery systems in general, data communications down to the general business facsimile and home modem level, and other communications systems of various types to include telemetry systems. A recent literature search of the topic, limited only to documents available in English, indicates that some 25 articles and dissertations of significance have appeared since 1985, with over 30% of these appearing in international forums (including Germany, Japan, Great Britain, Portugal, Finland...). Product advertisements can readily be found in various publications on test instruments, amateur radio, etc., which indicate that international knowledge and product application of the technology is becoming increasingly widespread.
    • Modified Instrumentation for Torsional Impulse Projectiles

      PETRELLESE, JOSEPH, JR.; US ARMAMENT RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND ENGINEERING CENTER (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      The demand for test projectiles instrumented for gathering in-bore torsional impulse data has been steadily increasing. A test projectile consists of a telemeter, 12 accelerometers, and the remaining necessary hardware. Cost, availability, and survivability of commercial accelerometers being used have become a major concern. In-house testing of a new source and different technology accelerometer show a cost benefit, higher availability and a much higher survivability rate. This paper outlines the recent progress of qualifying a new source and different technology accelerometer, which leads to a modification of the current Torsional Impulse test projectile, along with potential developments to insure a more cost effective, available, and reliable test projectile to be used in future torsional impulse tests.

      Rice, William A.; Montano, William G.; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      This paper discusses the specific applications at White Sands Missile Range to certify the airborne telemetry packages, to receive, relay, and record Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) telemetry data. One of the most critical areas of data transmission throughout the Range is that of telemetry data. As digital data transmission becomes more commonplace, it becomes necessary to develop new methods for receiving, relaying, and recording digital telemetry data. A recent requirement to support reception, relay, record, and processing of a ten-megabit PCM telemetry signal drove the development of the system described in this paper. New receiving equipment was procured in order to handle the high bandwidth. Two new methods are now being used at White Sands Missile Range to relay high rate PCM data. - One is the Lightwave Fiber System. There are four telemetry lightwave links presently being used at WSMR: a multiple fiber link from the Master Relay Control Station (Jig-56) to the Telemetry Data Center (TDC), a duplex link between Jig-56 and Launch Complex 37, a simplex link from Chin Site to Jig-56 and a simplex link at Holloman Air Development Center. - The second method is the Digital Microwave Links from a TransportableTelemetry Acquisition and Relay System (TTARS) to Jig-67 and from Jig-67 to Jig-56.
    • Color Extension for the HORACE TV Compression Protocol

      Gattis, Sherri L.; Rieger, James L.; Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      The HORACE protocol[5] was designed as a common medium of exchange for digitized black-and-white television images at varying resolutions at bit rates from below 9600 to over 50M bits per second. At the 1 time of the protocol’s creation, “hooks” were added to allow use of the system to transmit and receive two-and three-color images from an NTSC, RGBY, RGB, or “S-type” input and produce outputs in the same format, but those systems remained undefined. Two systems implementing various features of the extended color protocol have been built and demonstrated by two different manufacturers, and an effort to standardize the protocol for all users and manufacturers is underway.

      Greenwood, Dan; NETROLOGIC, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      The FAA Sponsored a six months research program to investigate the application of neural networks to controlling aircraft. It was found that properly configured neural networks offer powerful new computationally robust methods to generate command vectors corresponding to collision free routes. Methods using neural networks which capture the expertise employed by controllers in resolving conflicts were formed. This paper shows that many of the neural network techniques applied to ATC can also be applied to drone control. Two different networks are presented: a multi-layer feed-forward network using back-propagation and a method using a potential field where a gradient measure is employed to maintain the aircraft separation in real time.
    • Twenty-First Century Telemetry

      Montano, William G.; Rice, William A.; White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      This paper addresses several areas of Telemetry instrumentation for the future. The possible 21st Century data formats and using the means made possible by technological advances to receive, record, and process telemetry data will be discussed. We will review the past, present and future systems and the changes to expect in the areas of Higher Data Rates, Greater RF Bandwidths, Multiple Object Test Scenarios, Telemetry Multiplex, Digital Microwave Radio Links, Lightwave Fiber Systems, Optical Disc Telemetry Data Recording, Data Security, and Global Telemetry via Satellite.

      Coonce, Kenneth G.; Schumacher, Gary A.; Loral Data Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      This paper describes the overall system design and performance characteristics of a complete telemetry system for a new flight test center which Loral Data Systems is currently under contract to provide to a European government. The system encompasses subsystems for airborne data acquisition and flight line check-out, a mobile ground telemetry system, and a fixed facility. The fixed facility includes a ground telemetry system for real time data processing and test control, and a data processing system for postflight analysis. The system represents a fully integrated approach to flight test systems which addresses the end-to-end requirements from airborne data acquisition and real time flight monitoring through aircraft performance and stability/control analysis. The architecture of the ground systems illustrates how preprocessing can be utilized to create powerful real time telemetry systems even with modest general purpose computer capability.

      Ji-San, Lu; Beijing Institute of Special Mechanical and Electrical Devices (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      A attitude destalilization of a reentry vehicle (RV) due to rolling etc. during its flight is one of the major, proflems the channel design of the RV’S radio communication has been facing with. In-this Paper, the requirements of an antenna design are briefly discribed, the need for an antenna program control system is advanced, its block diagram is given, and operating principle and various concept of its components are explained.

      Stegall, Ralph L.; Stephens, Bobby C.; Government Electronic Systems Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      The AN/MPS-39 Multiple Object Tracking Radar (MOTR) is a new precision instrumentation system designed to support range safety, weapon development, operational test and evaluation, and training exercises involving multiple participants. A coherent MTI (moving target indicator) variant, the subject of this paper, has been developed for MOTR using discretionary IR&D funds. A zero recurring cost “softwareonly” version of this MTI variant has been successfully tested. The architecture for a low-cost hardware adjunct designed to increase MTI detection range and simultaneously provide clutter-suppressed operator displays has also been developed. In this paper, a brief description of MOTR is given and its adaptability to three-pulse MTI is presented, along with expected performance results. The implementation of the MTI software only version is described in some detail and the results of tests are shown. The hardware adjunct is briefly described. Possible applications of this variant are cited and future directions MOTR coherent real-time processing can take are given.
    • A Quantized PSK 8-State Decoder for Spectrally Efficient Communications

      Ross, Michael D.; Carden, Frank; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      Trellis Coded Modulation [5] combines the Viterbi Algorithm [4] with PSK or QAM signalling to achieve a coding gain, using signal set expansion as an alternative to bandwidth expansion. Optimum detection of TCM requires the calculation of Euclidean distances in the signal set space. Circular Quantization of received signal vectors as an alternative to Euclidean distance calculation has been shown to result in minimal loss of performance when used with a 4-state trellis codes [1, 2, 3]. This paper investigates the effect of circular quantization on 2 different 8-state trellis codes. The 8-state codes showed a modest gain over the 4-state code, while the effect of circular quantization on the 8-state codes paralleled the effect on the 4-state code.

      Ferguson, D.; Meyers, D.; Gemmill, P.; Pereira, C.; Honeywell Systems and Research Center; Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      Instrumentation for taking dynamic in-bore measurements during high accelerations typically has been limited to accelerations under 20,000 g’s. In munition development and testing, there is a need for telemetry instrumentation that can relay dynamic performance data at 100,000 g’s. This paper describes the development and testing of a stable, regulated, telemetry transmitter that has been successfully tested to 67,400 g’s.

      Rhea, Donald C.; Scardello, Michael A.; Moore, Archie L.; SPARTA, Inc.; Perimeter Computer Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      Rapid technology growth in the aerospace industry continues to manifest in increasingly complex weapons systems and system driven weapons systems platforms which must be supported in the flight test environment. This growth in complexity often surpasses the capabilities of many ground based real-time and post-flight processing and display systems, leaving these systems perpetually behind the power curve when compared to data/information processing, presentation and distribution requirements set forth by today’s flight test engineering community. Many flight test programs are accepting less than optimal results from these systems, therefore, the amount of information presently obtained (per flight hour) limits the results acquired during a test program, creating a more costly test and evaluation budget. As an integral participant in the development and testing of high technology aircraft and weapons systems, the U.S. Air Force Flight Test Center’s (AFFTC) Advanced Data Acquisition and Processing Systems (ADAPS) development is bridging the gap between requirements and capability by distributing current system architectures to provide incremental performance upgrades in specific areas of need in lieu of entire system replacements. This paper will discuss the current real-time processing, distribution and display capability that exists at the AFFTC and the planned phased upgrade of this tightly coupled system to a more flexible and extensible distributed architecture that will be increasingly responsive to the dynamic nature of test and evaluation of modern weapons systems and weapons systems platforms.

      Thom, Gary A.; Aydin Computer and Monitor Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      Today there are a number of equipment vendors offering modular, bus oriented Telemetry Preprocessor systems. The architecture of these systems varies greatly as does the actual performance. This paper discusses a method for specifying and evaluating Telemetry Preprocessor performance independent of the architectural implementation.

      Hoefener, Carl E.; Wechel, Robert Van; Interstate Electronics Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      For more than 20 years combat pilot training instrumentation has taken place on Air Force and Navy TACTS/ACMI ranges. The original ranges were designed to instrument a cylinder in space 30 miles in diameter from 5,000 feet to 55,000 feet and to handle up to eight participants. As fighter combat techniques have advanced and battle tactics have been revised to take into account more advanced weapons systems, the capabilities of the existing ranges have become extremely taxed. For example, modifications have been added on to the original systems so that the tracking altitude could be lowered to 100 feet (by adding radar altimeters to the instrumentation pods); the number of participants could be increased to 36 (by lowering the system sample rates), and the range area could be expanded (by increasing the number of ground tracking sites required from seven to a dozen or more). Clearly these were bandaid fixes, and the total capability of the ranges suffered, but since no satisfactory alternate systems were available, these systems continue to be used. During the past twenty years, however, significant advances have taken place in all areas of instrumentation system technology. By the application of modern technology, a new generation of air combat training ranges cm be made available that will greatly enhance the training capability of our armed forces and will be capable of training them in the new tactics required by the fighter weapons systems of the future. Among these training advantages will be the following capabilities: ! Tracking over an entire 25,000-square-mile or larger range area. ! Precision tracking of up to 100 participants. ! Tracking of all vehicles from ground level to 100,000-foot altitude. ! Only a few nonsurveyed portable groundsites will be required. ! An unlimited number of portable unmanned threat emitters can be provided at a fraction of the cost of existing threats. ! The entire range can be made portable. ! Modern display capability will greatly enhance pilot recall ability required for mission debriefing. By applying GPS, optimizing the datalinks, and restructuring the range design concept, these advantages can be realized. This paper discusses the application of modern range system technology to the design of the TACTS/ACMI ranges of the future.

      Miller, James J.; Tannenholz, Philip H.; Harley Industries, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      Improved performance has been achieved in the new Herley design of the Model MD700C-1 Drone Tracking and Control System, C-band Command and Control Transponder. The approach for obtaining better radio frequency rejection, automatic gain control, local oscillator stability, and power supply efficiency is described. New hybrid microwave integrated circuit application techniques were used to design a small local oscillator, tunable over the 5400 to 5900 MHz range with a frequency drift of less than ± 1 MHz. This low frequency drift allowed the use of a 4 pole immediate amplifier filter, 60 dB down, at 40 MHz bandwidth, which, when coupled with the three cavity radio frequency preselector filter, provides 7 pole out of band rejection for unwanted radar signals operating at close frequencies. To augment the out of band rejection, a new form of 75 dB dynamic range automatic gain control was used, which combines signal attenuation with a circuit that reduces immediate frequency noise with increasing signal. This allows rejection of the radars own in-band multipath signals by reducing the gain and threshold sensitivity. To reduce power consumption and heat while operating over a wide voltage range, a switching mode regulator and a nonsaturating core power supply was designed to operate at 80% efficiency. Compared to units in field use over the past 10 years, the new design shows improvements of 400 percent in local oscillator frequency stability, 30 percent in out of band frequency rejection, 66 percent in the automatic gain control dynamic range, and 60 percent in power supply efficiency. The MD700C-1 was developed by Herley Industries for the USAF SMALC, and is currently in production.
    • Onboard Television Transmission from A Supersonic Vehicle

      Rose, Robert P.; Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      A telemetry system designed to photograph and transmit views of a working recovery system. The system utilizes a 5-inch diameter vehicle fitted with a 1/1000-second electronically shuttered video camera and a wideband telemetry transmitter with a pulse code modulation [PCM] signal sent via a second radio frequency [RF] channel.
    • GPS Translator Record and Interface System (TRIS)

      Danaher, James; Structured Systems & Software, Inc. (3S) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1990-11)
      Global Positioning System (GPS) translator signals have been used to track U.S Navy Trident missile test launches for the past 15 years. Absolute position accuracies of better than 20 meters in real-time and 8 meters in post mission have been consistently demonstrated. Flight qualified GPS translators 40 cubic inches in size have been developed for the U.S. Army Exoatmospheric Re-entry Vehicle Interceptor Subsystem (ERIS) program and are currently available for use by U.S. and allied government test ranges. More widespread use of GPS translators is constrained, however, by the great expense and size of the custom ground equipment currently used to acquire GPS translator signals and compute the position and velocity of the vehicle. To address this problem, the U.S. Air Force Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC) placed 3S under contract to design a lower-cost GPS translator processor based mainly on using commercial telemetry equipment. This paper describes how a working prototype was constructed to demonstrate the feasibility of the Translator Record and Interface System (TRIS). This prototype shows that TRIS can be built from a combination of commercially-available telemetry equipment, GPS equipment developed for the U.S. Air Force Range Applications Joint Program Office (RAJPO), and a few elements of custom equipment.